1e1fb573e764dbf9c5a0c3ca9a90f26a*FINANCIAL WISDOM IS ESSENTIAL AS SALARY IS A BRIBE TO FORGET ONE’S AMBITION* Research says the poorest groups of people in the world are salary earners, next to beggars. They live in a vicious cycle of poverty, managed on 30 days. Salary continuously awaited every month means slight delay brings about heartbreaking anxiety, pressure and disappointment. Salary is a short-term solution to a life time problem. 51kJWThEqVL._SX327_BO1,204,203,200_Salary cannot solve money problems. You need multiple sources of income to balance. The tax return forms contain about 11 income streams, so salary is just one. Don’t live Life fishing with just one hook, there are many fishes in the ocean. Salary is the MEDICINE for managing POVERTY, not to CURE it. Only your BUSINESS or INVESTMENT Cures Poverty. Most investors are not salary earners. The difference between those beggars on the street and salary earners is one month salary. Truncate the flow of their salary for one month and you would realize that majority belong to the lower class. If you divide your salary by the rate of exchange, you will discover you are poorer, relative to when you started work. Or divide your salary per annum by 2,000 hours to know what your one hour is worth.moneytree1.jpg

If you do not have 3 months salary in savings, you are already poor. Being a salary earner is just a mentality, break It! Your worth is far more than your salary. Salary is the value someone has put on your effort. How much do you value yourself? You can’t increase in value, unless you evaluate yourself differently. Life is a trade-off between time, effort and reward. To be rewarded more become more valuable. Most salary earners end up poor in long and short-term. So aim to be FINANCIALLY INTELLIGENT, FINANCIALLY LITERATE SO OPEN EYES TO SEE OPPORTUNITIES IN PROBLEMS. Delve into strategies for entrepreneurship because a salary is a lifetime disappointment. Being a salary earner or investor is a decision. Life Will not change until you decide. Make the move! Someone said “Salary is a bribe to forget one’s ambition.” Have a blessed and motivated Week.




Donald Trump with Tax bill

Global economic outlook is bright says the International Monetary Fund. The Global economy is booming according to news reports. President Trump’s Tax Cut and Reform Bill is expected to help encourage many business investments. Prospects for global economy looking brighter, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). It reckons recent pick-up pretty broad-based, particularly in Europe and Asia. Tax reforms in the United States are expected to stimulate economic activity, especially business investment. But IMF has substantially downgraded forecast for South Africa for this year and next. The new global forecast has growth of 3.9% this year and next, represents an upgrade of 0.2% for each year. And it constitutes faster expansion than previous years 3.7% in 2017; 3.2% in 2016, the improvement is widespread said report. 120 economies accounting for three-quarters of global economic activity saw pick-up last year. Developed and emerging economies are affected. IMF’s broadest synchronised  global growth upsurge since 2010 is to improve global economies. Indicators from business surveys suggests that the manufacturing activity remains strong. Improved performance towards end of last year as widespread report mentions Asia and Europe made ‘notable’ positive surprises in growth.Worker in China making a bikeManufacturing activity is expected to remain strong. Looking ahead, the IMF expects the tax reforms agreed in the US last year stimulates country’s economy. The main impact the report envisages is on business investment as result of the lower corporate taxes. Total cumulative effect up to 2020 is predicted to be 1.2%. The impact of reforms on the US and its trading partners accounts for about half of global growth revision for this year and next. But because provisions in tax reform are temporary, the IMF expects slower growth in a few years from 2022. There are a small number of forecasts lowered for individual countries. The largest negative change is South Africa, particularly 2019 where the downgrade is 0.7%. There’s a smaller reduction for his year. Changes reflect what IMF calls increased political uncertainty weighing on confidence and investment. There is a small (0.1%) downgrade for the UK in 2019. The report is an update between IMF’s full-scale forecasting exercises but does not give a reason. It predicts a UK growth of 1.5% this year and next. The G7 leading developed countries, says its better than Italy and Japan, but behind the other members of the group. Report notes Brexit negotiations as a number of potential risks to the outlook. It is an example of long-standing international commercial agreement of renegotiation. The IMF says increase in trade barriers and regulatory realignments the result of renegotiations, could weigh on global investment and reduce efficiency. The report warns failure to make a growth more inclusive increases pressures for what it calls “inward-looking policies” IMF means new trade barriers, which it regards as bad for economic growth.


