SUGAR BLACKSLAVE HISTORY

15713054607238903501092629203849.jpgBlack History Month October celebrates abolition of slaves whose wealth enrich G7 Western Europe and America but deprived slaves of their dignity and long life so slaves became traumatized. 15713056029367773464045337576003.jpgTriangular trade from Europe on ships to Africa to Carribean to America back to Europe. G7 member nations enslaved Africans. Belgian King Leopold invited them jointly to divide and own Africa.15713055252467866924691785551731.jpg Almost a thousand years black slavery continued despite official abolition law. Slavery produced sugar, cocoa, coffee, cotton for “triangle merchants” of slave trade in Britain, Africa and West Indies. 15713054895557916154530721927074.jpgTriangle trips carried guns, goods from England to Africa for slaves from Africa to Caribbean. Sugar, coffee, cotton and rum to England for commercial slavery by supply and demand on plantations. 1571305574491870094090532857700.jpg15714076486934305525943298638509.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0021.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0011.jpgAtlantic crossing from Africa Middle Passage shows cruelties of plantations in the British Caribbean. Africans were herded on slave ships and branded with irons labels people property of owners.15713033917892027579692775521469.jpgPortuguese also built sugar plantations in 1550’s off the coast of their Brazilian settlement colony, located on the island Sao Vincente. Portuguese and Spanish colonial presence in Caribbean Iberian Peninsula wealth cultivated cash crops.15713030689847713844378615539055.jpgThe economic boom of these plantations began colonizing remaining American territories to capitalize on the lucrative cultivation and trade of native’s natural resources. Sugar is the most important crop in Caribbean but other crops such as coffee, indigo, and rice also grown. 1571303161531508320018965015780.jpg15712992630563548705097506481294.jpgThe coastal sugae cane was best grown on the flat land near coastal waters as the soil was naturally yellow and fertile. The mountainous parts of islands were used for sugarcane cultivation industry. IMG-20191017-WA0010.jpg15712987137944748591809211620677.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0004.jpg348s.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0020.jpgThe coastal placement of commercial ports gave imperial states a geographic advantage to ship the crop throughout the transatlantic world. Sugar Slavery  trading of the Africans highly profitable not paying slaves for enforced labour. downloadfile-1.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0014.jpgSlave-Ship-pic-4-Wikipedia.jpg15714064266664307134901227462768.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0015.jpg15713038953617219558390950064672.jpg15713037481496759185923572241666.jpg15713036678907107097446613800368.jpgSlaves lived in appalling conditions but masters indulged in excessive luxury by toils of slaves. Triangular trade profits  prospered the West but underdeveloped blacks made poor despite the hardwork. 15713035569197275545111601093952.jpgwp-1571322668408.jpgManufactured goods were traded to the West African coast for slaves, who were shipped to the sugar colonies by middle passage. Sugar, molasses, rum, shipped from these islands back into England.15713038363315671248783757607047.jpg15713038628448686754927140878564.jpg15713036996912748769302716101649.jpg15713036364091737502484623690543.jpgSugar was the main crop produced on  plantations throughout Caribbean in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Most of the islands were covered with sugar cane fields and mills for refining sugar. IMG-20191017-WA0003.jpg15713001247174007076067301082629.jpg15713002203195667591899451618769.jpg15713001854538734211621372862312.jpg15713001504746913528570416798187.jpgwp-1571311816344.jpg15713002724015553289083152949101.jpgThe main source of labour was enslaved Africans. After the abolition of slavery, indentured labourers from IndiaChina, Java migrated to Caribbean to work on sugar plantations. Plantations produced 80 – 90% sugar used in Western Europe.15712995770488034116736118045599.jpg15712996195613941216406783616691.jpg15712997447027764109633942991300.jpg15712995281323834808765635583176.jpgSugar enabled slave labour for profits with tragic consequences in Caribbean. Imperial powers forced West Africans to cultivate sugar by slaves. Exploited labour, natural world created imperial conflicts in these Caribbean regions.IMG-20191017-WA0002.jpg15713029223757577184974282763473.jpg 157130286531419080874850560467.jpg15713027760246994249402391806889.jpg15713028101291278500655225486775.jpg15712977059634715966485674610399.jpgUse political and economic control they create to divide and rule people policy of animosity. Conflicts among English, Spanish, French and various indigenous people was used for territorial gain.15712964787331552835795446583723.jpg15712950696973492756233402938394.jpg15712972087976309023403494269657.jpg15712989701492300170279122619503.jpg 15712973826202918078063655814609.jpg15712954764466783854135368343091.jpgEuropean states exploited environment, resources so sugar production began to stagnate. Due loss of trees for timber in the sugar refinement process, European imperial powers competed and fought over Caribbean in middle 17th century.15712948461163990403389790355463.jpg15712948817835962190680372982605.jpg15712953753492679276778321664742.jpg15712961917284396878281626055702.jpg1571294941734562424695867162323.jpg15712950360621362782314632360478.jpgEuropean settlers’ entry into Caribbean world caused changes. The indigenous populations died due to influx of world diseases of colonists. Population losses from 8.4 – 112.5 millions of these native populations cleared way for plantation industry and less conflict for Europeans and all these indigenous peoples too15712965493371578408370674417736.jpg15712966476488592384520750409745.jpgColonial arrival of sugar cane culture impact societie’s economy in Caribbean. Increased ratio of slaves to freemen and increased the sizes of slave plantations. Sugar plantation use of slaves affected cash crop economies in cultivation. The large plantations with the slaves Africa  imported worked on plantations. 15712956357681865740619933022642.jpg15712955869055477780312402713803.jpgPrior to 1650 three-quarters of island’s population was of European descent. In 1680 plantation in Barbados increased to about 60 slaves. So sugar plantations expanded transatlantic trade prospers. In 1832, plantation in Jamaica had 150 slaves one in four lived with 250 slaves. 15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15712947049235987567928405600593.jpgAbout 100 years, Barbados was richest European colony in Caribbean region. Then sugar cane production expanded to larger colonies Saint-Domingue and Jamaica. Mass sugar industry sugarcane processed commodities: rummolasses, and falernumWest India Interest was formed in 1740s by British merchants to West Indian sugar planters. 15712969933543584698609408312672.jpg157129755509656600633346701060.jpg15712963455442945155011821550429.jpg15712962302017147386549329208022.jpgwp-1571322746426.jpgBritish and West Indies shared profits or costs. needs. This first sugar-trading company was powerful in Parliament. In 1740s Jamaica and Saint Domingue or Haiti world’s main sugar producers. IMG-20191017-WA0000.jpgIncreased production in St. Domingue used irrigation system French engineers built. Reservoirsdiverted dam levees  aqueducts and canals. Improved mills and varieties of cane and grasses helped increase profits. St. Domingue in 19th century Haiti and Cuba sugar plantation Caribbean did better than British island.1571297025702538564298899779586.jpgIn the 19th century, sugar dominated  MartiniqueGrenadaJamaicaSaint CroixBarbadosLeeward IslandsSaint DomingueCuba, and other island run by FrenchBritish, or Spanish owners. During late 19th and 20th centuries the sugar cane industry dominated Puerto Rico‘s economy by colonial rule of Spain and under United States. 1571294727684996436954631513550.jpgAfter slavery, sugar plantation labour was workers imported from colonial India, Southern China. In 20th century, large-scale sugar production using wage labour continued in many parts of the region. Sugar cane industry’s negative impact affected the environment as this industry grew in Caribbean countries. 15712951825801502632195092917389.jpgThese include the destruction of forests, water pollution, loss of fertility, erosion of soils. These problems on a different scale in Dominican Republic in the 16th century; Lesser Antilles in 17th century; Jamaica, Haiti in 18th century, Cuba and Puerto Rico in 19th century. The nations impacted by sugar on the environment.15712952542173744336540029352835.jpgThe deterioration natural environment, had socio-economic consequences. And took its toll on Africans an integral part to cultivation, production of sugarcane. Slaves toiled in fields, boiling houses to supply huge amounts of labour sugar required. Four million slaves survived  Caribbean sugar plantations. wp-1571330195777.jpgConditions were harsh, mortality rates high through all stages of slaves’ lives. Some sugar colonie’s slave population ten times less than the European slave uprisings ever-present fear of planters. Slave trading highly profitable triangle of trade of Atlantic manufactured goods traded to West African coast for slaves shipped to sugar colonies of the middle passage and sugar, molasses, and rum were shipped from islands to England.wp-1571330138914.jpgSlavery in England  deemed illegal since 1772. The slavery in sugar colonies was vigorously pursued in Parliament and publication throughout last quarter of eighteenth century to time of abolition of trade in 1807, emancipation in 1833.15712977450102090396760846491987.jpg wp-1571330017603.jpgwp-1571330075100.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0001.jpg15712970952265673717702786919787.jpg15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15713021011131294159836164367675.jpg15712969306591487070998245117838.jpgdownloadfile-2.jpg12355_2014_311_Fig1_HTML.jpgAbolitionists arguments against slavery was support in England and in America. Abolitionist movement boycotted slave-grown sugar by protests is celebrated as key component of abolition’s success.15712979796166770357711539697198.jpggettyimages-919491468-612x612.jpg15712985345335906738950765594570.jpg1571300771153191415282151247452.jpg15713004757394126936251265247884.jpg15713005171167919886088148258374.jpg15713007268423280865825419848256.jpgBoycott from writings to educate sugar is derived from blood, sweat and tears of slaves pollutes the body. The planters by prospect of abolition emancipation, attack on their financial interests, place in empire argued in favour of slavery.15713009777485298377118240667583.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0006.jpg15712980902104280568193144664796.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0005.jpg15713003436563749568168188652437.jpg15713014110543316473429243866261.jpg15713013089491042850157734430430.jpg15713011469935621723745379844781.jpgWilliam Beckford, large-scale Jamaican planter wrote about the island unable to inherited plantation debt. Plantations profit dwindled by later plantation era so planters were compensated for their loss of earnings. Slaves never received compensations, restitution or apology. 15712989421675147982996667160052.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0009.jpg15713018236223543718958756404016.jpg15713016238362599330973898756795.jpg20191018_194544.jpg15712991574789124671528049609976.jpg15713015641859068275661653780133.jpg1571301463714798903122388001392.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0008.jpg15713014963618985587415087318746.jpg1571301334033345284614607997855.jpgInstead suffer racism from the people who sent ships thousand of miles to drag them from their homeland into strange lands. Many slaves after the wars were sent from America to Liberia and Sierra Leone in western Africa.20191017_095342.jpgIt was a problem their roots could not be traced having been renamed by force despite protests of Kunta Kinte. Natives discriminated against them because they were not indigenous citizens. And residue from slavery and colonialism is institutional racism still directed black people today.20191017_095707.jpgInvincible chain of slavery, colonialism racism hatred propaganda promote the harassment of black people. Western countries built by slave labour, natural resources usurped controlled by West. African economies are still owned by Western nations exploiting resources. Yet conqueror parasites play the victim despite depending on African slavery and ccolonialism. Kings like Prempeh exiled to Sierra Leone and Seychelles for resisting slavery and colonialism. So was Nelson Mandela incarcerated with others who fought back. Some toppled by coup detat directed from the West were replaced by stooges put in place. The Africans enslaved or colonised both victims of a system that exploited them. Africa’s resources of gold from Ghana, Guinea,  Mali, Songhai empires, Mansa Musa had supersized gold tied to horse taken by whites. Gold was so abundant it was dished out freely to loyal citizens. Gold taken over as diamonds. Africans did not gain from slavery to enrich the kings as people claim. But were stripped of natural resources owned by Western countries. Africa never has economic so still controlled by the Western nations today.

