JESUS UNITES ALL IN ISRAEL

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Galatians 3:26-28 says not a Jew, Gentile, Greek, SLAVE, free, MALE, FEMALE ALL ARE ONE IN CHRIST JESUS. In the Bible Jesus Christ of Nazareth came to SAVE to redeem ALL FAMILIES in Christ. God created all black and white people equal in God’s Kingdom, no rank, class, status. SOVEREIGN GOD JEHOVAH and CHRIST JESUS are Ultimate Authority all submit to in ETERNAL LIFE. So Matthew 22:30 says after resurrection people DO NOT MARRY so no virgins to marry. Glorified body is like angels in heaven in eternal life so no need to marry, to give birth to replenish earth in future. All restored to youthful bodies, healed, live perfectly healthy lives eternally. Love is directed totally first to God and to Jesus Christ flowing through all people. There is no need to seek fulfilment through a human being because all are fulfilled in Christ Jesus. The supernatural love God fills mankind with is superior to human love. All LOVE comes from God through Jesus the Bridegroom, enriched deeply in Christ Jesus Alone in eternal life. So human romance pales in comparison to GOD’S DEEPEST LOVE BEYOND human understanding in terms of earthly love. Earthly love is full of disappointment, pain, hurt and grief. A Heavenly LOVE yet fully experienced on earth glimpses of true love found here, there on earth.4bdde64e26478018c275ab2ae84328d6.jpgPERFECT LOVE after GLORIOUS BODY IS FOUND IN CHRIST so no human can provide angelic love for glorified body higher being in Christ Jesus. ETERNAL LIFE IN GOD’S PRESENCE is NO HATRED VENGEANCE, Bitterness or vendetta for only the PURE IN HEART FULL OF LOVE ENTER GOD’S PRESENCE. GOD IS LOVE in heaven no evil on earth exists after judgement BY JEHOVAH. Only the sheep enter heaven and goats are thrown out into hellfire burning forever. A banquet by KING MASTER JESUS for all no slaves IN HEAVEN. Emancipate yourself from the arrogant mental slavery justifying abuse of people in THE NAME of God. Vengeance belongs to Jehovah to meet out so stop misleading the people with twisted lies misquoting Bible to deceive naive vulnerable people. Only Jesus is able to Comfort us and restore PERFECT PEACE we crave because human love is limited. Be content, so grateful, thankful for families you feel not good for you. It is God who puts people in families for a reason. Trust God with your family and AVOID ANYONE WHO DIVIDES FAMILY! 29131.jpgJesus the Messiah is surrounded by His mother, father siblings in His Ministry on earth and in heaven with Jesus. Any Church that divides family is a cult for manipulation naive members to control them by CUTTING OFF from loved ones who SEE THROUGH FAKE PASTORS. The fake pastor deceives people for control weakens them without back up support challenging controlling behaviour. They fear families standing up to stop abuse so anyone who knows the Bible well or confronts them is blackmailed and also vilified to subdue members. They make examples of people to humiliate them to put fear in them to become ZOMBIES or robots they control. Beware of anyone twisting BIBLE to CONTROL your life because who the SON JESUS SETS FREE IS FREE INDEED!!! God is LOVE and by love people know you are the children of God.  Jesus LOVE YOUR ENEMIES do good to those who hate you and do not inherit enmity and hatred from a bitter miserable people preaching evil hatred.  God’s promise to Abraham the land of Israel is a BLESSING to ALL NATIONS.Galatians_3-28.jpgIn Genesis 12:2; 18:18; 22:17–18; 26:3–4 God fulfilled promise to Abraham, first in the nation of Israel then all nations. Israel’s technological, agricultural, and medical innovations, advances help all people in the world. God’s greatest meaningful fulfillment of covenant promise is Word of God Jewish people gave all world. God faithfully protects and brought Israel’s eternal salvation through faith in Jesus the Messiah. So Father God in Lord Jesus Messiah by His great mercy Christians born agains are raised the Messiah from dead. To live in future is a great expectation of priceless inheritance in heaven, pure, undefiled, beyond death and decay. Through faith, God protects by HIS power to endure to end, receive crown of life 1 Peter 1:3–5.  God’s destiny for Abraham to become the father of MULTITUDE of NATIONS includes Gentile nations fulfilled in Jesus, a direct descendant of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob Israel in Matthew 1:2–17.  God LOVES people of all tribes, tongues, nationalities, languages in Jesus as heirs of Abraham and joint heir with Christ.

imageGod’s joint heirs are kings and priests of God in Christ Jesus. There is neither Jew nor Greek, neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; you are ALL ONE IN MESSIAH YESHUA. In MESSIAH you are Abraham’s seed heirs according to promise in Galatians 3:2729. Today know Jesus better by READING BIBLE to STUDY LIKE BEREANS not just do what so called fake control freak cult pastors order you to do to manipulate your life. Messiah Jesus is coming to decide your reward based on if you are HIS SHEEP. Not what the fake prophet misquoted in Bible designed to lie to you because you lack knowledge. God says  MY PEOPLE are destroyed for lack of knowledge of Bible. God says Study to show yourself APPROVED TO GOD not show off Bible verses you memorized. But APPLY the Bible to each need you have, read the specific TEXT daily to meet your need.Galatians+3_26-28.jpgEach one faces God alone on judgement day so remember God will not ask about what the pastor told you. God demands account of your PERSONAL LIFE not the total social media number of followers, bank accounts, mansions, private jets, size of your family, your status, class, colour or race. Each person must share Gospel to DIRECT PEOPLE TO GOD IN CHRIST. The Church you attend or the denomination  is IRRELEVANT TO GOD. Letter to seven Churches in Bible warns Churches. Israel and Jewish people are ONE IN CHRIST JESUS to fulfill all God’s feasts, prophecies covenant promises.  Isaiah 27:6 says, God will cause them that come of Jacob to take root Israel shall blossom and bud to fill the face of the world with fruit. The people of Israel return from parts of the world  their ancestors dispersed take root. The land is blessed and people blessed in the world. Israel’s desert desolate is a major exporter of food to the world. The crops are major export by companies in Israel Isaiah predicted. Isaiah predicted in the Word of God over 2,600 years ago fruit of the land blessing Earth with physical food exported and fruits of God’s Word confirms by Holy Spirit in Christ Jesus. Matthew+1-22+To+Fulfill+What+Was+Spokne+By+The+Lord+Through+Prophets+red.jpg Zechariah says all nations on earth will come yearly to Israel to celebrate Feast of Tabernacles to worship LORD of Hosts. Zechariah 14:16. Isaiah points to road connecting Egypt to Assyria and through this area access road is being built called King’s Highway. Building a super highways links them with all the surrounding nations. These prophesies of Isaiah and Zechariah prepares way in advance in time for Messiah’s rule from His Throne in Israel. Jesus Rules whole Earth and all people will know God in the millennial kingdom in Israel after rapture and His second coming on earth after Armageddon. The land is prepared today to fulfil prophecy of Messiah Jesus as KING of Kings and Lord of lords. And above all countless multitudes of people of all nations, tribes, languages, colours, BELONGS TOGETHER IN HEAVEN AND LATER DWELL ON EARTH WITH GOD. God is not a respecter of persons to put any person above others by class, race, colour, wealth or status. Death is their leveller making all equal before God. No man is bigger or stronger than Jehovah God no matter how powerful they may feel in own eyes to inflate their ego.

