FRUIT OF GOD’S HOLY SPIRIT

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WE LOVE OUR BIG BODIES

We love our big bodies people call fat and able to do as much as we can by our talents and abilities. We work so hard to accomplish excellence in our fields of expertise yet our size seems to matter to some people more than getting to know us. We are ordinary people doing extraordinary things so enjoy life as much as possible. We decided to speak out on behalf of the people fatshamed to be miserable or to spend their whole life trying to be someone they are not. Some develop anorexia and bulimia by trying to be slim and control their weight. In the extreme cases lost their lives due to pressure to be stereotypical average size whatever that means. Magazine, TV, media, entertainment industry portray an unrealistic image of the majority of women. Young people look up to such images so refuse to eat properly. Photographer Alice Zoo speaks to six women on body positivity and fat activism to support people who face abuse daily go educate the public.

COURTNEY, 24, GRIMSBY

@bodypositivebelle

“I’ve been big from a young age. I was 10, I was diagnosed with underactive thyroid, so each year I’ve put on more weight. I was always really active, so it was strange. New lumps and bumps formed that I didn’t know what to do with. I was bullied a lot throughout my school years I hated my body absolutely hated it. It really affected my mental health. When I was in college, I went on a big, long-term diet and lost five stone. I was a lot slimmer though I was big but I realised I wasn’t a better person, I wasn’t beautiful, I wasn’t amazing. I was still same person, but a lot less happy. Then I discovered Instagram. I remember seeing the first girl that used a body positive hashtag and I thought she looked amazing. I remember seeing the first girl’s body positive hashtag so I thought she looks amazing. But one night someone commented on all of my pictures saying I was fat and looked like someone from Star Wars. I messaged her and asked her why she was doing it. Why she found it fun to hurt someone like that. She replied, and later admitted that she had hang-ups about her own body. She said she felt fat. It made me think that often people are just pushing their own insecurities out. Someone will look at me and think: ‘I don’t want to be that size, I wouldn’t be happy that size, so why should you be happy when you’re fat?’ It makes me sad to think about people struggling so much they think the only way to make themselves feel better is to put someone down. That’s not the way. You can’t be comparing yourself to other people. I know it’s not easy, but the sooner you start to see yourself, how great you are, the better. You won’t need to judge someone by their looks.

ENAM, 23, BIRMINGHAM

@enamasiama

“I love the way I look and feel, because I’m comfortable, don’t feel any different from anyone else. I wake up and see myself as this normal person. I always tell people that I love my belly, I love my boobs. These squidgy parts might be seen as fat to someone else, but to me it’s just comfortable. There’s no-one out there who’s going to tell you that you’re not beautiful when you’re fat, simple as.

Find those who treasure and appreciate you and tell others how good they make you feel. Don’t be a person who always demoralises someone, or always being judgmental, because you have flaws. All have things they need to work on body.

“I have been waiting to be thin most of my life – to lose weight. I’ve put a lot of things on hold. When a kid growing up in Poland, I was quite sickly with upper throat infections and had to go to places we called sanatoriums to get better. Every time I went to one, they would put me on a low-calorie diet. They were always saying that I had to lose weight. Nowadays, when I look at photos from childhood, I don’t see anything wrong. I wasn’t skinny, but I wasn’t fat. But I was made to feel that there was something wrong. A few years ago, I started feeling a growing sense of anger so consuming a lot of feminist blogs and podcasts, and they talked about body positivity and self-love. I got to point where I thought, ‘There’s nothing wrong with the way I look, there’s nothing wrong with the way anyone looks. I’m just going to live my life.’ I stopped waiting to buy nice clothes, I just bought the clothes that fitted me. I started going on holiday. I started wearing a swimsuit and going swimming, which I always used to love when I was a kid. Now my attitude is:
‘Don’t like what you see look elsewhere else!’ N
o longer trying to change myself to fit society so trying to change society so it can fit me. Body positivity is not for fat people or skinny people it’s for everyone. Body positivity is the freedom that comes with being able to be happy with yourself. It gives you so much time to do other things, to travel, to think, to write, to make friends without having to worry about how you look all the time. Everyone could use a bit of body positivity in their life.”

MERCEDEZ, 28, LONDON / CHICAGO @missmermaidezpublic

“I was on a flight recently and I asked for a seat belt extender, I’m totally comfortable asking for – it doesn’t bother me. I was told I would have to pay for it. I said, ‘No thanks’, and they just ignored it, so I went without a seat belt from London to Morocco and back again. People think being fat is our fault. I struggled with not feeling desirable as a teenager. I thought I would never find a partner, that nobody would love me in the body I had. I look back at the time where I hated myself the most and I’m like – I was so cute. Why would anyone think these things? I do feel sensitive about desirability, through relationships and especially the way men have treated me as disposable. But I know that I’m hot. I know that I’m a worthy human being so it has nothing to do with my size. I know my body is some people’s greatest fear, to confront that is uncomfortable. To confront me being happy and living life and feeling healthy whatever that means threatens people’s desires to fit into beauty norm. I think it scares people you exist in the way you haven’t been told you can.”

TARA, 30, NORTHAMPTONSHIRE

@fatandfab88

“Sometimes being fat is awesome, and sometimes it’s difficult. Spaces aren’t designed for larger bodies. And public transport is a nightmare. You need two seats on an plane. But a big body has just as much right as a smaller body.I think as I’ve got older, I just care less. Or I care more about myself and less about what’s expected of me. Being fat feels rebellious. Being fat and loving yourself is something completely different. I used to hate it. I wouldn’t eat. I wanted my skin to be lighter, so when I was in primary school, cover myself in talcum powder. Now, of course, I realise there’s nothing wrong with me. It would help if there were fat dolls out there for kids. Dolls like Barbie, have an unattainable shape. For everyone – of any size, race, whatever it’s not manageable. As I’ve got older, I’ve grown into my body. That’s the best way to say it. It kind of grew on me. When I finally became happy with where I was, when I stopped always trying to improve, that made a big difference. My partner helped loads as well. People think that if you’re fat then you can’t be healthy. You can be really big, and not as healthy as you should be. But then you’re happy, so it’s about weighing up what’s more important. When I’m smaller, I’m a state. I’m a happy size, and a healthy size, for all of me. For my mental health and my physical health, which are almost the same thing.”

SHARON, 30, LONDON

“When I was a kid, I didn’t feel happy in myself. I felt that I was ugly and my self-worth was really low bullied a lot. I developed and came out of myself a bit in my later teens. But it wasn’t until I found out about fat acceptance and fat positivity that I really came into my own. I was able to start looking at my self-worth as being more than whether or not I’m aesthetically pleasing to wider society. Now, some days I think I’m beautiful, other days I don’t. I have the knowledge that when things aren’t great, I can actually break it down and think OK Sharon, it’s not because you’re fat, it’s not because of you, it’s because of society’s impression of you.’ Because you’ve absorbed so many images from the media. There’s nothing wrong with you, it’s just the way that you’ve been made to feel. I’m a lot more in control of how I feel about myself. Fat activism is liberating fat people from social norms, and the discrimination and negativity that comes alongside that. We want society to accept us as human beings whose worth is not defined by weight, appearance or health. The biggest thing is to not make assumptions about why fat people are fat, or that they’re unhealthy. Just ask us. Ask us how we feel about our bodies. Be open-minded.”