COFFEE’S HISTORY & ORIGINS

20191014_110716.jpg15710468834321102168724083807666.jpg15710437345183676338762388191799.jpgCoffee global originated from Ethiopia as earliest evidence of coffee drinking and knowledge of the coffee tree spread from early 15th century. Africans grow coffee harvested, grounded and drank by families as tropical crops. Coffee spread as commodity for trade from Ethiopia Horn of Africa to Yemen Arabia Felix monks monasteries spreading into Mecca and Cairo. Goats were seen hyper stimulated inspired coffee concoction born long ago in the mountains of Ethiopia. Legend says that Kaldi saw his excited herd dancing after eating coffee cherry berry, 16th century reached rest of Middle East, South India (Karnataka), Persia, Turkey to rest of Horn of Africa and northern Africa. Coffee spread to Balkans, Italy, the rest of Europe, Southeast Asia and Americas despite ban imposed in the 15th century by religious leaders in Mecca and Cairo, and later by the Catholic Church.15710460124356859565088160134012.jpg15710436855935512932863149678515.jpg15710447815743466109153844499277.jpgCoffee spread from Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Kaffa Province name of coffee, the first to recognize energizing effects of native coffee plant. So the tribesmen consumed as hunters on days-long treks benefitting from coffee plant’s ability to quell hunger and provide more energy. Studies of genetic diversity of Coffea arabica varieties retained the residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica. Oral history direct evidence has indicated Africans coffee grow among other crops natives used as stimulant so known earlier spread into seventeenth century. Original domesticated coffee plant from Harar, native population use derived from Ethiopia distinct is found populations in Sudan and Kenya.1571043405765699259889766813539.jpg15710434270053024933810851534611.jpg15710436277878114956373217936851.jpg15710435846402047751185959458711.jpg15710434925723954462411793900624.jpgCoffee is native to tropical Africa but its Brazil that is the world’s largest coffee producing country. Vietnam, Colombia are second and third biggest producers. Coffee was traded through Middle East, Asia and Europe before its taken to the Americas by European colonizers. The crop’s success there depended on slave trade. The history of coffee recognizes racism and the role of colonialism. The history of coffee has a dark side of the exploitation of Western countries taking advantage of the African countries. And multibillion multinational corporations making so much profit but don’t invest in these countries of the supply chains. 15710433560353172288782735507670.jpg15710440983255412735373397344862.jpg15710445900461747951835999486447.jpg15710441400893604583404307719482.jpg15710439366083654047546056266942.jpg15710440294184227315937896153147.jpg15710444445985513000575336350508.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.1571044828283157220128130682346.jpgwp-1571137280306.jpgdownloadfile.pngwp-1571007286187.jpgIMG-20191014-WA0001.jpgwp-1571136784509.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.15710478444701786177490462436469.jpg15710456532011356605169476525987.jpg15710456143886626766098078755663.jpg15710455659128566144229800899532.jpg15710448803383604231430384290796.jpg15710449771794187086487037815745.jpg15710450656392204661356868672582.jpg15710451149853942328613469727459.jpgBarbados and Jamaica were some of the earliest British colonies as slave traders provided outposts with human labour from Africa to work on sugar and coffee plantations. Goods and people moved in a triangle between West Africa, colonies in Caribbean and Americas and Europe.wp-1571143326145.jpg15710465101715420187119285288633.jpg1571046665177784825754492463044.jpg15710465806261383212562540144503.jpgwp-1571143230605.jpgwp-1571143279802.jpg15710462101437150544227229786142.jpgSan Domingo in French-occupied Haiti was supplying half of the world’s coffee in 1788 as a direct result of slave labour. Living conditions was appalling, slaves underfed, overworked and housed in the windowless huts. The African slaves were beaten, tortured or killed by their white European rulers.15710466183022452900408860596017.jpgwp-1571142356971.jpgwp-1571138218332.jpgwp-1571142304784.jpg15710467716452899072847031383823.jpg15710449165545412649823065829850.jpg15710450356353051306629389501833.jpg1571046353063816915106442229309.jpg15710432352042400621271070553203.jpgNapoleon tried to regain Haiti in early 1800s led to decline in coffee production prompted the Dutch to fill the gap with coffee produced in their own colony of Java, Indonesia. But has rigid hierarchy between the native Javanese and their colonial overlords. Laziness and apathy of Dutch landowners forced Javanese natives to harvest coffee for a pittance, whole villages died of starvation.15710462360581092218315998157921.jpg15710463381055154496466313978760.jpgwp-1571136892649.jpg15710470158994600447489546368637.jpg15710433079216012543656666705158.jpgUK drinks 95 million cups of coffee day with 500,000 tonnes of waste coffee grounds a year. Some business’s small waste coffee grounds customers to take home as garden fertiliser or homemade exfoliant. Wet coffee grounds waste into landfill in UK tax £88.95/tonne to £94.15 from 1st April 2020 levy operators cost to collection fee. Waste management companies charge for contaminated dry mixed with recycling. 15712234953994380269245425115741.jpgLandfill harmful greenhouse gases such as methane 34 times more potent than carbon dioxide over a 100 year period causing climate change. The wet coffee grounds in an anaerobic digestion plant absent of oxygen microorganisms break down biodegradable material managing waste or producting fuel but grounds sink to bottom in ‘belly’ inhibit rate of biomethane production. Waste grounds incinerated energy generation, not best usel. Bio-bean utilise wet coffee grounds waste recycled bio-products by disposal recycling service generate savings for businesses saving emission as bio-fuel.15710432727097757498507419898001.jpgCoffee declined in the West Indies but it thrived in Latin America. So first coffee bush in Brazil was planted by Francisco de Melo Palheta in Pará in 1727. Brazil became a coffee superpower under the rule of the Portuguese and continued to after independence. By the 1830s, coffee became Brazil’s largest export is around 30% of world coffee production.15710461315717905217574155760681.jpg15710452158122014500876146091126.jpgBrazilian coffee plantations used black or indigenous slave labour. Indentured labourers worked and lived in horrific conditions. Plantation owners treated their labourers as dispensable imported new slaves as they died from overwork. Did not treat existing slaves with any compassion most slaves last seven years from initial bondage.wp-1571142201640.jpg15710455063321556057087774078740.jpgBrazil made slavery illegal in 1888, but four million slaves had been brought from Africa. In Latin America, coffee industry depended on the indigenous labour. Black people not used as slaves in Central American countries anymore, Mayans and other native peoples served as semi-slaves.15710451884962273506023802601097.jpg15710452671042518442429950312232.jpgThe Mayans occupied best fertile lands for growing coffee and so increasingly became disenfranchized by colonial governments. Violently evicted by the military as the demand for coffee grew, forced to work land for the oppressors. Revolts and rebellions common during that time government brutality and the oppression was response.15710454680217849189674356110640.jpg20191015_133547.jpgThe coffee industry in Latin America explaining why the world is dominated by their coffee production. Slave labour no longer but paved the way for today’s industry. Many regions of Brazil and Colombia are now traditional coffee-growing areas with farming as main resource. Legacies of colonialism affect coffee supply chain in Latin America racial divide between farm owners and labourers.15710464500078699002128982820492.jpgMillions of blacks in Latin America Asia, and Africa live in poverty producing the affordable coffee for Western markets. African coffee is the best in the world as Tropical Africa origin of coffee. But that continent not treated on same level of Latin America. Colonialism by former European colonies in Africa left without infrastructure or stable political system. Structural racism economic oppression exists in supply chain. Inequality in the coffee production, baristas, economics. Education, politics of coffee-producing regions of the community in producing countries must contribute to improving sustainability, working conditions, and quality of life for people globally.tree-goat-morocco.jpg15712272641128742041996406789531.jpgObviousTimelyAlligatorsnappingturtle-size_restricted.gifThe Argan coffee like Ethiopian Coffee, Nepal coffee grown on Himalayan climate is ideal for coffee growing. The aroma of brewed coffee fragrance, coffee’s global recognition beans, grown in Nuwakot, a scored 90 points on a scale of 50 to 100 in Coffee Review, California-based trade magazine. In first-ever blind assessment Nepali coffee in Lekali is “savoury sweet in structure with gentle acidity; crisp, satiny mouthfeel.” Concluded the coffee is worth seeking its confident savoury-sweet cup. In 2016, coffee produced by Greenland Organic Farm scored an 89 Specialty Coffee Association of America, California trade group Nepali coffee producers elevate quality of country’s beans to international standards.Workers sort cherries for processing at Lekali Coffee Estate’s farm in Nuwakot in central Nepal. Nepali coffee’s in 2014, Banjara became Nepal’s first Q-grader trained in Xining in China. The West are calling coffee aficionados value beans’ from exotic origin to local cafe. Coffee companies create market for vacuum packed cans of coffee grounds and jars of instant coffee kitchens in the world,  Nepal’s high-end market export coffee. Some claim goat eaten berry coffee also exist like Luwak kopi coffees. Coffee farm in Mauja district of Kaski, view to the Annapurna mountain range Nepal’s first national coffee cupping as Q-graders identify characteristics and flavour, quality of coffee beans. Eight of the world’s 10 highest peaks like Mount Everest Nepal ideal climate high-quality beans. Nepal’s Arabica variety Bourbon and Typica coffee grow on rolling, misty mountain slopes at altitudes from 800 meters to 1,600 meters. First introduced to the country by a monk in the middle of 20th century the crop supports 32,000 farmers in 40 of country’s 77 districts. It exports coffee but Coffee Review rating recognition gives them a much-needed boost in the international market.15712209071994545813192981911343.jpgThe world’s most expensive is Coffee alamid highly sought-after brew among coffee aficionados is “caviar” of coffee. Odour-free coffee alamid aroma, syrup texture, chocolate hint, coffee alamid’s clean aftertaste and flavour is processed by acid from stomach of animals eating coffee cherry berries. The coffee seeds remain intact undigested excreted as a faecal material collected, washed and is grounded as premier luxury coffee sells U$500 -U$1000 per pound. Kopi luwak one of most expensive coffees in world. Vietnamese weasel coffee collecting coffee beans eaten by wild civets in India. Luwak coffee kopi luwak of Java Indonesia is second best.  But traders of this type of coffee exploit animals by caging, feeding them solely on coffee beans instead on an enriched variety of diets in wild more suitable to thrive. The tourists travel to see caged animals in action oblivious to animal rights issues involved in most expensive coffee processs. A cup of coffee cost $80 per cup in the tourist epic centres.