A VIRGINITY CLOTH IN BIBLE

f5dc2606acdd56b91ff20ab382d4b558.jpgIn Deuteronomy 22:13-21 in Bible father presents evidence his daughter is virgin on her wedding night. This evidence is proved by “virginity cloth” shown to all elders and is kept by bride’s family. God instructed all families to do so to protect their daughters. The Bible says if after a man marries a virgin but in future tries to berate her virginity cloth is brought to REMIND him their virgin daughter was deflowered by him. The public sees cloth on wedding night as witnesses to testify if the husband tries to insult her family their daughter was not pure. In oral tradition societies the elders see it as proof so virginity cloth token testifies against the husband trying to put away his wife on the grounds she was not a virgin. They also fine that husband for blackmailing his wife and his in laws. In such communities if the man gets rid of  his wife with/out children they are seen as “second hand damaged” goods. Most men want only virgins to marry though they sow their wild oats creating double standards. These are men allowed to run wild but their women must be virgins. It is such double standards that makes those men want young children as wives considered pure and so young, not slept around. In communities where marriage was often the only way out for women to become productive members of society a father watches daughters 24/7 chaperoned by family to maintain the dignity of family not to disgrace the family honour. bible-ancient-jewish-marriage-chuppah-proof-of-virginity-cloth-canopy-bed-modern-jewish-wedding-ceremony.jpgTraditional societies DO NOT DATE they marry. Liberal societies promote right to sex from 16 years onwards by a mutual consent without MARRIAGE strange to traditional communities. Sex education in schools or social media culture online of people in different places have their opposing views. Liberals feel traditional societies deprive people of the freedom of choice to enjoy sex without strings. To traditional societies liberals seem as promiscuous so treating people as their objects of sexual gratification disposed of for another. So fathers watching their daughters seem cruel kill joy depriving daughter from exploring the varities of men to chose the right one as husband. Without understanding of this Biblical origin of virginity cloth token its easy to condemn or judge those exercising their Godly duty of care required to protect virgin daughters. Liberal secular society views it invasion of privacy of women but don’t realise it is a sound Biblical doctrine of God to protect all societies. Women not wanted after husbands take a younger trophy wives are abandoned. Children from families suffer neglect as consequence but society promotes free sex but does not support children born out of wedlock. Inadequately provided for and treated as second class citizens. Liberal promote indulgence free sex but not same zeal dedicated to taking care of the children treated as commodities.downloadfile-26.jpgA woman violated is forgiven by God so to be married to perpetrator because in such cultures nobody wants to marry her if her past is known. It was to teach men they could not get away from their trespassing to get married to another virgin. This was the case of Dina Jacob’s daughter when they tried to marry her but the family felt disrespected. Sought revenge instead in Genesis for rape and killed the men, destroyed whole village. Her violation by Shechem, Canaanite or Hivite prince is subsequent vengeance of her brothers Simeon and Levi. Rape of Dinah in Genesis 34:1-34 echoes the revenge killing by Absalom for rape of his sister Tamar by King David’s son her half brother Ammon. Tamar, tricked to bring food to eat was not married by him. Tamar raped in 2 Samuel 13:1-22 in Bible is daughter of King David. And Absalom killed Ammon in 2 Samuel 13-23-38 for rape by half-brother Amnon two years later. Absalom at Baal Hazor near border of Ephraim invited all the king’s sons to come there with Ammon killed at the party. Absalom Hebrew: אַבְשָלוֹם, Avshalom, “father of peace,” in Bible, was third son of David, King of Israel with Maacah, daughter of Talmai, King of Geshur. 2 Samuel 14:25 says he is most handsome man in the kingdom. Societies that practice the virginity cloth Biblical tradition exist today so keep the cloth just in case its needed as proof. ca676458e30c312f3641b8f343900764.jpgIn Deuteronomy 22:17 it’s evidence used to challenge a husband discrediting her family. When he goes around saying she is not a virgin so wants to divorce her a family brings the tokens of a daughter’s virginity. And spreads the cloth before elders of the city. The words in verses 14, 17 and 18 bətûlîm “is an evidence of virginity” is from bətûlâ, “virgin” in 19 describing woman as evidenced. These custom retains their blood-stained sheet cloth from bed marriage consummated. The blood dam betulim “proves” bride’s virginity breaking hymen. When the groom accuses his bride of not being a virgin at time of marriage responsibility for defending her is her parent’s giving her in marriage. If family claims she is a virgin then blood-stained sheet bətûlîm  is their evidence of defense. Traditional societies, where girls do not do rigorous activities of riding a bicycle or sports of horseriding expects girls to be virgins so practice virginity cloth token. Some men demand that only the virgin wives good for kings or specific religious leaders. Since everybody is born a virgin its practiced by betrothed children so both families work together until both old enough to marry later as adults. Liberals find practice revolting as abuse of human rights but works for the societies that maintain tradition to marry not to date. Liberal or traditional stance against challenges of marriages works for each society’s own context.downloadfile-52.jpgGlobalised enforced liberal secular view contradict God’s laws practiced in some traditional regions of the world. Despite their freedom of choice to have free sex as one pleases, whenever one wants, by any person chosen, its not Biblical. And there’s in NO SET AGE BY GOD IN BIBLE to indulge in free sex without marriage. God is the author and the originator of marriage although the world had own views, opinions and its ways. It is very important to educate people God treats human body as HIS Holy Holy Temple for HIS Spirit to dwell in. God demands keeping HIS laws though secular people do not feel bound by Godly laws. But a day will come God will demand sccojbt whether one is religious or secular God the creator of all human beings is going to huff all people one day. Alhough the human laws enable people to indulge freely in sex to break hymen of virgins as they please,  girls are God’s property so God will judge abuse of children for fun and freshly gratification. Virgins are mocked or treated as weirdos for being righteous but that is how God created all people. Bible says there will come a time people will ridicule others calling evil ‘good’ and calling good ‘evil.’  The young people must be taught to know and understand God’s laws not just one sided laws enabling perverts to take the advantage of such naive children in the Name of love. Some take delight hurting children to rape them as a sign of power but this is not Biblical from God’s point view. Sin is like a credit card, enjoy now pay later. God sees secret things and HE is Judge to account to in future one day.downloadfile-55.jpg

Leviticus 21:13: ‘He shall take a wife in her virginity.

Deuteronomy 22:15: The girl’s father and mother must bring proof of a girl’s virginity to elders of the city at the gate.

1 Corinthians 7:37: He who stands firm in his heart has authority over his own will to decide in his heart to keep his  own virgin daughter virgin, does well.
Exodus 22:16:If a man seduces a virgin not engaged and has sex with her he must pay a dowry for her to be his wife.
Deuteronomy 22:23:If a girl is a virgin not engaged to a man and another man in city lies with her, he must marry her.
Revelation 14:4: These virgins undefiled by women kept themselves chaste and follow the Lamb where He goes. Are the redeemed first fruits to God and Lamb.
1 Corinthians 7:38 He who gives his own virgin daughter in marriage does well, he who does not give her in marriage does better to keep give her to God.
Deuteronomy 22:29: The man who lays with her must give the girl’s father fifty shekels of silver and she becomes his wife because he violated her; he cannot divorce her all his days.
1 Corinthians 7:28, If you marry, you do not sin and if a virgin marries, she has not sinned. But have such trouble in this life and I am trying to spare you.
1 Corinthians 7:25: Virgin is a command of the LORD, but opinion is by one who by the mercy of the Lord is trustworthy.
Deuteronomy 22:13:If any man takes a virgin wife and goes in to her and then turns against her, the family must bring her virginity cloth token as proof.
Deuteronomy 22:28:If he finds girl who is a virgin not engaged, seizes her and lies with her he must marry her for life.downloadfile-46.jpgDeuteronomy 22:21:The girl in doorway of her father’s house the men of her city shall stone her to death because she has committed act of folly in Israel playing harlot in her father’s house; Purge the evil from among you. (Pressure on girls to RESIST rape not to expose themselves to opportunistic vultures waiting to take advantage of them. Fathers feel need to protect her from bad company because her presence misinterpreted as consent)
Deuteronomy 22:17: If he accuses her of with shameful deeds, saying, “I did not find your daughter a virgin.” Use this evidence of your daughter’s virginity to spread garment before elders of the city.