VEGAN FOOD BEYOND MEAT

The Vegan BEYOND MEAT founder Ethan Brown wants people to eat less meat for healthy eating to save environment. BBC’s weekly The Boss series profiles a different business leaders in the world. This week Ethan Brown, the boss and founder of vegan food company Beyond Meat is featured. Ethan Brown’s 12 year old son eats a burger almost every day. It may not sound like a diet a parent would want for their child, but Mr Brown has no concerns, because the burger patties come from his own company, Beyond Meat. And they are made entirely from plants. “My son gets clean protein and no cholesterol,” he says. “He’s growing like crazy right now so I want him to have that protein.” Mr Brown says he is on mission to redefine the word “meat.” The 40-something’s Los Angeles-based business makes vegan burger patties, chicken strips and sausages from plant proteins. They are formulated to mimic the taste, texture and look of beef, chicken and pork.A Beyond Burger pack being picked off a shelfBeyond Meat asks supermarkets to stock Beyond Meat Burgers next to their packs of meat. Stocks of the company’s flagship Beyond Burger product quickly sold out after launch in the US in 2016, helped by a positive article in the New York Times. And more than 25 million Beyond Burgers have been sold and this summer the company launched product in UK and also mainland Europe. Their High-profile investors are Microsoft’s Bill Gates, Twitter founders Biz Stone and Evan Williams, and actor Leonardo DiCaprio. “There’s no mystery to meat,” says Mr Brown. “It’s amino acids, lipids, trace minerals and water. “And if you can deliver those four things in same blueprint or architecture as muscle – why can’t that be called meat?”Cattle on a ranch in KansasMr Brown is concerned about effects of environmental impact farming animals has causing ozone methane gas and the amount of resources used per cattle. So before launching Beyond Meat in 2009, Mr Brown worked in alternative energy sector as a hydrogen fuel cell developer. While he liked that work because of its potential for lowering vehicle emissions he decided to make bigger contribution to society focusing on trying to reduce the environmental impact livestock has on the planet. He also wants people to eat less meat for animal welfare and the health issues. Mr Brown set up Beyond Meat, and began researching how you can use plant materials to replicate the composition of the proteins and fats in meat. Getting in touch with scientists at the University of Missouri who were doing research on plant-based meat substitutes, he began working with them on creating a viable product.A Beyond Meat patty in a burgerBeyond Burger uses beetroot extract to give it a blood-like colour. Put together by the best scientists on this [challenge], Mr Brown says. He understands meat more than anyone else in the world, so and build it bit by bit using plants.” Mr Brown spent all his savings on venture, raised money from family and friends. “I truly begged family members,” he says. “It’s amazing what do to make it work.” The first product Mr Brown and the team of scientists came up with was Beyond Chicken Strips. After repeatedly phoning grocery Whole Foods, “almost to the point of indecent behaviour”, he says he managed to get a meeting that resulted in the store stocking product from 2013. However, Mr Brown wasn’t happy with the early recipes. “We got the vegetarians by the droves, but we didn’t get the mainstream consumer,” he says. “We had to go back to the drawing board.” Team of biochemists, biophysicists and biomedical scientists got to work on making products even closer to real meat. With improving the formulations Mr Brown says the biggest challenge is people to stop thinking of it “fake meat.” I would never call it that,” he says. A mobile phone is not a fake phone it’s better phone than landline so people need to think about it this way. The best-selling Beyond Burger patties “bleed” like beef burgers, thanks to the addition of beetroot juice. They include pea protein, coconut oil, potato starch, and the company asks supermarkets to stock them beside the raw beef products by chilled counters. The product is now stocked by 8,000 supermarkets across US, and in thousands of the country’s restaurants. In the UK it is served at burger chain Honest Burger. It was also due to be on sale at supermarket chain Tesco from last month, but that has now been delayed until later in the year. Beyond Meat says it’s because it was struggling to keep up with existing demand, both in the US and overseas.UK chain Honest Burger's Beyond BurgerUK chain Honest Burger sells the burger made Beyond Meat’s patty. Consumers are coming round to the notion of plant-based meat substitutes that aim to look and taste like the real thing. More than a quarter of Britons (26%) say they find idea of products appealing, according to research group Mintel.“So this company Beyond Meat is in a strong position to capitalise on current interest in limiting meat intake,” says Mintel’s UK food and drink research director Kiti Soininen. So just how good does company’s products taste? A trawl of online food blogs show reviews are mostly positive. While some reviewers say burgers taste unnervingly like real beef, others say they definitely don’t. While Beyond Meat has many rivals, including US start-up Impossible Meat and the UK’s Moving Mountains, Mr Brown says that Beyond Meat is struggling to keep up with demand. “We are trying as hard as we can to catch up,” he says. The company, started with 10 people operating from a kitchen in a former hospital, now employs 200.An Impossible BurgerA number of other companies make vegan burger patties that replicate beef as closely as possible, as this offering is from Impossible Burger. And it has just opened its second production facility in Columbia, Missouri, which it says will create a further 250 jobs. In addition, it has launched a new research lab in Los Angeles. This expansion is been funded by external investment in the business that now totals $72m (£56m). Mr Brown won’t reveal the stake he retains in the company, but calls it “decent share.” Mr Brown, who spent his childhood outside Washington DC, says he approaches his every working day like an athletic event eating well, exercising and meditating. At work, he admits, his focus is intense, and there’s “not much chitchat time.” “I tell my son this all the time,” You ‘re not going to get extraordinary outcome if you don’t put an extraordinary amount of work in.”