668b9a6ac2b82d954df3d774d5874880--natural-hair-salons-posterThe modern hair movement came about as a trigger of South African school girls not allowed their natural look. So once again people felt freedom from slavery and colonialism is meaningless because they are being forced to look a certain way. Although it is acceptable to have a school dress code and a reasonable style yet to insist black hair be seen in only a particular form is an issue that reflects challenges of black history. Years ago it was banned that black women wear an intricately designed or woven hair style. The argument was that, it distracted the public so black women were forced to cover their hair or be fined. After years of spending too much money buying the chemicals to transform their hair, some felt under economic pressure to market hair products. 13935ab148e8bc72f5045c3d6c78acbc--natural-hair-salons-posterMany women suffered a damage from unsuitable chemicals so lost their hair as seen in the Tina Turner case so women wore wigs on stage. In addition, Walker the first black female billionaire decided to manufacture the suitable alternative for the black hair. Walker made her fortune by developing and marketing a line of beauty and hair products for black women through her Madame C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company, the successful still today. The issue of hair can be sensitive as it is an issue of cultural identity. Afrocentrics strongly believe everything must be an entirely black to feel truly black as a person. Others choose convenience and time constraints to adapt to what works best for them go live their lives.poster

The cultural attitudes to hair is not read about often in a mainstream textbook. It is a practice based on each community or the circumstances surrounding the birth of a child. First hair is not cut until certain rites are performed to bring the baby outdoors. After the baby hair is cut and preserved or given to the shrine if it is thought the gods helped conceive that child. The hair is left uncut until family prepares a ritual feast to thank the gods. That hair is dedicated to the shrine and every year so must pay homage to the gods. Some shrines require that child to serve them so cannot cut hair like the Nazirites in Bible. That hair is not to be cut so at times looks like lunatic’s hair. After ceremony others are free to do as they like with their hair once dedicated. The Bible recommends moderation of a style chosen so it does not intrude into time for work, caring for family, chores, cooking, washing or used to seduce and promote lust. This meant some covered their hair permanently keeping natural. Others spent days, months weaving hair requiring special stools to lean head on to sleep because of the style. Rally_Poster_2Grooming was done at home mostly before hair dressers came about. Mostly plaited or woven in beautiful artistic styles that had now developed into annual hair competition for the best hair style of the year. So fans attend to pick new tips and to showcase latest designs. Dilemma happens when work ethics demands a different hairstyle preferred be covered if manufacturing food or in similar jobs. It is balancing choice, taste combined with budget. So hair movement now teaches people on TV, YouTube how to maintain black hair efficiently. Others learn from home to groom black hair. Numerous shops are also available to get the right product for a hair texture. Black history has come a long way and depending on a choice of career or personal style can display flair especially if in art industry. The trend has seen also a mixture of the use of extensions to hold shorter hair in place to be more secured not to undo if in the middle of doing something. black or mixed race 19th century girl in ringlets, young Michael Jackson in afro, Bob Marley in dreadlocks and Naomie Harris

Transitions have taken place due to the imposed laws in the past banning the natural hair. Generations have created own methods of maintain black hair. So exhibitions take place bringing essential awareness of traditional history of uses of combs before slavery or colonialism. Museums display black hairstyles of the subject of exhibitions of freed slave girl, music stars Michael Jackson and Bob Marley, and James Bond actress Naomie Harris.  Black hair has been an integral feature of black history from an African tribal styles to dreadlocks and the afro. Exhibition show significance of hair in black culture to take a look at key styles.

African origin hairstyle

tribeswoman in headdress, two men with elaborate hairstyles and a Zulu coupleGold is often interwoven in the hair for special occasions. Headress, hairstyles indicated status and identities across Africa, including Cameroon (left), Ivory Coast (top) and southern Africa. In early African civilisations, hairstyles indicates a person’s family background, tribe and social status. Everything about personal identity could be learnt looking at the hair,” says journalist Lori Tharps, who co-wrote the book Hair Story about the history of black hair. When men from the Wolof tribe (in modern Senegal and The Gambia) went to war they wore a braided style, she explains. But women in mourning would either not “do” her hair or adopt a subdued style. “What’s more, many believe hair, given its close location to the skies, was the conduit for spiritual interaction with God.”