Mark Pendergrast: Uncommon Grounds, History of Coffee & How It Transformed Our World.

Sprudge.com, The Question of Racism

GOD GIVES PERFECT PEACE

GOD keeps in PERFECT PEACE the MIND kept on GOD because of TRUSTING GOD says Isaiah 26:3. A man declared FAITH in God that if GOD slays him he STILL LOVES AND TRUSTS GOD. In Job 13:15, Job’s faith in GOD was tested yet TRUSTS God and maintains his ways before God.15710500170627782202892357446392.jpgJesus Disciples said, they have nowhere else to go because Jesus has the WORDS OF ETERNAL LIFE. In John 6:68, Simon Peter answered Jesus, Lord to whom do we go? No matter their fate, challenging circumstances of life they had nowhere to go but run to LOVING ARMS OF GOD.1571049947069757816999684027485.jpgJesus asked His twelve disciples “Do you want to leave too like Judas Iscariot for greedy love of money, for pleasures of the world etc betrayed Jesus? They said absolutely not because he who has the Son has life. No matter the issues of life Jesus warned of these perilous times.D.15710498484774482450719129202222.jpgThe Have CONFIDENCE in GOD to see you through life in Jesus Name. GOD says do not fear those who kill flesh but cannot kill the soul in Jesus Name FEAR GOD who kills soul. Bible says in John 16:2 they will put you out of synagogues or kill thinking they are DOING GOD a favour. The day is coming they will face WRATH of GOD on DAY of the LORD.wp-1571053184636.jpgJESUS COMES TO GIVE LIFE EVEN LIFE MORE ABUNDANTLY IN JESUS NAME. As citizens of heaven THE REAL LIFE ETERNAL IN ETERNITY IS YET TO COME to reunite LOVED ONES as devil burns in hell for attacking GOD’S people globally. Example of faith is testimony of Horatio Spafford’s faith in GOD in his time of adversity. Weeping may endure  but joy comes in the morning for those who MOURN with HOPE in Christ.15710499640867255745608443986295.jpgOn being notified of tragedy at sea and the loss of his children, Horatio Spafford immediately set sail for Wales to reunite with his heartbroken wife. Once at sea, Spafford asked the captain to point out exactly where the Ville du Havre sunk.
As he crossed fateful spot grief-stricken father sat with pen in hand and wrote what become one of Christendom’s most beloved song of HOPE and TRUST in GOD ELOHIM JEHOVAH in CHRIST.wp-1571053218214.jpgChristian believer’s salvation is in Christ alone because there is no other name given among men by which to be saved. In Psalm 139:8 Bible says, “If I ascend to the heavens GOD is there; if I descend in Sheol GOD is there. GOD’S WORD does not go void so achieves GOD’S purpose for sending word. In Psalm 139:9 If rise on wings of dawn or settle by farthest sea GOD is there. There is nowhere to go to escape wrath of God its a futile desire to run from the LORD so RUN to GOD. 15710853891056583687574779996534.jpgPhilippians 4:7 says the PEACE OF GOD which passes all human understanding will keep your HEART and MIND SAFE in UNION with CHRIST JESUS. Its GOD’S Grace, Mercy and Compassion that gives Strength to endure in adversity to cope with grief, sorrow, pain, loss. GOD is still on the Throne so in Control of your life. 

PERFECT PEACE FOR ALL WHO TRUST GOD.

When peace, like a river, attendeth my way, When sorrows like sea billows roll;
Whatever my lot, Thou has taught me to say, It is well, it is well, with my soul.

Though satan should buffet, though trials should come,
Let this blest assurance control,
That Christ has regarded my helpless estate,
And hath shed His own blood for my soul.
(Refrain)
It is well, with my soul,
It is well, it is well, with my soul.