1 Corinthians 7:36: If a man acts toward his virgin FIANCEE PAST HER YOUTH as an adult let them marry. For deliberate delays of parent’s demands of dowry to cause to fall into sin of fornication by a father or guardian fiance can do what he wants but not sinned. If he thinks he is being sabotaged delayed to suffer MARRY her neither breaks law of God. Parents to support couples not frustrate them by lavish unnecessary competition to show off wealth. The word of God on advice of the apostle is its much better to marry than burn to be exposed to any snare and temptations to break up. This is not a licensed excuse to fornicate.deut22.jpgJeremiah 31:21: Set up guideposts direct your mind to highway you went. Return O virgin of Israel, Return to your cities.

Leviticus 21:14: A widow or a divorced woman profaned by harlotry he must not take but marry virgin of his people.
Matthew 1:23: A VIRGIN CONCEIVE A CHILD TO BEAR A SON AND CALL HIS NAME IMMANUEL GOD WITH US.”
Judges 11:37: She said to her father, “Let this be done to me after two months in mountain to weep for my virginity I and my companions.”
Jeremiah 31:4: I will build you and you will be rebuilt, O virgin of Israel! Again you will take up your tambourines, And go forth to dances of the merrymakers.
Isaiah 7:14:The LORD HIMSELF will give you a sign: Behold, a virgin will be with child and bear a son called Emmanuel.
Luke 2:36: Prophetess Anna daughter of Phanuel of tribe of Asher advanced in years and had lived with her husband seven years after marriage saw Jesus.
Leviticus 21:3: The virgin sister without a husband must not be defiled. God told Moses:“Tell priests, sons of Aaron not ritually contaminate himself by raping virgins in the Temple. It was the reason Hophni and Phinehas sons of Eli, High priest were killed in battle defeated by Philistines for practicing idol Temple prostitution with disregard for God’s portion of sacrifices from worshippers.13327785574_ab0ec56cc4_z.jpgc48f918cbc9d109bdc98e1bb46b46339.jpg
Judges 11:38 He said, “Go.” So sent her away for two months; and she left with her companions and wept on mountain because of her virginity and loss of life.
Isaiah 62:5: As a young man marries a virgin your sons will marry you; As the bridegroom rejoices over bride, So God will rejoice over you.
Amos 5:2: She has fallen, will not rise as virgin Israel lies neglected on her land; There is none to raise her up until later.
Deuteronomy 22:20: If the charge is true the girl was not virgin as claimed by her divorce her.
Proverbs 30:19: The way of eagle in sky, a serpent on a rock or ship in middle of the sea so is way of man with a virgin.
Psalm 45:14: Like virgin wife to King in embroidered garments her companions following her your wife brought to you.
Judges 19:24: Take my virgin daughter and his concubine. Let me bring them to you to do what you wish. Do not commit act of folly against this holy man of God.
1 Kings 1:1: King David, old advanced in age covered him with clothes but virgin  brought to keep him warm.
Ezekiel 23:3: Played harlot in Egypt and played harlot in their youth so breasts pressed and virgin bosom was handled.
Matthew 1:18: Birth of Jesus Christ by mother Mary betrothed to Joseph before found with child by the Holy Spirit.

2 Samuel 13:18: She wore a long-sleeved garment as a virgin daughter of a king dressed in robes. His attendant took her out and locked the door behind her. So Tamar raped is rejected by Ammon and this infuriates Absalom to kill Ammon.5493.jpg

SITUATIONS+AND+REGULATIONS.jpgJeremiah 46:11: Go to Gilead for balm, O virgin daughter of Egypt, you multiplied remedies but your healing is from God.
2 Corinthians 11:2: I am jealous for you with Godly jealousy; for I betrothed you to one husband, Christ as a pure virgin.(Those  feeling defiled YOU ARE A PURE VIRGIN TO GOD JESUS BLOOD CLEANS.
Jeremiah 18:13: The LORD, ‘Asks among the nations, Who ever heard? The virgin of Israel did appalling thing of idolatory.
Isaiah 37:22 The word the LORD spoke against him: “She despised and mocked virgin daughter of Zion shaken her head behind you, daughter of Jerusalem.
Job 31:1: I made covenant with my eyes not to gaze and lust after virgins.
1 Corinthians 7:34: Married’s interest is divided but unmarried virgin concerns her life with things of the LORD. Is holy in body and spirit married is concerned about things of the world to please her husband.

 

SAUL’S 1ST BIBLE MARATHON

Bible-Marathon.jpgA man of the tribe Benjamin ran from a battle line to Shiloh same day with his clothes torn and dust on his head in 1 Samuel 4:12. The young King Saul in c. 1050 – 1012 BCE ran 42 km from Eben Ezra renamed Rosh Ha’ayin to Shiloh, to inform the high priest of 30,000 Jewish soldiers killed including the two sons of the High Priest and the Ark of Covenant taken. Forty-two kilometers is length of the Olympic marathon in 1908 London Olympic Games. The second Marathon was ran by Pheidippides to Athens of a victory his people over Persia, 490 BCE. This first Bible marathon in Bible by a Benjamin man running through hills of the Binyamin region in the West Bank is a great landmark event in the history of Israel after Exodus from Egypt. The land is named after each tribe confirms man from “tribe of Benjamin” region ancient map of Israel. Bible says wherever soles of our feet touch is for inheritance of a chosen people for God’s GLORY. Full 42 kilometers marathon run by Saul is the accomplishment of completing running like the race of salvation. Israel’s Bible Marathon is evidence of history of land recorded by people in the State of Israel.Untitled-2-copy.jpgGod told Samuel sons of the High Priest will perish treating God’s sacrifice with disdain for harassing women in Temple. Israel fought losing battle so Philistines  defeated them, every man fled to his tent in 1 Samuel 4:10. 30,000 Israelites were killed in battle including Hophni and Phinehas the two sons of Eli, high priest serving at Shiloh. Philistines captured the Ark of Covenant so the Saul young Benjaminite raced from the battlefield to Tabernacle to bring news of defeat to the prophet Samuel. “Then a man of Benjamin ran from battle line the same day, came to Shiloh with his clothes torn and dirt on his head” in 1 Samuel 4 : 12. The distance between the battlefield in Even Ezer to Shiloh is 42 kilometers and 26 miles official length of Olympic marathon. This is why the race reenacts the passage from 1 Samuel 4 hosting the this first Bible Marathon in Jerusalem. maxresdefault.jpgRunners take off to the sound of shofar, accompanied by musicians, dressed in white biblical clothing, togas, sandals and cloth head dresses. The finish line, looks over ancient city gate, a cheering squad greets with beat of goblet drums, shofar blasts, flutes or harps. The clay  medals of the top three winners in each race inscribed clay pitcher for a trophy. Finish line of ancient Shiloh Hakeduma is a site archaeologists searching Ark of Covenant. Shiloh was a religious capital of Israel for 369 years, after conquest of Canaan till King David made Jerusalem eternal capital of Jewish nation. Shiloh was the longest standing Jewish capital before City of Jerusalem. It is believed Ark once stood there in ancient history and so running Marathon is running through history. At the top of hill is the entire course of magnificent views seen of Israel’s paranomic beautiful horizon. The rocky hill is green with olive trees and vineyards like True Vine Messiah in bible prophecy who once walked on the streets of the Jewish homeland. It gives hope and assurance to people to run the race to keep going kilometers of eternal life to win the prize in Saul’s footsteps.BIBLE-LOGO.jpgSilence of cordoned off areas protect the runners but Jewish settlement of Eli or Ma’ale Levona families lined routes clap racers to Sinjil and Qaryut is quiet. Jesus on donkey to Jerusalem people lined the streets will return for the Armageddon battle in victory. Bible Marathon is an international recognition of land Israel God gave all nations beyond boundaries of State of Israel, partakers of Covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob fulfilled in Jesus. The Israel Marathon Association managing race for Benjamin Regional Council, preserves history of Saul’s race. The Bible Marathon though not listed in AIM’s race directory of Jerusalem, Dead Sea, Eilat, Tel Aviv, Sea of Galilee races is kept alive by efforts of the runners. In the last four years since inception keeps the Benjamin tribe history in focus. The Maccabiah games, Yosef Yekutieli, tried to launch Bible Marathon after Israel won 1967 Six Day War but was not safe. It faces challenges of communication so multiple runners can start early on time from starting line information to collect numbers needed to run. The 10k racers merge with a half marathoners around kilometer 15 to finish line. Like Saul ran in biblical footsteps many partakers are retracing living history of Israel. So clay prizes are appropriate claim to preserve land as a constant reminder for God to intervene for the Peace of Jerusalem.