Chronic lingering odoursmell

stink-smell-holding-nose-stockChronic odours research reveals a number of compounds, hippuric acid, eicosane, octadecanal found in higher than usual concentrations on the skin of Parkinson’s patients. The sebum oily secretion that coats everybody’s skin is produced in greater quantity by people with Parkinson develop skin seborrheic dermatitis. Prof Perdita Barran, from the school of chemistry at University of Manchester, told BBC Scotland: “found such compounds more in people with Parkinson’s disease and discovered by Joy Milne who smells it. Joy uses a mass spectrometer for smell on people with Parkinson’s.”One in 500 people in UK has Parkinson’s and rises to about one in 100 among the over-60s. Joy’s noticed musky smell on husband Les before he was diagnosed. It leaves them struggling to walk, speak, sleep with no cure and no test for disease, clinicians diagnose patient by observing symptoms. Prof Barran hoped “volatile biomarkers” identified leads to early detection test for disease, by wiping a person’s neck with swab and testing for the signature molecules. Diagnosis early before motor symptoms set in treatments can prevent disease spreading is ultimate ambition. Les died in 2015, 20 years after diagnosis musky smell decade earlier. The retired nurse linked odour to disease after meeting people with same distinctive smell at a Parkinson’s UK support group she told BBC Scotland. Les became withdrawn, reserved, had bouts of depression and mood swings, if had understood what was happening it would have changed total outlook to prolong his life.lesAnother odour lingering smell detected by a horse of her owners breast turned out to be breast cancer and was treated. Other animals sniff out TB, cancer and landmines. Rats smell tuberculosis and dogs can smell cancer. French scientists say they have proof dogs pick up smell of an epileptic seizure. The University of Rennes team hope findings can lead to ways to predict when people will have a seizure. Dogs or “electronic noses” pick up precise odour during a seizure. Dogs sniff out diseases: cancers, Parkinson’s, malaria and diabetes. Epilepsy is caused by disruption to electrical signals in the brain causing seizures. The disease runs in families, caused by stroke or oxygen deprivation at birth. Some people with epilepsy rely on animals in the child’s bedroom can alert family members of a seizure in middle of the night. The latest study, in the journal Scientific Reports, trained five dogs from Medical Mutts, in the US to recognise smell of sweat taken from patient having seizure. Then given sweat samples from other seven patients relaxing, exercising or having a seizure. Two dogs found seizure sample about two-thirds of the time and other three were 100% accurate. “The results extremely clear constitute the first step towards identifying a seizure-specific odour require detail chemical analysis to find specific compound involved. It is unknown how epileptic seizure leads to change in smell. Dr Amelie Catala, from University of Rennes told BBC “Research is needed but it is possible the change in electrical activity triggers the releasing of some neurohormones that trigger the scent or link to stress-related molecules and pathways, anything else hypothesis are still to be considered. Researchers hope the field could help patients lead to significant improvements in terms of seizure detection, prediction systems,” says report for time for someone to call for help or get themselves somewhere safe before their seizure begins. They are trained to save your life. So check odours smells medically but note a non-clinical smell contaminates the destiny of people. Evil smells can destroy plans and purpose of God in many people’s lives. An affected person may not know evil smell around them. And satanic odour prevents good things happening in their life because the evil smell is like a demonic cream. Its effect causes rejection of a person. These evil smells undetected by person but people smell strange odour. A moment helpers or friends move closer very awful odour chases them away. They avoid them the moment they begin to talk to them or on phone, text message or real contact. The evil spirit manifest as evil odour repels helpers to avoid them by all means due to strange smell. This spiritual attack is a source of discomfort even if victims apply best fragrance of this world, evil smell still persist. They change clothes, take baths many times but the evil smell attacks them more. The enemy does not want person to receive favour of God in life due to satanic attacks. A person with evil smell find it difficult for to marry or attract serious spouse. The partner may decide to run away or may fail to fulfil marriage vows promised. Due to evil smell people do not remember the good things they do; stop following; abandon them so don’t receive breakthroughs. Its evil smell preventing person enjoying a peaceful, happy married life. It leads to failure and prevents being noticed for a good success. So evil curses are directly opposite to favour if odour remain with a person for long struggles and suffers in life so cannot overcome. The other smell included spiritual deposits from spirit husbands and demonic halitosis. These evil spirit transfer spirit of dead animal into body using spiritual mirror applying spiritual creams all over their body. Spouse breaks marriage without a valid reason blaming the spouse for bad luck, sorrow, problems upon problems. People pray without answer, visiting the native doctor for solution find marriage problem concoction initiate them in the blind witchcraft. Solution is deliverance from God in Jesus Name. If noticing foul odour repent of sin and mistakes or evil culture dedicating people to evil spirits. Constant prayers and fasting helps to overcome pollution from clothes, shoes worn by others affected by evil spirits. Stop suffering disappointments, failure on edge of breakthrough, sorrow, grief, weeping, frustration, limitation and the financial burden yokes. Stop unrequited love not loved returned so living below God’s standard, shame, disgrace, self-pity, afflictions in Jesus Name. Repent, ask God to forgive your sins become a born again believer, break curses and return attached evil smells to sender in Jesus Name. Send Fire of God into your foundation Read: 1 Thessalonians 5:17 INSTRUCTION: Fast and pray between 6am – 7pm. Take a bottle of water, pray on it with Psalm 27 using to bath every night before sleeping. Plead the Blood of Jesus to wash body thoroughly, in Jesus Name. Use Blood of Jesus to wash mind, environment from evil contamination in Jesus Name. All arrows of evil odour backfire, in the Name of Jesus, satanic perfume around body, CLEAR AWAY by Fire in Jesus Name. All inherited evil smell of family house be destroyed in Jesus Name. All smells depart by fire in Jesus Name. The power programing the dead rat, rotten fish smell into body, get out by fire in Jesus Name. Cover all the properties, belongings with Jesus Blood.200246727-001_XSA curse of evil smell attack of marriage break by fire, in the Name of Jesus. The evil smell received from friends go back to sender in the Name of Jesus. The evil smells that entered body by wearing the clothes of others be destroyed by fire in the Name of Jesus. I command demons associated evil smell to leave, in Jesus Name. The evil smell preventing God’s blessings destroyed, expire by Fire, in the Name of Jesus, I release us from the spirit of bad odour in Jesus Name. The power diverted our glory, be converted back to God’s original glory in the Name of Jesus. Our face attracts good things to in the Name of Jesus. The old face of old person in my body, come out by Fire, in the Name of Jesus. The hands of beasts on our hands fall off, in the Name of Jesus. The bad odour from reproductive organ polluting marriage, be flushed away by BLOOD of Jesus. Our helpers will not change their mind towards us, in the Name of Jesus. O Lord, let your Favour go with us everywhere we go, in the Name of Jesus restore our beauty in the Name of Jesus. We uproot every bad smell from all organs in Jesus Name. All evil smell depart from marriages and destiny in Jesus Name. The invisible smell making helpers to forget us, be exposed and get out of our life in Jesus Name. All powers using this condition to disgrace family we command your life to scatter by fire, in Jesus Name. The marital crowns on our glory, catch fire, in Jesus Name. The evil smell affecting us because of sins, O God have Mercy, in the Name of Jesus. The strangers in life, troubling marriages fade away in Jesus Name. The demonic powder applied on our face when asleep blow back to the sender, in Jesus Name. The evil money power that wants spouse to divorce BE ARRESTED BY FIRE, in Jesus Name. All marital curses from all others break by Fire, in the Name of Jesus. The BLOOD of Jesus disconnects sins of ancestors, in Jesus Name and sets free from sin and sorrow. Blood of Jesus, destroys curses harming life, in Jesus Name. Whatever is done in the past opening the gate of destruction, Forgive O LORD. My Father, pull down structure of foul foundation’s curse bringing evil things, in the Name of Jesus. Holy Ghost renounce curse of evil smell tormenting family with great calamity, in Jesus Name. The evil smell wrecking marriage be destroyed in the Name of Jesus. Any evil smell eating and drying up skin, be erased by Holy Ghost, in Jesus Name. The curse stopping those who move closer to us, expire, in Jesus Name  Holy Ghost remove the smell that generates hatred and resentment in the Name of Jesus. By the BLOOD of Jesus, I scatter clean away bad odours working against us because of touching unclean things, in the Name of Jesus. That evil smell making spouse to fight, dry up, in Jesus Name. We will not be burdens to others in the Name of Jesus. All powers of my family house causing shame, die, in Jesus Name. The arrows of all marital disgrace we reject you in Jesus Name. A spirit of slavery in foundation, break by Fire. The evil patterns of borrowing in life break in Jesus Name. All evil hands pulling hands backwards wither. All the good things of life in coven of witchcraft be released in Jesus Name. Command all roots of problems in life to dry up in the Name of Jesus. Thank you Father God for hearing and answering prayers, thank you Jesus for saving, healing and delivering us from way of death to the Way of Godly Living in Jesus Name. We Thank you Holy Spirit for teachings us in Spirit and in Truth in Jesus’ Name. God bless you readers in Jesus Name. The Doctors didn’t find anything medically wrong with person in video an example of spiritual attack healed completely by God in Jesus Name. GLORY to God.