CHOCOLATE COCOA HISTORY

1570957965885497972497589516589.jpgChocolate cocoa history dates to 450 BC. when the Aztecs in Latin America were seen fermenting cocoa seeds made into powder and drunk bitter. The seeds had so much value it was used as currency. Westerners observed them and tasted it but added sugar to sweeten cocoa drink. 20191013_101929.jpg20191012_223843.jpg20191012_223613.jpgTetteh Quashie from Ghana brought the cocoa seeds to Gold Coast and thrived so became a global commodity exported. A tropical temperature suited cocoa best it flourishes in Ghana, Ivory Coast and in Nigeria exported into Western countries Belgium, Britain Cadbury World, Nestle of Switzerland among top 15 countries. 15709666448414663460037240615432.jpgIn 1591 the first transatlantic chocolate cocoa reached Spain turns into popular product as demand grew. The cocoa tree planted from seeds grown is harvested by difficult process by slaves used in its production. History of cocoa process of industrialization of chocolate used slave labour on plantations to supply world with cocoa beans to make chocolate. international_chocolate_organizations_bg.pngThe islands of São Tomé and Príncipe a then colony of Portugal and West Africa archipelago were first to cultivate cocoa among the world’s largest producers in the 20thcentury. The increasing demand from Europe cleared more acres of this plantations. Slaves from Angola of more settlers and more machinery increased supply chain of cocoa and chocolates.15709669144015420792004222029435.jpgscreen-shot-2015-03-12-at-7-45-58-pm.pngThe British Journalist Henry Nevinson documented plight of plantation slaves in articles, magazines and book Modern Slavery published in 1906 in a Harpers Monthly Magazine.“A long line of men and women at intervals of about a yard, were clearing plantation. ..To the back of every woman clung an infant’s head lay between her shoulders, bumped against her back as she struck hoe in the ground.15709668577338478487483041897377.jpgscreen-shot-2015-03-12-at-7-11-13-pm.pngFive or six yards behind them officers stood, white men, or three parts white, dressed in traditional planter style of big hat, white shirt, and loose trousers. Each carried an eight foot stick of hard wood, whitewood, pointed at ends” Nevinson’s work included numerous photographs, descriptions of the working conditions that fueled controversy in Great Britain.1570959284218922480331549334500.jpg1570913992381271102547401987556.jpg15709140345921898763941735144302.jpg15709577132403422594441858102305.jpg15709576587538243842794166318413.jpg157095762463894220843834516828.jpgwp-1570973939028.jpgwp-1570975857142.jpg15709616753066208273275664093074.jpg1570957416522359261156549676512.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0001.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0004.jpg20191012_223727.jpg20191012_224622.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0006.jpgDespite attention to business practices of Cadbury company of Great Britain as biggest owner then of these plantations manufactured chocolates. It publicised situation, shows complicated network dodges blame. Public pressure results in government intervention investigations court case. Cadbury stopped purchasing from São Tomé and Príncipe tranferred the cocoa plantations into West Africa.15709589640531476278166812542906.jpgwp-1570974378415.jpgwp-1570974323215.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0008.jpg15709581362018921958481800225620.jpg15709601948667178737729845178804.jpg15709574448313460189514792968319.jpg15709580230053693676271048576345.jpg15709580965951627154621136725728.jpg15709580676498724700736445595630.jpg1570958672381763599102141026146.jpg20191012_223649.jpgDespite official abolition of slavery the slaves were transported another 400 years and ongoing in parts of the world. In 2001, slave ship MV Etireno carrying several hundred children from Benin were reported missing refused entry to Gabon and Cameroon rescued children. 15709609201355720542936295948445.jpgUNICEF becomes involved investigating reveals slave trafficking operation links West Africa in Ivory Coast. Ivory Coast is the world’s largest supplier of cocoa beans provide 43 % of world’s supply. IMG-20191013-WA0003.jpg15709610769421398615502886880121.jpg15709612150727871124352297305669.jpg15709610018138559175942143094065.jpg15709613775144636840332272573726.jpg15709616191443179012462901860512.jpgThe 600,000 cocoa farms in Ivory Coast account for one-third of nation’s entire economy half the world’s supply for chocolate trade. Most people who are trafficked tricked and lied to with fantastic job prospects with good pecks assured. Find themselves enslaved and victims abused by such traffickers.15709127031975255928808816704229.jpg15709122732244232830728597531413.jpgIMG-20191012-WA0007.jpg
15709125937671682014492957299521.jpg15709124083746362380166338486847.jpg1570912315162438997010313738705.jpg15709152571901898279892588286755.jpg15709152270256971228287323585406.jpg15709151587383094067555383762175.jpg15709151843573151428979682105142.jpg15709143369542848624500990035780.jpgwp-1570979760414.jpg15709137549442769275504908743346.jpg15709150777064823325467641070824.jpg15709124520911926464681554713213.jpg1570912497702511151652750979082.jpg15709149649204204772370625945755.jpg15709149883824262627048778293816.jpgHuman trafficking and child slavery in cocoa and chocolate industry continues today. The Freedom Project investigated series by CNN broadcasted on chocolate industry and government of Ivory Coast address modern slavery in plantations.15709138939523342688749804279542.jpg1570991586829225328139591335123.jpg15709915420956794392330243494243.jpgcacao_photo_8-498x327.jpg15709917056801320040547398428411.jpg15709916241188296576054514775087.jpg15709940654191196607743158215198.jpg1570914640871285281432986836431.jpg15709963627551472745859322635130.jpg15709938622796684368964997672713.jpg15709940303113896639172690823035.jpg15709937734724174395920450358998.jpgwp-1570994671869.jpgwp-1571007286187.jpg15710070494287827044677125274229.jpg15709974957951724047021802272273.jpg15709941748594251023928542528722.jpg15709949682263479862376989604565.jpgwp-1570996871409.jpg15710077035061774160667874051637.jpgwp-1570996769232.jpgwp-1570997036473.jpgwp-1570997695826.jpgChildren at seven years old are working harvesting cocoa pods and beans for the sweet chocolate delicacies of Western people. Education is not compulsory in some countries and due to school fees so many cannot afford to pay. Therefore children work family business to gain skills even if illiterate become farmers.  15709145074994809227748061131838.jpg15709142467478737125626412808158.jpg15709139495294799173970323903708.jpg15709144649192665944281729331706.jpg15709146612125841173579566817033.jpg1570914213505158368728100696923.jpg15709147119983881069686190393130.jpg15709143857771503011103315736757.jpg15709147788696943767045855007937.jpgCNN report felt public must know about it to take action and to stop it, said Iowa Sen. Tom Harkin with Rep. Eliot Engel of New York in response: “How many people know the wonderful chocolates they eat are produced by child labour.15709123579155304010273066167215.jpg15709136806434425289464165586051.jpgIMG-20191012-WA0008.jpgIMG-20191012-WA0010.jpg15709129827953101181712330669658.jpg15709135207818673941076417422835.jpg15709131505218483977154594437069.jpg15709133791519192219027226466769.jpg15709132986567961157504701423115.jpgAgreed a voluntary protocol signed by heads of chocolate industry to stop child labour to certify the cocoa trade as child labour free. The working conditions in cocoa growing bring awareness of a fair trade by consumers. A researcher noted lack of evidence of ethical consumption among end-user improved situations of the child workers on West African cocoa farms. All to consider and ask questions of origins of food and conditions food is produced in. This concerns of safety of well being of those who produce food in Western countries ensures West African cocoa growers and harvesters and other workers globally afforded same rights.