CHOCOLATE COCOA HISTORY

1570957965885497972497589516589.jpgChocolate cocoa history dates to 450 BC. when the Aztecs in Latin America were seen fermenting cocoa seeds made into powder and drunk bitter. The seeds had so much value it was used as currency. Westerners observed them and tasted it but added sugar to sweeten cocoa drink. 20191013_101929.jpg20191012_223843.jpg20191012_223613.jpgTetteh Quashie from Ghana brought the cocoa seeds to Gold Coast and thrived so became a global commodity exported. A tropical temperature suited cocoa best it flourishes in Ghana, Ivory Coast and in Nigeria exported into Western countries Belgium, Britain Cadbury World, Nestle of Switzerland among top 15 countries. 15709666448414663460037240615432.jpgIn 1591 the first transatlantic chocolate cocoa reached Spain turns into popular product as demand grew. The cocoa tree planted from seeds grown is harvested by difficult process by slaves used in its production. History of cocoa process of industrialization of chocolate used slave labour on plantations to supply world with cocoa beans to make chocolate. international_chocolate_organizations_bg.pngThe islands of São Tomé and Príncipe a then colony of Portugal and West Africa archipelago were first to cultivate cocoa among the world’s largest producers in the 20thcentury. The increasing demand from Europe cleared more acres of this plantations. Slaves from Angola of more settlers and more machinery increased supply chain of cocoa and chocolates.15709669144015420792004222029435.jpgscreen-shot-2015-03-12-at-7-45-58-pm.pngThe British Journalist Henry Nevinson documented plight of plantation slaves in articles, magazines and book Modern Slavery published in 1906 in a Harpers Monthly Magazine.“A long line of men and women at intervals of about a yard, were clearing plantation. ..To the back of every woman clung an infant’s head lay between her shoulders, bumped against her back as she struck hoe in the ground.15709668577338478487483041897377.jpgscreen-shot-2015-03-12-at-7-11-13-pm.pngFive or six yards behind them officers stood, white men, or three parts white, dressed in traditional planter style of big hat, white shirt, and loose trousers. Each carried an eight foot stick of hard wood, whitewood, pointed at ends” Nevinson’s work included numerous photographs, descriptions of the working conditions that fueled controversy in Great Britain.1570959284218922480331549334500.jpg1570913992381271102547401987556.jpg15709140345921898763941735144302.jpg15709577132403422594441858102305.jpg15709576587538243842794166318413.jpg157095762463894220843834516828.jpgwp-1570973939028.jpgwp-1570975857142.jpg15709616753066208273275664093074.jpg1570957416522359261156549676512.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0001.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0004.jpg20191012_223727.jpg20191012_224622.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0006.jpgDespite attention to business practices of Cadbury company of Great Britain as biggest owner then of these plantations manufactured chocolates. It publicised situation, shows complicated network dodges blame. Public pressure results in government intervention investigations court case. Cadbury stopped purchasing from São Tomé and Príncipe tranferred the cocoa plantations into West Africa.15709589640531476278166812542906.jpgwp-1570974378415.jpgwp-1570974323215.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0008.jpg15709581362018921958481800225620.jpg15709601948667178737729845178804.jpg15709574448313460189514792968319.jpg15709580230053693676271048576345.jpg15709580965951627154621136725728.jpg15709580676498724700736445595630.jpg1570958672381763599102141026146.jpg20191012_223649.jpgDespite official abolition of slavery the slaves were transported another 400 years and ongoing in parts of the world. In 2001, slave ship MV Etireno carrying several hundred children from Benin were reported missing refused entry to Gabon and Cameroon rescued children. 15709609201355720542936295948445.jpgUNICEF becomes involved investigating reveals slave trafficking operation links West Africa in Ivory Coast. Ivory Coast is the world’s largest supplier of cocoa beans provide 43 % of world’s supply. IMG-20191013-WA0003.jpg15709610769421398615502886880121.jpg15709612150727871124352297305669.jpg15709610018138559175942143094065.jpg15709613775144636840332272573726.jpg15709616191443179012462901860512.jpgThe 600,000 cocoa farms in Ivory Coast account for one-third of nation’s entire economy half the world’s supply for chocolate trade. Most people who are trafficked tricked and lied to with fantastic job prospects with good pecks assured. Find themselves enslaved and victims abused by such traffickers.15709127031975255928808816704229.jpg15709122732244232830728597531413.jpgIMG-20191012-WA0007.jpg
15709125937671682014492957299521.jpg15709124083746362380166338486847.jpg1570912315162438997010313738705.jpg15709152571901898279892588286755.jpg15709152270256971228287323585406.jpg15709151587383094067555383762175.jpg15709151843573151428979682105142.jpg15709143369542848624500990035780.jpgwp-1570979760414.jpg15709137549442769275504908743346.jpg15709150777064823325467641070824.jpg15709124520911926464681554713213.jpg1570912497702511151652750979082.jpg15709149649204204772370625945755.jpg15709149883824262627048778293816.jpgHuman trafficking and child slavery in cocoa and chocolate industry continues today. The Freedom Project investigated series by CNN broadcasted on chocolate industry and government of Ivory Coast address modern slavery in plantations.15709138939523342688749804279542.jpg1570991586829225328139591335123.jpg15709915420956794392330243494243.jpgcacao_photo_8-498x327.jpg15709917056801320040547398428411.jpg15709916241188296576054514775087.jpg15709940654191196607743158215198.jpg1570914640871285281432986836431.jpg15709963627551472745859322635130.jpg15709938622796684368964997672713.jpg15709940303113896639172690823035.jpg15709937734724174395920450358998.jpgwp-1570994671869.jpgwp-1571007286187.jpg15710070494287827044677125274229.jpg15709974957951724047021802272273.jpg15709941748594251023928542528722.jpg15709949682263479862376989604565.jpgwp-1570996871409.jpg15710077035061774160667874051637.jpgwp-1570996769232.jpgwp-1570997036473.jpgwp-1570997695826.jpgChildren at seven years old are working harvesting cocoa pods and beans for the sweet chocolate delicacies of Western people. Education is not compulsory in some countries and due to school fees so many cannot afford to pay. Therefore children work family business to gain skills even if illiterate become farmers.  15709145074994809227748061131838.jpg15709142467478737125626412808158.jpg15709139495294799173970323903708.jpg15709144649192665944281729331706.jpg15709146612125841173579566817033.jpg1570914213505158368728100696923.jpg15709147119983881069686190393130.jpg15709143857771503011103315736757.jpg15709147788696943767045855007937.jpgCNN report felt public must know about it to take action and to stop it, said Iowa Sen. Tom Harkin with Rep. Eliot Engel of New York in response: “How many people know the wonderful chocolates they eat are produced by child labour.15709123579155304010273066167215.jpg15709136806434425289464165586051.jpgIMG-20191012-WA0008.jpgIMG-20191012-WA0010.jpg15709129827953101181712330669658.jpg15709135207818673941076417422835.jpg15709131505218483977154594437069.jpg15709133791519192219027226466769.jpg15709132986567961157504701423115.jpgAgreed a voluntary protocol signed by heads of chocolate industry to stop child labour to certify the cocoa trade as child labour free. The working conditions in cocoa growing bring awareness of a fair trade by consumers. A researcher noted lack of evidence of ethical consumption among end-user improved situations of the child workers on West African cocoa farms. All to consider and ask questions of origins of food and conditions food is produced in. This concerns of safety of well being of those who produce food in Western countries ensures West African cocoa growers and harvesters and other workers globally afforded same rights.