READ PSALM 27 IN BIBLE

27 The LORD is my Light and Salvation whom shall I fear? The LORD GOD is the Strength of my life, of whom shall I be afraid? When the wicked, even enemy foes, came upon me to eat my flesh they stumbled and fell. If a host encamps against me, my heart shall not fear: though war may rise against me, I have CONFIDENCE in God. One thing I desire of the LORD and I seek after; that I will dwell in the House of the LORD all the days of my life to see the beauty of the LORD and enquire in HIS Temple. 5 For in the time of trouble HE shall hide me in HIS pavilion, in HIS Tabernacle HE hides me; HE has set me up upon my rock Jesus Christ. Now my head is lifted up above all the enemies around me. I offer to God in HIS Tabernacle sacrifices of joy I sing yes, I sing praises to the LORD7 Hear, O LORD, when I cry with my voice: have MERCY on me and answer me. When YOU said seek MY Face; my heart said to YOU, YOUR Face, LORD I seek. Hide not YOUR Face far from me put not your servant away in anger YOU are my help; leave me not or forsake me O GOD of my salvation. 10 If my father and my mother forsake me the LORD GOD will take me up. 11 Teach me your way LORD and lead me in the plain path because of enemies. 12 Deliver me from the will of enemies for false witnesses rise up against me, breathing out cruelty. 13 I will have fainted if I did not believe to see the goodness of the LORD in the land of the living. 14 I wait on the LORD, I am of good courage, GOD will strengthen my heart, I wait on LORD GOD ALMIGHTY in Jesus Name. Continue to maintain deliverance by prayer and serve God in Jesus Name.

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STOP BLOOD CLOTS IN BODY

Venous thromboembolism(VTE) blood clots diagnosis is a serious preventable medical condition. VTE or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) happens at any age causing serious illness, disability and in some cases, death. VTE is prevented and treated if discovered early. PE in SCD patients is etiologic factor in patients who develop respiratory symptoms. Xray imaging procedure scans chest for blood clots treated with full-dose anticoagulation. Diagnosis of venous thromboembolism by positive Duplex ultrasound, ventilation-perfusion scan, or computed tomography angiography in most cases. Radiology reports for patients documented history of anticoagulation treatment venous thromboembolism cases. This criterion verifies the high specificity history venous thromboembolism. So thromboembolism data collected on date of diagnosis, recurrence, site of thrombosis, central venous catheter-related status. Additional triggering factors includes oral contraceptives, pregnancy, cancer, hospitalization, surgery recorded. Hospitalization associated clots defined by venous thromboembolism occurring 24 hours after admission or within 90-days after discharge. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clot forms thrómbōsis clotting inside the blood vessels obstructing flow of blood through the circulatory system. If a blood vessel vein or artery is injured, body uses platelets thrombocytes and fibrin to form blood clot to prevent blood loss. Blood vessel if not injured, forms blood clots in the body under certain conditions. Pneumococcal sepsis bacterial infection can shut down organs and cause blood clots to block vessels. Cuts off oxygen to cause parts of the body to die like kidneys begins to fail so resuscitated three times put on the lung machine to help and put into induced coma for treatment. The blood clot or piece of clot breaks free, travels around body embolus blocking small blood vessels. Symptoms are chest pain shortness of breath, leg pain, problems speaking, or moving parts of body. As clotting factors and platelets are used up bleeding occurs with blood in urine, blood in stool, bleeding in skin. Another complication is organ failure. Red blood cells principally deliver oxygen (O2) to body tissues via blood flow circulatory system. RBCs take up oxygen in lung released into tissues squeezing through body’s capillaries. Blood clot blocks circulation causing severe pain or bruising mark on leg.  Treatment for a pulmonary embolism is at the hospital to treat underlying causes of deep vein thrombosis. Starts with anticoagulant medications heparin and warfarin to stop blood clots returning. Pulmonary embolism occurs as clumps of blood clot gets wedged into artery in lungs. Blood clots from leg condition deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A catheter is inserted into vein in the groin upper thigh or arm and threaded to clots in the lung. The doctor may use catheter to remove clot or deliver medicine to dissolve it. Rarely, surgery is needed to remove the blood clotClots block oxygen flow 2.4 million erythrocytes produced per second in human adults affected. Blocks red cells developing in bone marrow circulating 100–120 days in the body before component recycled by macrophages. Circulation takes 60 seconds or one minute and a quarter of the cells in human body are red blood cells. And the blood volume is 40% to 45% is red blood cells. Blood related conditions are critical life situations so must be taken urgently, extremely seriously. Every second counts and they must have continous oxygen supply during crises. The blood clots can appear incredibly quickly, due to a number of factors like change in temperature. It causes a number of problems in the body and causes issues heart attacks. If found during routine check ups clot dealt with before obstructing oxygen in red blood portal veins or arteries.S_0917_deep-vein-thrombosis_M17501.2e16d0ba.fill-767x511

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs if a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in body, usually in legs. Deep vein thrombosis causes leg pain or swelling occur with cramps or no symptoms. Deep vein thrombosis develops if certain medical conditions affect blood clots. It happens if not mobile for long time after surgery confined to bed. Deep vein thrombosis is serious because blood clots in veins break loose, travel through bloodstream and lodge in the lungs blocking blood flow oxygen by pulmonary embolism. A lack of fresh oxygen from lungs causes breathing difficulties and shortage of breath so life threatening. Treatment is for 5-7 days or typically for 3-6 months, though blood thinners are continued for life if clotting disorder increases risk of another clot. After seven days, the clot is unlikely to be completely resolved so total time taken depends on the size of the clot. Most blood clots occur in lower legs and form when an individual is inactive for a lengthy period of time. A blood clot may develop in a patient’s leg after spending hours sitting or cramped on a plane. The symptoms experienced vary based on a size of clot, bigger clots are more painful than a smaller-sized ones. Those who have a blood clot in an arm or leg can experience swelling and tenderness. If the clot is small, minor calf swelling can occur but bigger blood clots cause whole leg or arm to swell. Those who have a clot notice a warm sensation or the affected area may turn bluish in color. The symptoms of a deep vein thrombosis signs and symptoms can include: Swelling in the affected leg. Rarely, there’s swelling in both legs.

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  • Pain in leg often starts in calf and feels like cramping soreness.
  • Red or discolored skin on the leg.
  • A feeling of warmth in affected leg.

Deep vein thrombosis occurs without noticeable symptoms sometimes. See a doctor if developed signs or symptoms of deep vein thrombosis, contact doctor. If developed the signs or symptoms of a pulmonary embolism a life-threatening complication of deep vein thrombosis seek immediate medical attention.

Pneumonia is also an inflammatory condition of lung affecting primarily the small air sacs called alveoli. At the end of the breathing tube of lungs, clusters of tiny air sacs become inflamed and fill up with fluid. Symptoms include some combination of dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. This can be triggered by the blood clot blocking wind pipes of lungs making it difficult to breathe without an oxygen tank or oxygenator. Pneumonia is often caused by infection with viruses or bacteria, by other microorganisms, or medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Risk factors include lung diseases: cystic fibrosis, COPD, asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, inability to cough due such as following a stroke, or weak immune system. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and physical examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests and culture of  sputum may help confirm a diagnosis. The disease is classified by where it was acquired within community, hospital, health care associated pneumonia. Vaccine prevent some types of pneumonia, prevention methods include handwashing and not smoking. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. The pneumonia due to bacteria is treated with antibiotics. In bacterial pneumonia, the white blood cell count high but falls in severe cases. In viral mycoplasmapneumonia white cell count is low or normal but severe pneumonia cases hospitalized. Oxygen therapy is used if oxygen levels are low.

The warning signs and symptoms of a pulmonary embolism include:

  • Sudden shortness of breath
  • Chest pain or discomfort worsens when taking deep breath or cough
  • Feeling lightheaded, dizzy, fainting
  • Rapid pulse rates
  • Coughing up blood
  • Loss of appetite

Blood in Urine and some causes: 

The causes of gross hematuria are infection, trauma, kidney stones, cancer, blood cell disorders, some medications, and strenuous exercise. We do not know why strenuous exercise can cause blood leaking in the urinary tract, but it could be fluid balance (dehydration), blood cell breakdown, liver or bladder trauma. Treatment is by medication, drinking plenty of water to avoid infections.