BLACK EYE PEAS & COWPEAS

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GROUNDNUT & PEANUT/OILS

15707845127156653663316207345954.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0012.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0029.jpg15707893333604641602646104343632.jpg15707896148261001852730444443006.jpg15707893682718735345993973328976.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0010.jpg15707833934723802533458068315326.jpg15707832578189072966147542290648.jpg15707834239151848095670456445962.jpgwp-1570802098371.jpgwp-1570802035747.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0008.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0009.jpg15707834472307571853684531947568.jpg1570786851350875126761037075326.jpg15707954609231414742855137602773.jpgwp-1570803375931.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0025.jpg15707901880905044044258918245073.jpg15707896521495228368066690777655.jpg15707898431401260540910340766071.jpg15707824257912488918800919497494.jpg20191011_093013.jpg15707832203775243425012921934175.jpgwp-1570797906437.jpg15707916951867421611568665103796.jpg15707891823613489701966672795046.jpg15708085319268121818133374276907.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0022.jpg20191011_122801.jpg20191011_123114.jpg20191012_104224.jpg1570786970887877213663425578385.jpg15707945096213046886711061607208.jpgwp-1570799108967.jpg15707897063131288720652032018631.jpg15707903779064676578966512394624.jpg15707894111295276134005257790577.jpgwp-1570799638636.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0018.jpg15707956443157809948054158681191.jpgwp-1570800121779.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0028.jpg15707938539414257574867589042332.jpg15707938071606235172391918911728.jpg15707939369261663485003269948842.jpg1570794013493934164119149072580.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0021.jpg1570792032491391043010104295969.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0023.jpg15708169551153682810323296415724.jpg15708166402168148294109269088985.jpg15708167281037730136986375426020.jpg15708166865724722342520839818077.jpg15708165532348064204112588561454.jpgPeanut oil processed mixed with nitrous oxide in a truck massive diesel engine. V6 engine run on regular diesel fuel to reach 220-degree before switching over to peanut oil. Nitrous oxide plus plenty of air turns turbo charger supercharger forced air in cylinders. The engine gets a spray of alcohol for cooling purposes.15708165028113999895232126876639.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0030.jpg15708167512272893762172321424145.jpg15707941137685681028702372552463.jpgGroundnut, Peanut oil and vegetable oil wastes converted into biodiesel. Gallons of oil or grease from dining services are converted to 100% biodiesel used, sold to motor vehicles. Chemical additive is mixed into the biodiesel enhances their performance in cold winters. Biodiesel under various conditions was compared to traditional petroleum diesel analysed and modified to improve the production process. The by-product of the biodiesel production glycerin is valuable material used in soap-making.