BLACK EYE PEAS & COWPEAS

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PALM OIL’S WORLD HISTORY

15706519201323376503804768971247.jpgThe palm kernel is the edible seed of the oil palm fruit. The fruit yields two distinct oils: palm oil derived from the outer parts of the fruit, and palm kernel oil derived from kernel. Four types of products from palm fruits are palm oil palm kennel oil, palm kernel husk or fibre, palm kernel sludge and palm kernel shell crushed used as a biofuel from palm kernel nuts. The production of fats and oils from vegetable sources is the process of extraction of vegetable oils, pulp oils produced close to location of oil fruit tree. Pre-treatment of a palm fruit is cooked and the fruit is separated from bunch stalk. The oil is extracted by pressing, stirring by hand centrifuged.15706522931853525998838418182285.jpg The extracted pressed oils can be used for cooking and dried and pulp used as combustible material. Red Palm Oil in a semi solid state at room temperature is turned liquid at a warm temperature of the body and reduces build up of artery clogging plaques. Substituting other fats and oils for Red Palm Oil reduces bad cholesterol. Only 2 tablespoons full of a Red Palm Oil a day needed to benefit from healthy positive effects. Too much greasy oil food causes bad cholesterol15706518941072910073924305563785.jpg15706523259017526720814455555611.jpgRed edible palm oil is a very nutritious cooking oil is used by West Africans for years. It is known for the high contents of Vitamin E with more distinctive anti-oxidant benefits for our health. Palm oil is the flag ship product for export since 1950’s for the West Africans in diaspora as niche product. The benefits of edible palm oil provides the energy needed for production of palm kernel oil process yields used edible fats, soaps candles.15706540375737277640299754569592.jpgPalm oil is used for cooking oil, soaps, candles, margarines, candy. A healthy conscious people concerned about an atherosclerosis stay away from foods rich in saturated fats. Palm is used in confectionery, pharmaceutical, perfume industries. The pulp left after oil from the kernel is formed into “palm kernel cake” fibre used as high-protein feed for dairy cattle or burned in their boilers to generate electricity for palm oil mills or surrounding villages. Palm oil is mixed with clay straw built castles in places.15706566006917909993720545286503.jpgPalm oil vegetable oil is grouped into a category broadly as follows.  Seed oils from palm oil germ fibre are used after extracting palm oil and palm kernel oils. Palm fruit oil and palm kennel oil both as the world’s most produced oil. Palm oil is forecast is world’s most produced and internationally traded edible oil.
Apart from being use as cooking oil, Palm Oil also found in an astonishing range of processed foods and cosmetics.15706535105222023988644772620506.jpgSupermarket products contains palm oil as part . Engineers targeting for the use of agro fuels in Europe, China or North America are making palm oil a hotter commodity. Palm Oil is used to produce biodiesel. Manual processing of palm oil for centuries takes place globally. Whole villages are known for palm plantation and palm oil production globally. Their community has abundant palm trees so palm products plays prominent roles. 15706534817468219236276730459932.jpg15706530089714150645542904436474.jpgThe palm fruit is sold in market used in  the traditional method palm oil is done by hand involving many people. It is a long process from harvest of palm fruit to finished products. Millions of people use traditional processing to make palm oil. Authentic original palm processing boils, pounds fruits separated from the kennel seeds and the fibre. The husk is compressed and used as fire enhancer or straws to build castles by the Whites.15706531091386308259624896540580.jpg15706531760656801411446369805901.jpg15706530414433115345172981072350.jpg15706531995623200291729606335389.jpgThe villagers work in teams together to ensure palm oil is processed on time to keep its excellent quality in a fresh good condition. Machines are introduced to combine with these manual processing of many small scale industries. A latest developed palm fruit processing gadget technology modified mechanical palm oil or kernel extraction process today. It involves separation of the digested fruit mash to palm oil and palm nut. Pressed separated pulp from palm oil extraction is used as mosquito repellent in villages smoke filled room.15706520386074640352914106555652.jpg1570652107303863022797526537226.jpg15706530796525622755470493684892.jpgIMG_20191009_33609157065240247048307681822970888.jpg15707214469164325242281493055369.jpg15706524548056509202359592381041.jpg15706536775917976862947626024117.jpg15706529199191633090186054712202.jpgIMG-20191009-WA0005.jpg15706541448975660841913415108193.jpg1570652805915565624425964344295.jpg15706527581207076161408861407956.jpg15706526981953949071761727145106.jpg15706527299768024498615894087837.jpg15706533668134575461850538961457.jpg15706534482774496658163521283835.jpg15706536318227273062163711658922.jpg15706532975257879326069220296981.jpg15707217991351440742699380060086.jpg15706529686738958575593995054697.jpg15706534197847985349839654719709.jpg15706526480467103743540190144892.jpgDried palm kennel nuts cracked open is processed into palm kennel oil. Kennel shell is used for firewood or charcoal by blacksmiths and for cooking in a hearth fireplace. Often some Palm trees grow for many years until it is so tall climbed by expert tree climbers for harvest. The palm fruit is also processed cold press or raw palm fruits used. Palm oil from a raw palm fruit is not as tasty as a boiled palmfruit. Adds special seasoning spices or herbs to enhance the aroma flavour of cooked palm oil. Then cooked dregs are filtered and eaten as a palm oil dip with yams, cassava cocoa, plantain. And the highly nutritious oil full of vitamins. The purified oil is sold to many people globally. Raw palm oil enhanced to taste by frying onions, spices to make stews. 15706538512988308734538781915767.jpg1570653819111760165957753334812.jpg15706546687118507060490957611929.jpg15707216018576220598925542783709.jpgPalm oil is used in many recipes and is popular globally. The kernel cake is also used in ovens to cook food. Palm kernel cake is produced by economical screw press, less than more expensive solvent extraction. It is processed by small scale industries or the home made equipment from scrap metal pressed, using stones to weight it down. The compact fibre is used under plants to protect from heat, drought to moisten soil. Oil palm is big business. Palm kernel cake high-fibre is medium grade protein feed by product of palm oil ruminants. Fodders of palm kernel cake is ranked little higher than cake and husk. Composed of 16% fiber, palm kernel cake has high phosphorus to calcium ratio and contains essential elements as magnesium, iron or zinc.  