People sometimes in certain extreme cases need the red blood clots removed surgically or medication, treatment by leaches work effectively. Blood thinning medication of aspirin or medical doctor prescribes medicines to treat patients. It must be treated urgently to stop lungs running out of air due to blocked clot as red blood clot in lungs causes shortage of breath or no blood circulation death. Respiratory circulatory system of blood clots produces blood poisoning from the decomposing blood matter. The blood is exchanged using centrifugal transfusion to replace coagulated blood. If it’s done early saves lives but delays of waiting for machine worsen patient’s survival. A patient must seek help early so as not to self – sabotage essential treatment for life because life is in the blood. IMG_20180627_101138

The widespread use of opioids to treat pain frequently prompts concerns about addiction and even deaths. So, why are these sometimes dangerous drugs still being given to patients? Much stronger than many of the other options, opioids are among the world’s most commonly prescribed painkillers. These drugs – including morphine, tramadol and fentanyl used to treat pain caused by everything from heart attacks to cancer has side effects. In the UK they were recently linked to the deaths of hundreds of elderly hospital patients, while the US is battling a well-documented opioid epidemic. Why not use other painkillers to avoid the risk of harm, addiction blood clots and breathing problems? These painkillers literally kill patients instead of alleviating excruciating pain. The triple harmful side-effects  cause personality changes, confusion, hallucination so patients become less active. Instead of helping ease people’s pain at the moment harming them. With huge bonuses paid for use of such  medications to pharmaceutical companies they are pushing it’s use more than safe non toxic options available.

A worldwide problem

Opioids work by combining with receptors in the brain to reduce the sensation of pain and they are highly effective. However, opioid receptors are present in areas of the brain responsible for breath control and high doses dangerously reduced rate of breathing as cause of almost all opioid deaths. Inquiry into Gosport said more than 450 people died between 1989 and 2000 from administration of “dangerous” amounts of opioids without medical justification. In US, increasingly widespread prescription of opioids to treat long-term pain led to epidemic addiction. In 2016, 11.5 million people in the US misused prescription opioids, and 42,249 died from overdoses. In England, GPs prescribed 23.8 million opioid-based painkillers in 2017 a rise of 10 million prescriptions since 2007. Since those with chronic pain require strong painkillers some are killed by overzealous use due to need to control excruciating pain and make patients comfortable. Those with sickle cell disease (SCD) have signs of the disease during the first year of life, around 5 months of age. Symptoms and complications of SCD are different for each person and can range from mild to severe pain. The reason infants don’t show symptoms at birth is because baby or fetal haemoglobin protects the red blood cells from sickling. When the infant is around 4 to 5 months of age, the baby or fetal haemoglobin is replaced by sickle hemoglobin and the cells begin to sickle. SCD is a disease that worsens over time. Treatments are available can prevent complications and lengthen lives of those who have this condition. The treatment options can be different for a person depending on symptom’s severity. Hydroxyurea (pronounced hye droks ee yoor EE a) is a medicine that can decrease several complications of SCD. This treatment is safe if given by medical specialists experienced in caring for patients with SCD. Side effects of taking hydroxyurea during pregnancy or for a long time are not completely known. The Food and Drug Administration approved a new medicine to reduce the number of sickle cell crises in adults and children older than age five; it is called L-glutamine. Another treatment, which can actually cure SCD, is a stem cell transplant (also called a bone marrow transplant); this procedure infuses healthy cells, called stem cells, into the body to replace damaged or diseased bone marrow (bone marrow is the center of the bone where blood cells are made). Although transplants of bone marrow or blood from healthy donors are increasingly used to successfully cure SCD, they require a matched donor (a person with similar, compatible bone marrow), and transplants sometimes cause severe side effects and occasional life-threatening illness or death. People with SCD and families should ask their doctors about benefits and risks of treatment options.

Sickle Cell Jaundice

Sickle cell jaundice bilirubin is released byproduct of red blood cells destroyed. The liver must process bilirubin to be excreted as bile into gut for digestion and passed out in the stools or urine. Jaundice occurs when there is too much bilirubin produced by too many red blood cells destroyed. The liver fails to process bilirubin in tummy so abdomen becomes swollen because of a build-up of fluid ascites. Liver and spleen may be enlarged plus unexcreted pile of dead red cells blocks passage of bile into gut. Jaundice disease is assessed and treated with significant symptoms of tiredness, ankle swelling, and also gastrointestinal bleeding, coma, confusion, ascites, etc. Clinical investigations show causes of jaundice increased bilirubin production increase of red blood cells destroyed. So haemolysis collection of blood in tissue red blood cell destroyed cause tiredness or lethargy called haemolyticanaemia. Failure of the liver to process bilirubin excretion diseases affects liver as viral infection, genetic diseases, excessive accumulation of chemicals (copper and iron. The disease Gilbert’s syndrome is a genetic disease causing jaundice by this method. Blockage of passage of bile into gut causes gallstones in bileduct of liver. Accumulation of gallstones requires the removal by surgery.

Jaundice Assessment

Complete jaundice assessment includes yellow eyes seen during clinical history, clinical examination, general or specific investigations. Review of clinical history and a complete routine medical history needs to be obtained. Medical history gives the causes of jaundice including pale stool, very dark urine, itchiness, gallbladder pain, tummy pain or others. A thorough general examination will be carried out specifically, liver and spleen should be felt for an enlargement. Other features include signs of anaemia lack of red blood cells in the body. A routine blood test checks of liver, blood system. The urine is tested to find exact cause in specific investigations by ultrasound for liver and tummy, CT of tummy, or direct visualisation of bile ducts in the tummy. A sample of liver tissue may be required for diagnosis in liver biopsy sometimes.

Treatment of Jaundiced Liver

Treatment of jaundice varies according to causes. A haematologist specialist in blood system, surgeon or physician is involved in treating causes of jaundice. Read more about liver and take care of yourself because the rate young people suffer from kidney disease is alarming. As a result some end up in Hospital on life support with kidney problems but can avert the menace of kidney disease.

TOP 6 CAUSES OF KIDNEY DISEASE:

1. Delay going to a toilet. Keeping your urine in your bladder for too long is a bad idea. A full bladder can cause bladder damage as urine in the bladder multiplies bacteria quickly. Once the urine refluxes back to the ureter and kidneys, the toxic substances can result in kidney infections, then urinary tract infections, nephritis, uremia and sepsis. When nature calls do it soon as you can.

2. Eating too much salt. You should eat no more than 5.8 grams of salt daily.

3. Eating too much meat. Too much protein in your diet is harmful for your kidneys. Protein digestion produces ammonia as a toxin very destructive to your kidneys. Too much meat than body needs equals more kidney damage.

4. Drinking too much caffeine. Caffeine is a component of many sodas and soft drinks. It raises your blood pressure and your kidneys start suffering. So you should cut down the amount of coke you drink daily.

5. Drinking water. Our kidneys should be hydrated properly to perform their functions well. If not drinking enough water the toxins can start accumulating in the blood, as there isn’t enough fluid to drain them through kidneys. Drink more than 10 glasses of water daily. An easy way to check if you are drinking enough water: look at the colour of your urine; the lighter the colour, the better.

6. Early treatment. Treat all your health problems quickly properly and have health checks regularly.  Help yourself God will protect you and your family from every disease.