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PALM OIL’S WORLD HISTORY

15706519201323376503804768971247.jpgThe palm kernel is the edible seed of the oil palm fruit. The fruit yields two distinct oils: palm oil derived from the outer parts of the fruit, and palm kernel oil derived from kernel. Four types of products from palm fruits are palm oil palm kennel oil, palm kernel husk or fibre, palm kernel sludge and palm kernel shell crushed used as a biofuel from palm kernel nuts. The production of fats and oils from vegetable sources is the process of extraction of vegetable oils, pulp oils produced close to location of oil fruit tree. Pre-treatment of a palm fruit is cooked and the fruit is separated from bunch stalk. The oil is extracted by pressing, stirring by hand centrifuged.15706522931853525998838418182285.jpg The extracted pressed oils can be used for cooking and dried and pulp used as combustible material. Red Palm Oil in a semi solid state at room temperature is turned liquid at a warm temperature of the body and reduces build up of artery clogging plaques. Substituting other fats and oils for Red Palm Oil reduces bad cholesterol. Only 2 tablespoons full of a Red Palm Oil a day needed to benefit from healthy positive effects. Too much greasy oil food causes bad cholesterol15706518941072910073924305563785.jpg15706523259017526720814455555611.jpgRed edible palm oil is a very nutritious cooking oil is used by West Africans for years. It is known for the high contents of Vitamin E with more distinctive anti-oxidant benefits for our health. Palm oil is the flag ship product for export since 1950’s for the West Africans in diaspora as niche product. The benefits of edible palm oil provides the energy needed for production of palm kernel oil process yields used edible fats, soaps candles.15706540375737277640299754569592.jpgPalm oil is used for cooking oil, soaps, candles, margarines, candy. A healthy conscious people concerned about an atherosclerosis stay away from foods rich in saturated fats. Palm is used in confectionery, pharmaceutical, perfume industries. The pulp left after oil from the kernel is formed into “palm kernel cake” fibre used as high-protein feed for dairy cattle or burned in their boilers to generate electricity for palm oil mills or surrounding villages. Palm oil is mixed with clay straw built castles in places.15706566006917909993720545286503.jpgPalm oil vegetable oil is grouped into a category broadly as follows.  Seed oils from palm oil germ fibre are used after extracting palm oil and palm kernel oils. Palm fruit oil and palm kennel oil both as the world’s most produced oil. Palm oil is forecast is world’s most produced and internationally traded edible oil.
Apart from being use as cooking oil, Palm Oil also found in an astonishing range of processed foods and cosmetics.15706535105222023988644772620506.jpgSupermarket products contains palm oil as part . Engineers targeting for the use of agro fuels in Europe, China or North America are making palm oil a hotter commodity. Palm Oil is used to produce biodiesel. Manual processing of palm oil for centuries takes place globally. Whole villages are known for palm plantation and palm oil production globally. Their community has abundant palm trees so palm products plays prominent roles. 15706534817468219236276730459932.jpg15706530089714150645542904436474.jpgThe palm fruit is sold in market used in  the traditional method palm oil is done by hand involving many people. It is a long process from harvest of palm fruit to finished products. Millions of people use traditional processing to make palm oil. Authentic original palm processing boils, pounds fruits separated from the kennel seeds and the fibre. The husk is compressed and used as fire enhancer or straws to build castles by the Whites.15706531091386308259624896540580.jpg15706531760656801411446369805901.jpg15706530414433115345172981072350.jpg15706531995623200291729606335389.jpgThe villagers work in teams together to ensure palm oil is processed on time to keep its excellent quality in a fresh good condition. Machines are introduced to combine with these manual processing of many small scale industries. A latest developed palm fruit processing gadget technology modified mechanical palm oil or kernel extraction process today. It involves separation of the digested fruit mash to palm oil and palm nut. Pressed separated pulp from palm oil extraction is used as mosquito repellent in villages smoke filled room.15706520386074640352914106555652.jpg1570652107303863022797526537226.jpg15706530796525622755470493684892.jpgIMG_20191009_33609157065240247048307681822970888.jpg15707214469164325242281493055369.jpg15706524548056509202359592381041.jpg15706536775917976862947626024117.jpg15706529199191633090186054712202.jpgIMG-20191009-WA0005.jpg15706541448975660841913415108193.jpg1570652805915565624425964344295.jpg15706527581207076161408861407956.jpg15706526981953949071761727145106.jpg15706527299768024498615894087837.jpg15706533668134575461850538961457.jpg15706534482774496658163521283835.jpg15706536318227273062163711658922.jpg15706532975257879326069220296981.jpg15707217991351440742699380060086.jpg15706529686738958575593995054697.jpg15706534197847985349839654719709.jpg15706526480467103743540190144892.jpgDried palm kennel nuts cracked open is processed into palm kennel oil. Kennel shell is used for firewood or charcoal by blacksmiths and for cooking in a hearth fireplace. Often some Palm trees grow for many years until it is so tall climbed by expert tree climbers for harvest. The palm fruit is also processed cold press or raw palm fruits used. Palm oil from a raw palm fruit is not as tasty as a boiled palmfruit. Adds special seasoning spices or herbs to enhance the aroma flavour of cooked palm oil. Then cooked dregs are filtered and eaten as a palm oil dip with yams, cassava cocoa, plantain. And the highly nutritious oil full of vitamins. The purified oil is sold to many people globally. Raw palm oil enhanced to taste by frying onions, spices to make stews. 15706538512988308734538781915767.jpg1570653819111760165957753334812.jpg15706546687118507060490957611929.jpg15707216018576220598925542783709.jpgPalm oil is used in many recipes and is popular globally. The kernel cake is also used in ovens to cook food. Palm kernel cake is produced by economical screw press, less than more expensive solvent extraction. It is processed by small scale industries or the home made equipment from scrap metal pressed, using stones to weight it down. The compact fibre is used under plants to protect from heat, drought to moisten soil. Oil palm is big business. Palm kernel cake high-fibre is medium grade protein feed by product of palm oil ruminants. Fodders of palm kernel cake is ranked little higher than cake and husk. Composed of 16% fiber, palm kernel cake has high phosphorus to calcium ratio and contains essential elements as magnesium, iron or zinc.  