The typical ration formulated for the feeding of dairy cattle consists of palm kernel cake (50%), molasses (5%), grass hay (42%), limestone (1.5%), mineral premix (1%), and salt (0.5%), with trace element/vitamin premix.20191009_215250.jpgOil palm fibre is equivalent to coconut fiber at competitive price. Oil palm fiber non-hazardous biodegradable material extracted from oil palm’s empty fruit bunch (EFB) through uses decortation process. The fibers are clean and non-carcinogenic, free from pesticides and soft parenchyma cells. Palm fibres are versatile, stable processed into various dimensional grades to suit the specific applications such as mattress cushion production, erosion control and for soil stabilization / compaction, landscaping, horticulture, ceramic used in the brick manufacturing, thermoplastic filler, flat board manufacturing, paper production acoustics control, livestock care, and is a compost or fertilizer, animal feed, etc. IMG-20191009-WA0006.jpgSumptuous palm fruit soup recipes are major meals eaten with fufu, banku or gari, Kenkey. By product of Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) are used for Wood plastic Medium Density Fibre board (MDF), for Erosion control, landscaping. Leading producers of palm oil in world oil palm fiber abundantly resources. Oil palm fiber used in different areas common usage is in asphalt mixes. The Oil Palm Fiber is extracted from the palm oil vascular bundles in empty fruit bunch (EFB). In the manufacturing process of Palm Fiber, EFB shredded, separated, refined and dried. The manufacturing process does not involve any chemical reaction or exposure so material clean so non-toxic. Economic environmental benefits tapped from oil palm industry waste for Energy and Green Technology. Right innovative technology potential in generating electricity with the economic and environmental benefits from biogas and biomass. Palm Oil Mills earn money converting biomass EFB to higher-value renewable fuels chemicals, reducing greenhouse gas emissions.1570653699384258625274659884593.jpgPalm fruit bunches (FFB) are processed raw uncooked as soon as possible after cutting down from the trees to prevent rapid rise in free fatty acids (FFA) affect quality of crude palm oil (CPO). Palm oil mills located in the plantations facilitate timely transportation effective processing of FFB. Palm oil mills located in palm oil milling process of physical extraction of palm products crude palm oil, palm kernel from FFB. The process begins with sterilization of the FFB. The fruit bunches steamed in pressurized vessels and fatty acids prepared fruits for sub-processing. Bunches stripped of fruit in rotating drum thresher stripped bunches or empty fruit bunches (EFB) transported to plantation for mulching so fruits conveyed to press digesters.15706539370591606996776675537061.jpgPalm fruits heated using live steam and is stirred to loosen oil-bearing mesocarp from the nuts to break open the oil cells in the mesocarp. The mash is pressed to extract oil by means of screw presses so the pressed cake is conveyed to kernel plant and kernels are recovered. The oil from the press is diluted and pumped to vertical clarifier tanks. The clarified oil is fed to the purifiers to remove dirt and moisture dried in the vacuum drier. The clean dry oil is ready for storage and is despatched. The sludge from clarifier sediment is fed into a bowl centrifuged for further oil recovery. The recovered oil is recycled to clarifiers so the water / sludge Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is treated in effluent treatment plant (ETP) further. The press cake is conveyed to depericarper where the fiber and nuts are separated. Fiber is burned as fuel in boiler to generate steam as nuts cracked shell and kernel separated by winnower and hydro-cyclone. Then clean kernels are dried prior to storage for oil later.15706522666875080660915981808681.jpgPalm oil production in metric tons of oil by industries and small-scale processors contribute to 60% crude of the palm oil production. Most countries are not self-sufficient in fats and oils for industrial consumption. The palm oil produced by small-scale processors are utilized by the larger scale industries explored and causes identified the way to address the situation assessed. And the practices of small-scale oil palm fruit processors has shown storage of palm fruits for a long period before boiling. Then disposed of effluent into drains using spent tyres for boiling fruits clarification of oil. 54% of processors store palm fruits weeks by processing, fermentation, to increase extractability and reduce labour costs. Storage period of quality affect quantity of seasonal oil content of oil palm fruits. Innovation in small-scale oil palm fruit processing will improve quality of life.15706517110758696765975411672584.jpgThe history of palm oil production dates back thousands of years, with the oldest record of its use from 3,000 BC. In late 1800s archaeologists discovered palm oil in a tomb located in Abydos, Egypt. It is believed Arab traders brought the oil to Egypt. A fresh fruit bunch (FFB). The variety shown in this picture is called Tenera. Palm oil is extracted from each of the individual fruits contained on the bunch. In 3.000 BC the mass of several kilograms of palm oil found in a vessel enclosed in a tomb at Abydos. In Middle 15th Century written records of palm oil used as a local food source by European travelers to West Africa. By 16th & 17th Century red palm oil an important item in the developing trade network used in supplying caravans or ships of Atlantic slave trade. In the 18th Century British industrial revolution created a palm oil demand for candle-making or lubricant for machines supplied by exports from West Africa. In 19th Century European run plantations set up in Central Africa and Southeast Asia traded the palm oil.15706539056746807580998390183146.jpgIn 1902 Germans invested in Cameroon after the discovery of the Tenera breed of palm oil. This high-yielding breed is used today in large-scale plantations. In  1910 Palm oil introduced to Malaysia by a Scotsman named William Sime and an Englishman Henry Darby. Between 1940 and 1960 technological improvement in edible oil refining and transport driven use of unrefined unhydrogenated palm oil in western foods. 1970-1990 Malaysia emerged as the worlds largest palm oil producer. By 1990 global production of palm oil reached more than 11 million metric tonnes. Palm oil primary source of dietary fat for countless people has nutritional and healing properties.15707025711802215076446866121332.jpg 15707023867614656298759665449622.jpgIt is recognised for generations till modern medicine arrived. Red palm oil was the remedy of choice for nearly all illness in many parts of Africa. If someone is sick they drank a cup full of palm oil. Many people in villages rely on such age-old method of treatment. And Palm oil is regarded essential diet for pregnant and nursing women for assured good health of mother and child. Scientists recognise value of red palm oil in treatment or prevention of diseases. Scientific presentation International Conference Centre Birmingham Biomedical Science Congress, Dr. Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju, Department, Biomedical Sciences, said. Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University, Technology, Bellville Campus, South Africa further elucidated potential of red palm oil in moderation in the healing process body.1570653776803564907221306921431.jpg