(3) Avoid Tablets as very dangerous:
* D-cold
* Vicks Action-500
* Actified
* Coldarin
* Cosome
* Nice
* Nimulid
* Cetrizet-D
They contain Phenyl Propanol-Amide PPA causes strokes so banned in USA.

* Doctors in United States have found new cancer in human beings, caused by Silver Nitro Oxide. Whenever you buy recharge cards, don’t scratch with your nails, as it contains Silver Nitro Oxide coating and can cause skin cancer.

Important Health Tips:

1. Answer phone calls with the left ear.

2. Don’t take medicine with cold water.

3. Don’t eat heavy meals after 5pm.

4. Drink more water in morning, less at night.

5. Best sleeping time is 10pm to 4 am.

6. Don’t lie down immediately taking medicine or after meals.

7. If phone’s battery is low to last bar do not answer phone because radiation is 1000 times stronger. Knowledge is power.

Signs or symptoms of acute liver failure include:

  • Yellowing of skin and hands, feet
  • Yellow eyeballs jaundiced
  • Pain in upper right abdomen
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • General sense of feeling sick unwell malaise
  • Disorientation or confusion
  • Sleepiness

When to see a doctor

Acute liver failure can develop quickly in an otherwise healthy person and life-threatening. If one suddenly developed yellowing of eyes or skin; tenderness in upper abdomen or unusual changes in mental state, personality or behaviour seek medical attention right away.dreamstime_s_73450142-356x187

Blood Cells & Blood Coagulation

Pluripotential cells in bone marrow differentiate into red blood cells, white cells and platelets. The Immune system  impacts red and white cells. And recent advances help understand coagulation in the heterogeneous group of diseases, thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anaemia thrombocytopenia platelet clumping in microcirculation ischemic organ dysfunction neurologic symptoms. Increased thrombosis was reported in different hemolytic anaemia (HA), particularly in sickle cell disease (SCD), and thalassemia. The different patho-physiologies, hemolysis have the procoagulant condition. The mechanism involves abnormal red blood cell (RBC) properties. And the increased plasma concentrations of microparticles and a release of cell-free haemoglobin RBC arginase result in impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, increased blood concentration of oxidants, endothelial dysfunction. Major clinical consequence increase developing venous thrombosis, clinical sequelae of hemolysis symptom by NO depletion increased cell free plasma haemoglobin. Hemoglobinemia feature of the HA possibly contributing factor to explain clinical manifestation’s thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) characterized by microangiopathic HA and thrombocytopenia. The condition characterising intravascular hemolysis specific symptoms seen cell-free plasma haemoglobin sequalae. Conditions such as SCD and thalassemia syndromes and hemolytic conditions with substantial intravascular hemolysis. SCD, and the thalassemia represent common genetic disorders worldwide. Though different patho-physiologies, patients with both diseases share clinical manifestations, including thrombotic complications. So stroke in patients caused by large-vessel obstruction superimposed thrombosis, is one of the major complications in SCD. Pulmonary hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening complication in SCD, as documented by echo-cardiography (pulmonary artery pressure [PAP] > 30%) in approximately 30% adult patients with SCD screened. Autopsy showed evidence of new and old thrombi in pulmonary vasculature in up to 75% of SCD patients at the time of death. A recent report based on data by National Hospital Discharge Survey in U.S. shows patients with SCD younger than 40 years old had higher discharge diagnosis of pulmonary embolism than African Americans without SCD (0.44% vs 0.12% the prevalence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was similar. National In-patient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, from 2000 to 2001, reported SCD is a significant risk factor for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism, with an odds ratio of 6.7 (95% confidence interval: 4.4–10.1. The thrombophilic status in SCD has been well documented as multifactorial, involving hemostatic changes, activation of the coagulation cascade and endothelial activation as shown by elevated levels of endothelial adhesion proteins (ICAM-1. ELAM-1,VCAM-1, von Willebrand factor [VWF] and thrombomodulin). Intimal hyperplasia was found in a variety of vascular beds, including pulmonary, renal, splenic, and placental vessels, and in arterioles adjacent to leg ulcers of patients with SCD. Most SCD-related complications said to be caused by the microvascular occlusion and ischemic tissue necrosis following adhesion of erythrocytes (RBCs) and other cellular elements to vascular endothelium. So clinical series describe occurrence of DVT, pulmonary embolism and portal vein thrombosis in patients with β-thalassemia major and β-thalassemia intermedia. In a recent survey of 8860 patients with β-thalassemia in the Mediterranean region and Iran, the overall prevalence of various thrombotic events was 1.65%, precisely 0.9% in thalassemia major and 4.0% in thalassemia intermedia. Was common in SCD, stroke was reported in patients with β-thalassemia major from Greece and Italy an incidence of 20% and 2%,  patients with β-thalassemia hemoglobin E (HbE) disease. Complication occurs commonly in the patients not regularly transfused. Evidence of asymptomatic brain damage reported by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with β-thalassemia intermedia and is inversely correlated with Hb level and increasing age. PAH is increasingly recognized as part of the clinical spectrum for adult β-thalassemia patients, with a frequency ranging from 10% to 74%; the overall higher rate in thalassemia intermedia. Regular transfusions thought to reduce the risk of thrombosis in thalassemia. In recent study, Singer et al found PAH in transfused patients with thalassemia major, most of whom splenectomized, suggesting regular transfusion does not prevent PAH, thrombotic complications. Several factors implicated pathogenesis of the hypercoagulable state, specific changes in lipid membrane composition of abnormal RBCs increased expression negatively charge phosphatidylserine outer surface. Postsplenectomy thrombocytosis, cardiac dysfunction, liver dysfunction lead to protein C and protein S reduction. Suggest inefficient spleen, hematologic hemolytic diseases contribute to an increased propensity to thromboembolic complications. Both β-thalassemia or sickle cell anemia, have a high proportion of patients without splenic function due to surgical splenectomy or due to functional hyposplenism. In a series of 83 patients with β-thalassemia intermedia followed for 10 years, 29% developed pulmonary embolism, DVT of lower extremities and portal vein thrombosis. Development of complications attributed to presence of high platelet counts after splenectomy. Moderate thrombocytosis in the older children, adults with SCA a consequent loss of splenic sequestration autosplenectomy in patients. Literature on relationship between splenectomy or autosplenectomy and thrombosis in SCA is scant. Specific features of thrombotic complications in patients with SCD and thalassemia share similar pathogenesis. Intravascular hemolysis is a common feature of both SCD and thalassemia. Recent evidence associates chronic intravascular hemolysis with a state of endothelial disfunction.

Red Blood Cells

The major stimulus to red blood cell (RBC) production erythropoetin, which is produced in the kidney. Anaemia is decrease in number or concentration of red blood cells amount of concentration of haemoglobin as a common inducer of erythropoetin production. It is not the number or concentration of RBCs that stimulates erythropoetin production, but decreased oxygenation of the blood. The number of red blood cells increase in chronic hypoxia as occurs in those who live at high altitudes. Effectiveness of the red blood cell in carrying oxygen depends on oxygen supply, number of red blood cells and health of red cells:

1) In aplastic anemia, the marrow as a whole is suppressed, by radiation or drugs. Red cells and other blood cells decrease in number (pancytopenia) in aplastic anemia.

2) Anaemia develops from significant blood loss.

3) If iron, an important ingredient of the haemoglobin molecule is deficient in the diet, the patient develops an iron deficiency anaemia. Iron is transported in blood by plasma protein transferrin, stored intracellularly on the protein, ferritin. Deficiency of transferrin results in an iron deficiency anaemia.