The typical ration formulated for the feeding of dairy cattle consists of palm kernel cake (50%), molasses (5%), grass hay (42%), limestone (1.5%), mineral premix (1%), and salt (0.5%), with trace element/vitamin premix.20191009_215250.jpgOil palm fibre is equivalent to coconut fiber at competitive price. Oil palm fiber non-hazardous biodegradable material extracted from oil palm’s empty fruit bunch (EFB) through uses decortation process. The fibers are clean and non-carcinogenic, free from pesticides and soft parenchyma cells. Palm fibres are versatile, stable processed into various dimensional grades to suit the specific applications such as mattress cushion production, erosion control and for soil stabilization / compaction, landscaping, horticulture, ceramic used in the brick manufacturing, thermoplastic filler, flat board manufacturing, paper production acoustics control, livestock care, and is a compost or fertilizer, animal feed, etc. IMG-20191009-WA0006.jpgSumptuous palm fruit soup recipes are major meals eaten with fufu, banku or gari, Kenkey. By product of Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) are used for Wood plastic Medium Density Fibre board (MDF), for Erosion control, landscaping. Leading producers of palm oil in world oil palm fiber abundantly resources. Oil palm fiber used in different areas common usage is in asphalt mixes. The Oil Palm Fiber is extracted from the palm oil vascular bundles in empty fruit bunch (EFB). In the manufacturing process of Palm Fiber, EFB shredded, separated, refined and dried. The manufacturing process does not involve any chemical reaction or exposure so material clean so non-toxic. Economic environmental benefits tapped from oil palm industry waste for Energy and Green Technology. Right innovative technology potential in generating electricity with the economic and environmental benefits from biogas and biomass. Palm Oil Mills earn money converting biomass EFB to higher-value renewable fuels chemicals, reducing greenhouse gas emissions.1570653699384258625274659884593.jpgPalm fruit bunches (FFB) are processed raw uncooked as soon as possible after cutting down from the trees to prevent rapid rise in free fatty acids (FFA) affect quality of crude palm oil (CPO). Palm oil mills located in the plantations facilitate timely transportation effective processing of FFB. Palm oil mills located in palm oil milling process of physical extraction of palm products crude palm oil, palm kernel from FFB. The process begins with sterilization of the FFB. The fruit bunches steamed in pressurized vessels and fatty acids prepared fruits for sub-processing. Bunches stripped of fruit in rotating drum thresher stripped bunches or empty fruit bunches (EFB) transported to plantation for mulching so fruits conveyed to press digesters.15706539370591606996776675537061.jpgPalm fruits heated using live steam and is stirred to loosen oil-bearing mesocarp from the nuts to break open the oil cells in the mesocarp. The mash is pressed to extract oil by means of screw presses so the pressed cake is conveyed to kernel plant and kernels are recovered. The oil from the press is diluted and pumped to vertical clarifier tanks. The clarified oil is fed to the purifiers to remove dirt and moisture dried in the vacuum drier. The clean dry oil is ready for storage and is despatched. The sludge from clarifier sediment is fed into a bowl centrifuged for further oil recovery. The recovered oil is recycled to clarifiers so the water / sludge Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is treated in effluent treatment plant (ETP) further. The press cake is conveyed to depericarper where the fiber and nuts are separated. Fiber is burned as fuel in boiler to generate steam as nuts cracked shell and kernel separated by winnower and hydro-cyclone. Then clean kernels are dried prior to storage for oil later.15706522666875080660915981808681.jpgPalm oil production in metric tons of oil by industries and small-scale processors contribute to 60% crude of the palm oil production. Most countries are not self-sufficient in fats and oils for industrial consumption. The palm oil produced by small-scale processors are utilized by the larger scale industries explored and causes identified the way to address the situation assessed. And the practices of small-scale oil palm fruit processors has shown storage of palm fruits for a long period before boiling. Then disposed of effluent into drains using spent tyres for boiling fruits clarification of oil. 54% of processors store palm fruits weeks by processing, fermentation, to increase extractability and reduce labour costs. Storage period of quality affect quantity of seasonal oil content of oil palm fruits. Innovation in small-scale oil palm fruit processing will improve quality of life.15706517110758696765975411672584.jpgThe history of palm oil production dates back thousands of years, with the oldest record of its use from 3,000 BC. In late 1800s archaeologists discovered palm oil in a tomb located in Abydos, Egypt. It is believed Arab traders brought the oil to Egypt. A fresh fruit bunch (FFB). The variety shown in this picture is called Tenera. Palm oil is extracted from each of the individual fruits contained on the bunch. In 3.000 BC the mass of several kilograms of palm oil found in a vessel enclosed in a tomb at Abydos. In Middle 15th Century written records of palm oil used as a local food source by European travelers to West Africa. By 16th & 17th Century red palm oil an important item in the developing trade network used in supplying caravans or ships of Atlantic slave trade. In the 18th Century British industrial revolution created a palm oil demand for candle-making or lubricant for machines supplied by exports from West Africa. In 19th Century European run plantations set up in Central Africa and Southeast Asia traded the palm oil.15706539056746807580998390183146.jpgIn 1902 Germans invested in Cameroon after the discovery of the Tenera breed of palm oil. This high-yielding breed is used today in large-scale plantations. In  1910 Palm oil introduced to Malaysia by a Scotsman named William Sime and an Englishman Henry Darby. Between 1940 and 1960 technological improvement in edible oil refining and transport driven use of unrefined unhydrogenated palm oil in western foods. 1970-1990 Malaysia emerged as the worlds largest palm oil producer. By 1990 global production of palm oil reached more than 11 million metric tonnes. Palm oil primary source of dietary fat for countless people has nutritional and healing properties.15707025711802215076446866121332.jpg 15707023867614656298759665449622.jpgIt is recognised for generations till modern medicine arrived. Red palm oil was the remedy of choice for nearly all illness in many parts of Africa. If someone is sick they drank a cup full of palm oil. Many people in villages rely on such age-old method of treatment. And Palm oil is regarded essential diet for pregnant and nursing women for assured good health of mother and child. Scientists recognise value of red palm oil in treatment or prevention of diseases. Scientific presentation International Conference Centre Birmingham Biomedical Science Congress, Dr. Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju, Department, Biomedical Sciences, said. Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University, Technology, Bellville Campus, South Africa further elucidated potential of red palm oil in moderation in the healing process body.1570653776803564907221306921431.jpg