Slavery & Emancipation

objects from post-emancipationA comb and jug from post-emancipation period at the exhibition. It is estimated that 11,640,000 Africans left continent between the 16th and 20th Centuries due to transatlantic slave trade. These slaves took their African customs with them, including their specially-designed combs. “Their key is the bigger width between the teeth because African-type hair is very fragile,” says Dr Sally-Ann Ashton, curator of afro comb exhibition  at Cambridge’s Fitzwilliam Museum in 2013. “Out of all different hair types, it’s probably fragile so if yanking fine tooth comb through hair going to do an awful lot of damage.” During the 19th Century, slavery was abolished in much of the world, including the United States in 1865. Many black people felt pressure to fit in with mainstream white society and adjusted hair accordingly. “Black people felt compelled to smoothen their hair and texture to fit in easier, and to move in society camouflaged almost,” says exhibition producer Aaryn Lynch.Josephine BakerMany black people, such as entertainer Josephine Baker, used such products to straighten their hair. Post-emancipation era is time of ‘great oppression’ because black people to go through an intensive method to smooth their hair. “Men and women put their hair in a hot chemical mixture that almost burnt their scalp, so comb it to make it look European silky.” The industry grew to an extent so black entrepreneur Madame CJ Walker, sold hair growth products, shampoos and ointments in African-American market recorded as first self-made millionairess in US by Guinness World Records.

Civil rights era blackhair

black power fist comb and two girls with massive afros

The clenched fist comb symbolised the black pride along with Afros, as sported by girls in Liverpool, which also had a strong civil rights movement. The afro hair style, which emerged in the 1960s during civil rights movement, symbol of rebellion, pride empowerment, says Mr Lynch.” Black people protested against racial segregation and oppression, the eye-catching style took off as assertion of black identity in contrast to previous trends inspired by mainstream white fashions. And the African (or afro) comb re-emerged. “It was never lost in Africa of course,” says Dr Ashton. “But this was the advent of black power politics. “The afro hairstyle became very popular but it is quite high-maintenance.” Response to the racial politics of the time, the fist comb with a handle shaped like black power salute was designed in the 1970s. A lot of people who born in the 1980s and 90s think the salute is associated with Nelson Mandela. He just happened to use that salute when he was freed from jail” says Dr Ashton.

Roots of DreadlocksLiverpudlian woman in dreadlocks

A Liverpudlian woman with dreadlocks around 1990. In the 1930s, Rastafari theology developed in Jamaica from the ideas of Marcus Garvey, a political activist who wanted to improve the status of his fellow blacks. Believers are forbidden to cut their hair and instead twist it into dreadlocks. Not clear where the style originates from, although there are references in the Old Testament and the Hindu deity Shiva is also sometimes depicted wearing them. The profile of religion grew significantly in the latter half of the 20th Century, as “roots” movement developed back to origins of African-Caribbean culture. Its profile increased following the success of musician Bob Marley in the 1970s, with dreadlocks becoming a common sight in British cities. Afro dreadlocks remain most distinctive black hairstyle among ethnic groups. “The problem remains style of hair reflects each individual’s choices so hair is interpreted by a white mainstream gaze and interpretation often wrong as well as racist,” author Ms Tharps says. “Many people make assumptions an afro implies some sort of militancy or that wearing dreadlocks means predilection for smoking pot.”

Contemporary culture

Composite of Beyoncé and David Oyelowo and Will SmithThe singer Beyoncé popularised glitter weave after attending 2010 Grammys, while men like actors David Oyelowo and Will Smith  opt for shaven or shorn look. Black hair care is now a major industry, conservatively estimated to be worth about £530m ($774m) last year. It is often debated whether some trends still symbolise a desire to fit in with a mainstream Western look, Mr Lynch says. “Do we feel like we’re compelled to appropriate white culture or is it now a choice, convenience or whatever is in fashion?” Women’s hair extensions known as weaves have been popular but there is also a reported revival in natural hair interpreted as styles not altered by chemicals. “Its important the movement going on and in America it’s a lot bigger than it’s over here,” says Dr Ashton. “So if you go to the States, you see lots of African-American women with natural hair so starting to see that more in this country but there’s still nowhere near same number in Britain as there are in the States.” Many are browsing online to learn more about natural hair care – knowledge of which declined among black communities in the West after slavery. But changes in working patterns in the past 60 years, especially for women, means there can be less time to spend on maintenance, says Dr Ashton. “I think one thing a lot of non-black people don’t realise is just how much maintenance African-type hair is. If somebody says I’m washing my hair tonight, it can be like a three-hour job excuse for not going out.”dock and custom house and ship