4) Vitamin Bu and folic acid important in synthesis of DNA, in development of RBCs from their precursor cells in the marrow. A deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid leads to megaloblastic anaemia in which the RBCs are large, fragile and short-lived. Intrinsic factor, produced by parietal cells in the gastric mucosa, normally combines with vitamin B12, protecting it from gastric digestion, and facilitates its transport across intestinal mucosal membrane. Lack of intrinsic factor, results in a megaloblastic anaemia (pernicious anaemia by failure of B12 absorption.

5) Defects in structure of haemoglobin may be responsible for the anemia. In sickle cell anemia, a recessive gene results in abnormal haemoglobin, which distorts the red cells into a sickle shape in states of low oxygenation. The RBC becomes very fragile, is short-lived, and can clog blood vessels. About 8% of the black population carries the gene. Individuals with the heterozygous state typically are normal, although sickling can occur in marked states of hypoxia. True sickle cell anemia, the homozygous state, occurs in about 0.3% of blacks.

Read more about treatment guidelines »

Hand-Foot Syndrome

Swelling in the hands and feet usually is the first symptom of SCD. This swelling, often along with a fever, is caused by the sickle cells getting stuck in the blood vessels and blocking the flow of blood in and out of the hands and feet. One is at a higher risk of developing blood clots when blood pools in the lower extremities. Elevating the feet and legs will allow veins to return blood to the heart more efficiently and thus reduce the chances of clotting. Those who expect to be bedridden for a long time, such as after surgery or an illness, should put blocks under the foot of a bed to elevate the legs, keeping them slightly higher than heart. Alternatively, placing pillows under one’s lower half will give the same result.

Treatment

The most common treatments for swelling in hands and the feet are pain medicine and an increase in fluids, such as water. Those going on long flight planning for surgery, or other actions that put them at risk for blood clotting, drinking plenty of water can reduce the chance of developing subsequent clots. Proper hydration prevents blood clots in a variety of ways; it increases fluid in blood vessels, diluting the ratio of blood cells and reducing viscosity, lowering risk of clotting. Additional liquid washes away irritants in bloodstream damaging endothelium and blood cells. Blood clot is natural response to damage, washing away toxins significantly lowers risk. Choose water over juices and sodas high sugar liquids leads to dehydration.

Do You Use the Emergency Department for Care of SCD?

Pain “Episode” or “Crisis”

Pain is the most common complication of SCD, and the number 1 reason that people with SCD go to the emergency room or hospital. When sickle cells travel through small blood vessels, they can get stuck and clog the blood flow. This causes pain that can start suddenly, be mild to severe, and can last for any length of time.

Prevention

There are simple steps that people with SCD can take to help prevent and reduce the number of pain crises, including the following:

  • Drink plenty of water.
  • Try not to get too hot or too cold.
  • Try to avoid places or situations that cause exposure to high altitudes (for example, flying, mountain climbing, or cities with a high altitude).
  • Try to avoid places or situations with exposure to low oxygen levels (for example, mountain climbing or exercising extremely hard, such as in military boot camp or when training for an athletic competition).
  • Adults with severe SCD can take a medicine called hydroxyurea to help reduce the number of pain crises. People taking hydroxyurea are checked often by a doctor to prevent complications, including an increased risk of infections.
  • Research shows that babies and children with SCD can also benefit from hydroxyurea therapy.
Treatment

Most pain related to SCD can be treated with over the counter pain medications such as ibuprofen and aspirin. Some people who have severe pain are given opioid (i.e. morphine) medications daily, with additional pain medication. Some people may be admitted to the hospital for intense treatment.

Fast Fact

Taking iron supplements will not help people with sickle cell disease. This type of anemia is not caused by too little iron in the blood; it’s caused by not having enough red blood cells. In fact, taking iron supplements could harm a person with sickle cell disease because the extra iron builds up in the body and can cause damage to the organs.

Anaemia

Anaemia is very common complication of SCD. With SCD, the red blood cells die early. This means there are not enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout body. When this happens, a person might have:

  • Tiredness
  • Irritability
  • Dizziness and lightheadedness
  • A fast heart rate
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Pale skin color
  • Jaundice (yellow color to the skin and whites of the eyes)
  • Slow growth
  • Delayed puberty
Treatment

Blood transfusions are used to treat severe anemia. A sudden worsening of anemia resulting from infection or enlargement of the spleen is a common reason for a transfusion. Multiple blood transfusions, however, might cause health problems because of the iron content of blood. Iron overload, called hemosiderosis, can damage liver, heart, pancreas and other organs, leading to diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Iron chelation therapy should be started in patients with SCD receiving regular blood transfusions to reduce excess iron levels. Above all, check and ensure the blood donor does not suffer from blood clots as sometimes it affects recipients of such blood.

Nurse giving a little girl an immunization.

Infection

People with SCD, especially infants and children, are more at risk for infections, especially those due to bacteria with capsules because of damage to the spleen. Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in infants and young children with SCD.

Prevention

Vaccines can protect against harmful infections.

  • Washing your hands is one of the best ways to help prevent getting an infection. People with SCD, their family, and other caretakers should wash their hands with soap and clean water many times each day.
  • Because bacteria in some foods can be especially harmful to children with SCD, food should be prepared safely.
  • Vaccines can protect against harmful infections. Children with SCD should get all regular childhood vaccines, plus a few extra. Adults should have the flu vaccine every year, as well as the pneumococcal vaccine and any others recommended by a doctor.
  • Take penicillin (or other antibiotic prescribed by a doctor) every day until at least 5 years of age.

See a tip sheet on how to help prevent infection »

Treatment

Infections are treated with antibiotic medicines and sometimes blood transfusions. At the first sign of an infection, such as a fever, it is important to see a doctor right away as this may represent a medical emergency for people with SCD. Early treatment of infection can help prevent problems.

Chest x-ray

Acute Chest Syndrome

This can be life-threatening and should be treated in a hospital. Symptoms and signs are similar to pneumonia. Signs and symptoms include chest pain, coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. Blood clot travels to lungs doctors call pulmonary embolism. Clots reach lungs if small is non-life threatening but smaller clots causes substantial damage to lungs. If clot is large, can stifle proper blood flow and become deadly, so quick treatment is essential. So most common symptom to look for is sudden shortness of breath; if individual is short of breath or lacks physical movement is suffering from pulmonary embolism. A condition causes patient to experience chest pain, breathing problems, heart palpitations. In some cases, a pulmonary embolism causes one to cough up blood as well.

Prevention

Adults with severe SCD can take a medicine called hydroxyurea to help prevent acute chest syndrome. People taking hydroxyurea monitored closely with regular blood testing and dose adjustments to prevent complications. A person on bed rest or recent surgery can use an incentive spirometer, also called “blow bottle,” to help prevent acute chest syndrome.

Treatment

Depending on cause, treatment might include oxygen, medicine to treat an infection, medicine to open up airways to improve air, and blood transfusions. Cut down on salts and fatty cholesterol because salt irritates endothelium or inner lining of veins and arteries. The blood vessels do not work efficiently in moving blood around body. This leads to blood pooling in lower extremities, where it is more likely to clot. Damage to endothelium makes blood cells more to stick to walls of vessels, increasing the risk of clots. Excessive salt intake is harmful to the cardiovascular system in a variety of ways, with blood clots one of the more significant risks. Decreasing salt intake, cutting out all canned and processed foods significantly reduces the risk of blood clots.