Scientifically palm oil Elaeis Guineensis is super abundantly used in West Africa. Archaeological evidence on the palm oil consumption was found in Egypt over 5000 years ago. Essentially contains rich naturally balanced mixture of saturated monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats providing high level of bioavaliable nutrients than other vegetable sources. Like coconut, olive oil, palm oil is rich in medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), that mobilise body fat stores,increasing the metabolic rate as great source of energy. Palm oil is a rich source of antioxidants, especially Vitamin E. Health benefits of Vitamin E are known but Vitamin E has a complex constituents broken into the two groups of: tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) and the tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). While alpha tocopherol form most commonly marketed as Vitamin E, full spectrum of tocoperols and tocotrienols are required for optimal assimilation. And the super-antioxidant tocotrienols are important for optimal health. Natural antioxidants free radical plays the protective role in cellular aging, atherosclerosis, cancer, arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease.15706537529773419511003640038535.jpgResearchers believe the tocopherols and tocotrienols together provide necessary constituents to help limit damage from heart attack. Red palm oil supplies fatty acids essential for proper growth and development packed with assortment of vitamins, antioxidants, phytonutrients important for good health. So red colour comes from carotenes or beta-carotene and lycopene nutrients in tomatoes and carrots, other fruits, vegetables rich red and orange colours. Carotene’s valuable nutrients and powerful antioxidants are important because body converts into Vitamin A essential nutrient. Vitamin A deficiency can cause blindness, weaken bones, lower immunity, affect learning ability and mental function. Vitamin A in animal foods expensive some vegans want ban or cruelty in animal habitats.15707025212438153787872091408675.jpg 15707023009553670867157174083217.jpg15707023485737659382483707018386.jpg15707176753381643729453294235136.jpgwp-1570741499587.jpgIMG-20191010-WA0005.jpgIMG-20191010-WA0003.jpg15707183188916186410944286321541.jpg20191010_152936.jpgIMG-20191010-WA0004.jpg15707178683191311551244837819910.jpg15707179328823524300200961852299.jpg15707182551946714893949256711393.jpgIMG-20191009-WA0004.jpg15707180654631981086166843417443.jpg15707211799281650153418785419437.jpg15707249146877329145770675166689.jpg15707250221878825410605637871063.jpg1570724333720225742802031718484.jpg20191010_171100.jpgwp-1570727828248.jpgwp-1570727791770.jpg15707239639317669594999625097790.jpg15707266362638432679305406668006.jpg15707268852772449390352852451927.jpg1570726148206947713565204450155.jpg15707270696093181152666151376351.jpgCarotenes in fruits and palm vegetables supply needed Vitamin A in adequate amount of the fat consumed. Carotenes fat converted into Vitamin A. People need healthy product palm fat in small doses. Around 90% of palm oil is used in food culinary purposes in the cosmetics, shampoos and soaps. Palm oil popular biofuel. Traditional African medicine uses these Elaeis guineensis as laxative stimulates production of urine, poison antidote, can cure gonorrhoea, treat skin infection. But not harmless as studies link palm oil to cardiovascular diseases. To produce palm oil the fruit is collected from trees, which live average of 28 to 30 year. If trees grow too high it is difficult to reach fruit so cut down to make room for new trees contributing to the deforestation of the rainforests.20191012_105325.jpgPalm nut fiber separator machine and the palm fiber polishing machine called palm nut fibre separator machine.The palm nut fibre separator machine is an inclined cylindrical revolving machine used for separating the palm nuts from fibers. These palm nut fibre separators machine have screens in various sizes from which fibers escape, leaving nuts behind. The separated nuts are collected in cylindrical screen and bottom. Work principle of palm nut fiber separator machine: The palm nut fiber separator machine inclined cylindrical revolving machine heaves all around suitable size screen from fibres but palm nuts do not escape. Travelling mixture from upper end to lower end of the machine fibres escape from cylindrical screen as palm nuts are collected from the lower end of the nut fibre separator.20191012_105224.jpgPalm nut fiber separator is produced by Henan Doing Company to sell to small scale industries. Larger and heavier duty industrial machines exist churning tons if palm fibre in the processing of pal oil.  Fibres are used in the boiler as fuel. Palm nuts are sold out to palm kernel oil mill where they crack palm nuts to get palm kernels extract so palm kernels used for palm kernel oil.20191012_105131.jpgPalm nuts are used in a palm kernel oil mill plant for extracting palm kernel oil. Palm kernel cracked, separated by machine cleaning crushing, cooking and pressing. Small scale palm oil mill plant palm nut fiber separator machine is dispensable. Those who want to get palm kernel oil expand production with enough budget can buy palm nut fiber separator machine. Palm kernel cracking and separating machine.20191012_105017.jpgPalm nut fibre separator machine is a next process palm kernel oil processing machine for palm kernel cracking and separating machine. This palm kernel cracking and separating machine is also specially and newly developed to be used for cracking and separating palm nuts. It consists of palm nuts cracking machine, palm nuts kernel separator machine. Palm nuts cracking machine is mainly applicable for dividing the palm kernels into the outer hard shell with high efficiency. The palm nuts kernel separating machine is for separating the palm nuts kernels from the cracked shells clearly and completely. Despite modern industrial developments of this technology majority of people still use ancient traditional harvesting of palm fruit and processing manually. Involves the whole family or a cooperative small scale industry in their communities. Yet some campaign to curb overuse of lands destroying habitats of over 200 species of animals. Professional palm kernel oil extraction machine palm kernel crusher and separator also reduce employment as fewer people needed compared to the manual process. Overall palm oil is a good investment if properly managed. The other side of the coin is tons of the one use only plastic container wastes if not recycled for other purposes. 