HAIR Exhibition Museum Liverpool’s black history. The city became centre of the Atlantic slave trade in the late 18th Century. Liverpool’s black community began with the slave trade and is among the oldest in Europe. In the 1750s, black residents of the city included sailors, freed slaves and the student sons of African rulers. By the 1780s, port was seen as the European capital of the transatlantic slave trade with profits boosting the city’s development. In total, Liverpool ships transported some 1.5m slaves from Africa. After world war one 5,000 black people in Liverpool tensions riots erupted as servicemen returned looking for jobs. Riots broke out in inner-city Toxteth in 1981 involving black and white youths following economic or racial problems. Beautiful black hair is still in fashion. 



a6b851cdd90b07412e50e51efb9e8a3aThe public expressed concern over the use of anorexic models deliberately put under pressure to starve to wear size zero clothes. Some girls and the women are so thin their bones are protruding to be seen. The trend to fit into unrealistic human body shapes is the fantasy of the fashion houses that refuse to make any clothes for normal size women. Billions of tons of clothing are shredded every year or buried in landfill sites because they are too small to fit their targeted customers. Designers, manufacturers  or stockists do want certain body sizes to be associated with their labels.main-qimg-ecc383adc8709a144283fa8aeaf401ab Some go as far as banning ordinary the shops from displaying or selling their product because it dimisnishes their high Street brand names. A few clothes exclusively made clothes as the limited edition label one off at exorbitant prices is all they need to be in business. The majority of the average fuller figure body type hardly finds size in exclusive stores. It is claimed it costs more to produce bigger plus size so too expensive for suitable affordable price. Yet it costs more to overproduce fabrics wasted in tons of size zero trashed daily not able to fit normal size people. Some are too small and out of fashion so costs billions of carbon footprints damaging the environment. anorexic-models-08.jpgOthers wear clothes once in a lifetime and throw them away not donating it to be recycled. So health of size zero models are compromised to eat less or be fired from modelling. The store refuse to sell big sizes in the shop and so it is hard to readily find plus size decent fashion for normal use or some special occasions. Although numerous people in past complained for years size zero continues until recently when the few giant labels like Gucci, Saint Laurent, Vuitton et Dior, will stop using size zero UK size four models. They unveiled the charter “to ensure wellbeing of models” which will ban the use of girls under age of 16 for photoshoots or fashion shows to be representing adults.

On the eve of the start of New York Fashion Week, it was announced that these new measures were being taken to look after models. And the companies are addressing criticism they’ve faced that the fashion industry encourages anorexia and eating disorders. What’s more, Paris Fashion Week in February, the working conditions of models came under intense scrutiny. CEO of Kering, François-Henri Pinault, has said that the company would like to move quickly and react strongly so that things really change.  He added he hopes others in industry will follow. Antoine Arnault, a member of the LVMH board of directors and son of CEO Bernard Arnault, says charter will “change things completely.” Earlier this year, France banned the use of unhealthily thin models as part of a new law targeting “unrealistic body images” and eating disorders.

Models are now required to provide a doctor’s certificate attesting to their overall health and proving their body mass index (BMI) sits within a healthy range in order to work. What’s more, French magazines are legally obliged to indicate when a photo of a model has been retouched or photoshopped, or else they face a €37,500 fine. This is despite the fact that two years ago, then Vogue UK editor Alexandra Shulman spoke out to say she does not believe using skinny models encourages eating disorders in girls or gives them body confidence issues. But it’s safe to say the move by LVMH and Kering has been widely met with praise. “Other fashion houses must start following suit,” one person reacted on Twitter. “A deadly, disgusting trend that has no place in fashion.” 


Patient preparing for cervical screening

Embarrassment makes women avoid smear tests, charity says reported Lauren Bennie said she put off having a smear test until the age of 30. Young women are avoiding getting smear tests because they are embarrassed by the look and smell of their pubic areas, a survey suggests. A Charity Jo’s Cervical Cancer Trust surveyed 2,017 British women. A third said embarrassment caused them to delay getting a smear test, which can prevent 75% of cervical cancers. The charity said cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women under 35, yet two-thirds of those surveyed weren’t aware they’re most at risk. A total of 220,000 British women are diagnosed with cervical abnormalities each year.Lauren Bennie

‘Naive and uneducated’