Scientifically palm oil Elaeis Guineensis is super abundantly used in West Africa. Archaeological evidence on the palm oil consumption was found in Egypt over 5000 years ago. Essentially contains rich naturally balanced mixture of saturated monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats providing high level of bioavaliable nutrients than other vegetable sources. Like coconut, olive oil, palm oil is rich in medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), that mobilise body fat stores,increasing the metabolic rate as great source of energy. Palm oil is a rich source of antioxidants, especially Vitamin E. Health benefits of Vitamin E are known but Vitamin E has a complex constituents broken into the two groups of: tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) and the tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). While alpha tocopherol form most commonly marketed as Vitamin E, full spectrum of tocoperols and tocotrienols are required for optimal assimilation. And the super-antioxidant tocotrienols are important for optimal health. Natural antioxidants free radical plays the protective role in cellular aging, atherosclerosis, cancer, arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease.15706537529773419511003640038535.jpgResearchers believe the tocopherols and tocotrienols together provide necessary constituents to help limit damage from heart attack. Red palm oil supplies fatty acids essential for proper growth and development packed with assortment of vitamins, antioxidants, phytonutrients important for good health. So red colour comes from carotenes or beta-carotene and lycopene nutrients in tomatoes and carrots, other fruits, vegetables rich red and orange colours. Carotene’s valuable nutrients and powerful antioxidants are important because body converts into Vitamin A essential nutrient. Vitamin A deficiency can cause blindness, weaken bones, lower immunity, affect learning ability and mental function. Vitamin A in animal foods expensive some vegans want ban or cruelty in animal habitats.15707025212438153787872091408675.jpg 15707023009553670867157174083217.jpg15707023485737659382483707018386.jpg15707176753381643729453294235136.jpgwp-1570741499587.jpgIMG-20191010-WA0005.jpgIMG-20191010-WA0003.jpg15707183188916186410944286321541.jpg20191010_152936.jpgIMG-20191010-WA0004.jpg15707178683191311551244837819910.jpg15707179328823524300200961852299.jpg15707182551946714893949256711393.jpgIMG-20191009-WA0004.jpg15707180654631981086166843417443.jpg15707211799281650153418785419437.jpg15707249146877329145770675166689.jpg15707250221878825410605637871063.jpg1570724333720225742802031718484.jpg20191010_171100.jpgwp-1570727828248.jpgwp-1570727791770.jpg15707239639317669594999625097790.jpg15707266362638432679305406668006.jpg15707268852772449390352852451927.jpg1570726148206947713565204450155.jpg15707270696093181152666151376351.jpgCarotenes in fruits and palm vegetables supply needed Vitamin A in adequate amount of the fat consumed. Carotenes fat converted into Vitamin A. People need healthy product palm fat in small doses. Around 90% of palm oil is used in food culinary purposes in the cosmetics, shampoos and soaps. Palm oil popular biofuel. Traditional African medicine uses these Elaeis guineensis as laxative stimulates production of urine, poison antidote, can cure gonorrhoea, treat skin infection. But not harmless as studies link palm oil to cardiovascular diseases. To produce palm oil the fruit is collected from trees, which live average of 28 to 30 year. If trees grow too high it is difficult to reach fruit so cut down to make room for new trees contributing to the deforestation of the rainforests.20191012_105325.jpgPalm nut fiber separator machine and the palm fiber polishing machine called palm nut fibre separator machine.The palm nut fibre separator machine is an inclined cylindrical revolving machine used for separating the palm nuts from fibers. These palm nut fibre separators machine have screens in various sizes from which fibers escape, leaving nuts behind. The separated nuts are collected in cylindrical screen and bottom. Work principle of palm nut fiber separator machine: The palm nut fiber separator machine inclined cylindrical revolving machine heaves all around suitable size screen from fibres but palm nuts do not escape. Travelling mixture from upper end to lower end of the machine fibres escape from cylindrical screen as palm nuts are collected from the lower end of the nut fibre separator.20191012_105224.jpgPalm nut fiber separator is produced by Henan Doing Company to sell to small scale industries. Larger and heavier duty industrial machines exist churning tons if palm fibre in the processing of pal oil.  Fibres are used in the boiler as fuel. Palm nuts are sold out to palm kernel oil mill where they crack palm nuts to get palm kernels extract so palm kernels used for palm kernel oil.20191012_105131.jpgPalm nuts are used in a palm kernel oil mill plant for extracting palm kernel oil. Palm kernel cracked, separated by machine cleaning crushing, cooking and pressing. Small scale palm oil mill plant palm nut fiber separator machine is dispensable. Those who want to get palm kernel oil expand production with enough budget can buy palm nut fiber separator machine. Palm kernel cracking and separating machine.20191012_105017.jpgPalm nut fibre separator machine is a next process palm kernel oil processing machine for palm kernel cracking and separating machine. This palm kernel cracking and separating machine is also specially and newly developed to be used for cracking and separating palm nuts. It consists of palm nuts cracking machine, palm nuts kernel separator machine. Palm nuts cracking machine is mainly applicable for dividing the palm kernels into the outer hard shell with high efficiency. The palm nuts kernel separating machine is for separating the palm nuts kernels from the cracked shells clearly and completely. Despite modern industrial developments of this technology majority of people still use ancient traditional harvesting of palm fruit and processing manually. Involves the whole family or a cooperative small scale industry in their communities. Yet some campaign to curb overuse of lands destroying habitats of over 200 species of animals. Professional palm kernel oil extraction machine palm kernel crusher and separator also reduce employment as fewer people needed compared to the manual process. Overall palm oil is a good investment if properly managed. The other side of the coin is tons of the one use only plastic container wastes if not recycled for other purposes.