GOLD/GEM’S BLACK HISTORY

15703599427795849490005497582097.jpgDiamonds and golds are a variety of the precious fine elegant jewellery items of everyday or special occasion celebrated. Western Europeans value diamonds as investment of great significant interest to them. Gold and diamond gemstones exhanged plus slaves sold for cowries or empty bottle glass beads during slave trade in Africa. Europeans travelled to the Maldives to harvest cowries filled with ships to West African Coast as currency for trade. The glass bottles are shipped to West Africa, grinded for making beads in exchange for the diamonds, gold and the slaves.15703593971038371000270296116611.jpg IMG-20191006-WA0004.jpg15703596092627729972377068231247.jpg15703594510032028393125005315779.jpgIMG-20191006-WA0003.jpgA bizarre exchange took place whereby two waste products as cowrie shells and empty glass bottles recycled to Africa in exchange for gold,  diamond and slaves. A deeper reflection of precious priceless treasures of gold, diamond and slaves in unfair exchange of cowry, glass bottles.15703601079021629804224632030148.jpgIMG-20191006-WA0005.jpg15703600189287282435431865502778.jpg15703598531044087406023553158766.jpg15703596674004412191520517798868.jpgThe slave traders shipped thousands of barrels of glass, crystal and coral beads to Venice in Italy into West and Central Africa. Broken glass bottles melted used to make beads for exchange of African captives. English East India Company imported millions of the cowry shells to Europe sold in Africa by slave traders. 15703595479508843222281945377230.jpg15703594724334800070438091881338.jpg15685440748807277633702931880292.jpgSlave traders exchanged gold shells of certain species historically used their currency in several parts of the world. Used in the past is presently extensively used in jewelry and other decorative or ceremonial purposes. Cowry shell is most used worldwide as a shell money.  Liverpool controlled 80% British slave trade and over 40% of glass bottle beads from Italy, cowries from Indian Ocean.15703654416986799591359005112019.jpgShell money medium of exchange is like coin money or other commodity money  used in many parts of the world. Shell money consisted of whole or partial sea shells worked into beads by shapes. Use of shells traded by commodity exchange valued body ornaments. The distinction between beads, commodities as money debated by economic anthropologists.Africa+Before+Europeans.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0025.jpgashantikingdom-768x299.jpgIMG-20190808-WA0006.jpgimage.jpgSome kings recruited women of Agoji to fight as an army of 4,000 women who battled against Europeans. West African Yaa Asantewaa in Ashanti, Gold Coast now Ghana and Kingdom of Dahomey between 17th and 19th centuries fought. These brave women who fought against slavery and colonialism. Lupita Nyongo went to Benin to explore army’s legacy.poster,840x830,f8f8f8-pad,750x1000,f8f8f8.u2.jpgasantwea-1-680x365_c.jpgwp-1571498295453.jpg15713056029367773464045337576003.jpgMore than 1 billion tonnes of ivory has been taken by Western countries over a thousand years from Africa. But after independence they ban Africans from benefitting from ivory trade destroy by burning or crushing high-profile events in 21 countries around the world. Kenya and others forced to burn ivory in each country destroy 105 tonnes (231,000 lb) of ivory by fire so not funding projects.021639A3-6D15-48F6-83C1-18C0B93154C9_w640_s.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0022.jpg15714104985158493773424962768652.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0012.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0009.jpg15714099074491660731594248591932.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0013.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0024.jpgIMG-20190918-WA0010.jpgPrecious gold was exploited by Western G7 countries which continue to own the mines all over the world. They brought bottles and cowries exchanged for gold and slaves exported to work in mines Brazil, South Africa among others. This underdeveloped African without them investing in people to own resources.15703583848418688805040572864609.jpgShell money in exchange for glass beads in AmericaAsiaAfrica and Australia. The most familiar the wampum created by the indigenous peoples of East Coast,  North America. Ground beads cut from purple marine bivalve shells. The shell used worldwide as currency is the shell of Cypraea moneta money cowry. 15703584223038067271825762797665.jpg15703585606134465096612475839878.jpg15703585357865249895412656567623.jpg15703585026025926365042799769893.jpg15703584687476343591616701578432.jpgBeads exchanged for gold and slaves or diamonds and cowries. Cowry species abundant in Indian Ocean was collected from the Maldive Islands, in Sri Lanka, along the Malabar coast in Borneo and other East Indian islands and African  coasts from Ras Hafun or Mozambique.  Cowry shell money traded by networks of Africa, South Asia, and East Asia.IMG-20191006-WA0000.jpg15703573743066753630029787445541.jpg15703574141542657800047709871768.jpg20191006_112007.jpg20191006_112058.jpg15703577026686191533060876311596.jpg15703574929207567621432847011562.jpg15703575513795785535363368352890.jpgThe first European nation in Transatlantic Slave Trade was Portugal in mid to late 1400’s. Captain John Hawkins made first English slaving voyage to Africa 1562 reign of Elizabeth 1. Hawkins made three journeys in six years. He captured over 1200 Africans sold as goods in Spanish colonies in Americas. British traders supplied slaves for Spanish, Portuguese colonists in America. British settlements in Caribbean North America grew in wars with European countries as Holland, Spain, France, British slave traders supplied British colonies. The British ships took part in the Slave Trade in the 245 years between Hawkins voyage or abolition of Slave Trade in 1807. British merchants despatched over 10,000 trips to Africa for slaves. Merchants in other parts of British Empire sent out a further 1,150 voyages. Portuguese, British, France, Spanish, Dutch Netherlands, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Norway all sold slaves as the Arabs sold slaves for centuries. The  Arabs used cowry as Cypraea moneta. IMG-20191006-WA0006.jpg15703656922301612021566349132130.jpg15703666082696824174557729869127.jpgd984d85d60ae0ec484903eecd261119b.jpgA print from 1845 shows cowry shells used as money by Arab traders. And in  Western Africa shell money legal tender until mid 19th century. Before abolition of slave trade, large shipments of cowry shells sent to English port’s reshipment to the slave coast. The shells of Olivella nana a sparkling dwarf olive sea snail harvested from Luanda Island used as currency in Kingdom of Kongo. Al-Idrisi in mid-twelfth century described a King of Ghana tethering his horse to the huge gold in his palace taken by whites like a similar but lesser size gold in Australia. Abundant gold in South Africa cause the apartheid the bad treatment of blacks in their own motherland. Gold Coast now Ghana became finished because of gold. Black history deals with injustice issues of African suffering despite gold riches.15705320153876161750733975044943.jpg1570530133933986560778091953603.jpg15705302340738369641996290500847.jpgMansa Musa I from 1280 – c. 1337 was the tenth Mansa, translated as “sultan” “conqueror” or “emperor” of a wealthy West African Ghana, Guinea, Songhai Mali Empires. Mansa Musa, the Malian emperor was richest person in history with so much gold he is noted in ancient maps. He caused inflation in Egypt by giving away too much gold with 60,000 people entourage each carried gold bars he gave as gifts on his journey to Mecca.

20191006_105616.jpgThey were traded north in the Kingdom of Benin. In Kongo called nzimbuzimbo  or eli in Ghana. The value of the cowry was much greater in West Africa than in the regions from which supply obtained so trade extremely lucrative. Some cases of gains said to be 500%. Use of cowry currency spread inland Africa. About 1850 German explorer Heinrich Barth said widespread in Kano, Kuka,  Gando and Timbuktu. Barth said in Muniyoma one of ancient divisions of Bornu, king’s revenue estimated at 30,000,000 shells, with adult males paying annually 1,000 shells for himself 1,000 for each pack-ox, 2,000 for each slave in his possession.IMG-20191006-WA0001.jpgCountries on the coast fastened together shells in strings of forty or one-hundred each twenty strings represents a dollar. In interior laboriously counted one by one or, if the traders were expert, five by five. The districts mentioned above received supply of kurdi, as called, from the west coast. The regions to north of Unyamwezi, where they were in use under the name of simbi, dependent on Muslim traders from Zanzibar. The shells were used in remotest parts of Africa until early 20th century now use modern currencies. So other shells of large land snail Achatina monetaria cut i circles with open center used as coin in Benguella, Portuguese West Africa.IMG-20191006-WA0002.jpgCowry shell medium of exchange early to mid-nineteenth century slave trade neighbouring local regions wore beads or sold abroad. Strange monetary value of cowry, empty glass bottles exchanged for slaves, gold and diamond in empires of Medieval West Africa, Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. David C Conrad, 2010 in book Juvenile Nonfiction said, Al-Idrisi, wrote in 1154, describing a natural gold nugget in the king’s palace is so big the reins of the king’s horse were tied to it. The African countries no longer use the  reycled bottles from Western world it’s  a problem their tons of waste no longer shipped to Africa. Africa still extension of Europe uses tons of local bottle waste to make glass beads so continues today. 15703589345984661777063266130447.jpgThe debate continues why the European slave traders duped the Africans with a cowry and empty glass bottles for gold, diamonds, gems. And above all humans created by God worth of priceless value commoditized and dehumanised. Black history month focuses attention on this past treatment of black slaves and then abolishing slavery. Modern slavery and past issues of retribution, reparations, compensation for slave descendants is pending for justice. Bible says, Eye has not seen, ear heard or entered heart of man things God prepared for those who love Him in 1 Corinthians 2:9. God says HE will deal with injustice. Seek God in Christ Jesus to help supply your needs.