Splenic Sequestration

This can be life-threatening and should be treated in a hospital. It happens when a large number of sickle cells get trapped in the spleen and cause it to suddenly get large. Symptoms include sudden weakness, pale lips, fast breathing, extreme thirst, abdominal (belly) pain on the left side of body, and fast heartbeat.

Parents of a child with SCD should learn how to feel and measure the size of their child’s spleen and seek help if the spleen is enlarged.

Prevention

For those who have had a very severe, life-threatening episode of splenic sequestration or who have had many episodes in the past, it might be necessary to have regular blood transfusions or the spleen can be removed (called splenectomy) to stop it from happening again.

Treatment

Treatment typically is a blood transfusion. This should be done in consultation with a blood specialist as patients sometimes become overloaded with fluid when the blood is released from the spleen. Removal of blood may be necessary to prevent this happening.

Young girl getting eyes checked at the eye doctor

Vision Loss

Vision loss, including blindness, can occur when blood vessels in the eye become blocked with sickle cells and the retina (the thin layer of tissue inside the back of the eye) gets damaged. Some patients develop extra blood vessels in the eye from the lack of oxygen.

Prevention

People with sickle cell disease should have their eyes checked every year to look for damage to retina. If possible, this should be done by an eye doctor who specializes in diseases of the retina.

Treatment

If the retina is damaged by excessive blood vessel growth, laser treatment often can prevent further vision loss.

Leg Ulcers

This usually occurs on the lower part of the leg. They happen more often in males than in females and usually appear from 10 through 50 years of age. A combination of factors cause ulcer formation, including trauma, infection, inflammation, and interruption of the circulation in the smallest blood vessels of the leg.

Treatment

Leg ulcers can be treated with medicated creams and ointments. Leg ulcers can be painful, and patients can be given strong pain medicine. Management of leg ulcers could also include the use of cultured skin grafts. Treatment is provided in specialized centers. Bed rest and keeping leg or legs raised to reduce swelling helpful though not always possible.

Stroke

A stroke can happen if sickle cells get stuck in a blood vessel and clog blood flow to the brain. About 10% of children with SCD will have a symptomatic stroke. Stroke can cause learning problems and lifelong disabilities.

Prevention

Children who are at risk for stroke can be identified using a special type of exam called, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). If the child is found to have an abnormal TCD, a doctor might recommend frequent blood transfusions to help prevent a stroke. People who have frequent blood transfusions must be watched closely because there are serious side effects. For example, too much iron can build up in the body, causing life-threatening damage to the organs.

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and Pulmonary Embolism (PE)

Sickling of red cells can increase blood coagulation and induce an increased risk of blood clot in a deep vein (DVT), or in the lung (PE) if the blood clot moves from the deep veins. People with SCD have a high chance of developing DVT or PE. DVT and PE can cause serious illness, disability and, in some cases, death.

Prevention and Treatment

Medication is used to prevent and treat DVT and PE. PE requires immediate medical attention. For more information on DVT and PE visit https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dvt/index.html.

Other Possible Complications

  • Damage to body organs (like the liver, heart, or kidneys), tissues, or bones because not enough blood is flowing to the affected area(s).
  • Malnutrition and growth retardation among adolescents can cause a delayed onset of puberty and, in males, infertility.
  • Gallstones.
  • Painful erection of the penis, called priapism, can last less than 2 hours or more than 4 hours. If it lasts more than 4 hours, the person should get urgent medical help. It can lead to impotence.
  • A very rare form of kidney cancer (renal medullary carcinoma) has been associated with sickle cell trait.

Links to Other Websites

Sickle Cell Disease Association of America

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Clinical Trials

Be The Match – Bone Marrow Transplantation

Reblogged as previously published

BUILDING A BABY’S BRAINS

pastedImageTop 10 tips to building a baby’s brain as Blackpool Better Start believes, building a brain is a lot like building a house and so must have strong foundation. Strong foundation builds the stronger resilient communities to help parents, essential for healthy structure of child’s brain.”

1) Support

Get support to create a solid foundation by ensuring that parents and caregivers have the right information and support available to meet a baby’s needs. In UK, Blackpool and other parts of country, having parents attend their antenatal programme and being involved with your health visitor, midwife and other people are there to support you through your pregnancy is really important during that transition into parenthood.Reading_800x534

2) Positive nurturing interaction

Developing a brain is an interactive process. ‘Serve and return’ activities can help with this – that’s the “goo goo” and “gaa gaa”, when you respond to what your child is saying to you. It’s like a tennis match. Maybe your child gives you a tissue, you take is and say “thank you”. Embracing those ‘serve and return’ opportunities helps build those interactions.

3) Read, read, read

Research shows us how beneficial reading is to a child’s development. The evidence we have proves children who are read to, by parents or caregivers do better in school. The have higher self-esteem, develop better relationships with other children and are better behaved. We recommend reading 15 minutes a day to your child – that does make a difference to their development.

4) Talk to Babies Early

When adults interact and elaborate what the child is saying to them – like asking questions, sharing rhymes and songs – then children start to develop those cognitive skills and the tools they need to succeed. Even when the child is saying something that’s not particularly intelligible, start a conversation with your child and let them recognise that you will interact with them in that way.

5) Managing stresses

We know that some stress is considered to be good – like meeting a new person, that can be good for a child. It’s for children who grow up in chronically stressful environments, they might be subject to violence, abuse and neglect. Those children experience ‘toxic stress’ and we talk with families about what toxic stress looks like and the impact is has on that child. Caregivers should be aware of the environment a child is in, be able to comfort them when they’re upset and calm their emotions. Helping a child’s stress response system come back to normal levels is really, really important.Family_Singing

6) Be attuned, responsive

The relationship between the main caregiver allows the baby to grow physically, emotionally, intellectually. We know that babies and children need to feel safe, protected and nurtured by caregivers, to identify responds to the child’s needs. Unresponsiveness lead to difficulties socially, behaviourally and emotionally which may affect the child’s physical and emotional development.

7) Outdoors

Remember the importance of outdoor play by using open spaces, parks and other outdoor settings. Look for outdoor opportunities which are vital for brain development and we know that play is essential for a child’s learning and well-being. It can help the parents too. Being outside as a family, particularly if you live in a small house or don’t have much space, getting outside and doing some activity can make you feel better, is good for the child and it’s free!

8) Nutrition and diet

A poor diet can negatively affect a child’s brain development and nervous system. But for us, it’s supporting parents getting their child into solid food. We know breastfeeding is really good for nutrition, because the milk in a mum’s body changes everyday to give the child what they need. We also know that once you move on to solid food, it’s about looking at what kind and how you serve the food to a child. There needs to be a good range of foods that will address their nutrition and diet.

9) Mum & dad take care

Obviously a expectant mother needs to be taken care of during pregnancy, because that vital for the wellbeing of the baby, but that continues well after birth. Establishing regular routines for sleep helps with brain development and stress, as does physical activity. Being physically active for 60 – 90 minutes a day helps strengthen brain connection with motor skills, balance, vision and other abilities. It also helps combat stress for mum. We think mums who have good nutirion, who are acitive during pregnancy are able to have a healthier birth.4-ways-to-nurture-your-childrens-growing-brain-2

10) Communities

We talk about communities a lot, because it’s not just the parents that help grow the child, it’s the whole community and extended family. Studies have shown that children tend to do better from strong, supportive communities. Everything we do is based around gearing up communities and parents to do more for themselves, by giving the community members skills, making them more understanding about child development and what they can do to support that. Children centres, peer supporters and trained volunteers can offset poverty and other risk factors in early development.