Lauren Bennie said she put off having a smear test until age of 30 because she was “naive, embarrassed, uneducated about the female body.” “So many silly things stopped me from going for my smear test,” she said. “I worried about the nurse being able to take one look at my bits and have some magic skill to be able to determine the number of sexual partners I’d had. I thought a lot about what kind of underwear and clothes to wear.” While at university in Dundee, she thought she might know medical students who could be asked to observe. “I didn’t know that time embarrassment felt around going for smear was really doing my body damage,” said the 33-year-old Glaswegian. When she did eventually get a test she was told she needed further examination. “It was when I was faced with words such as dyskaryosis, high-grade and colposcopy that I realised severity of the situation.” Hospital results later confirmed she had severely abnormal cells that were pre-cancerous on cervix. “It was terrifying,” she said. “I felt angry than sad that I had left it so long to go for a smear test.”Patient preparing for cervical screeningLauren’s story isn’t unique. The survey found young women are embarrassed to attend smear tests because of their body shape (35%), the appearance of their vulva (34%) and concerns over smell (38%). A third said they wouldn’t go if they hadn’t waxed or shaved their bikini area. About 15% also said they’d miss their smear tests for a gym class or a waxing appointment. Robert Music, of Jo’s Cervical Cancer Trust, said: “Please don’t let unhappiness or uncertainty about body stop you attending what could be a life-saving test. “Nurses are professionals who carry out millions of tests every year, they can play a big part in ensuring women are comfortable.”

Smear test saved my life’

Of the five million women in the UK invited to cervical screening each year, one in four do not attend. This rises to one in three among women aged 25 to 29 and is bad in some geographic areas, as Glasgow. Mr Music said: “Areas have different demographics, pressures and geography,” with the charity finding a third of local healthcare providers and councils haven’t made any action in the past year to increase uptake of smear tests. “There is so much great work being done across the UK, however, if this is not amplified and prioritised, we will continue to see a decline in cervical screening coverage and ultimately lives lost.” Lauren’s smear test allowed her to catch the pre-cancerous cells before they developed into cancer. She said: “I had to have surgery to have a piece of my cervix removed. “Luckily I received the all-clear but if I delayed my smear test any longer it could have been much worse. “My smear test could have saved my life, please don’t put yours off.”


5 Types of Girls That Cannot Be Good Spouses

5 Types of Girls That Cannot Be Good Spouses as described here as follows. Men marry women who are kind and friendly. They avoid ladies who cause trouble so certain things do not attract guys. If you wish to get married, make sure you do not belong on that list:-

1. Selfish Women: That’s an unattractive trait so ruins any kind of relationship. It won’t help you create happy and strong bond so partnership involves 2 people and willingness to be helpful towards each other is very important. Instead of taking something from your partner, you should try to learn to be a giver.5 Types of Girls That Cannot Be Good Spouses Flirty Women

2. Flirty Women: Men do not trust women who are flirty. If you cannot help being flirty, do not expect your current relationship to last long. Either change that or forget marriage and family life. Once your man notices you flirt with other men he will leave you. Stay faithful and loyal if your intention is to create a family with your man.5 Types of Girls That Cannot Be Good Spouses Spoilt Brats

3. Spoilt Brats: You cannot make a good wife if you have been spoilt all your life. This might have been done by your parents, relatives or your previous boyfriends. However, this is another bad thing that will never make good for a long-term relationship or marriage. Sometimes spouses have to be ready to sacrifice themselves in order to make their children or spouse happy. If you expect it from your future partner yet not ready to give that back, you won’t be a good wife.5 Types of Girls That Cannot Be Good Spouses Gossiping Women

4. Gossiping Women: Curiosity is one thing. Being chatty is another thing. And being interested in gossip is something absolutely different. Stay curious and chatty if that’s your true nature. But avoid gossip. Mind your own business and quit talking about people’s lives, careers relationships. This makes you less attractive. Men do not like gossiping girls. Find something to keep your mind busy. Do reading, language or flower arranging courses, gardening or sports.5 Types of Girls That Cannot Be Good Spouses Disrespectful Women

5. Disrespectful Women: Respect your partner. Rude women are unattractive. It is embarrassing if around someone impolite in public. So disappointing to be in marriage with a rude woman who disrespects her husband. Your spouse is the person who lives with you. He might not be perfect but does not mean you have the right to disrespect him. Girls looking for right husband’s must be the right girls too. Valentine is coming for love season to blossom impress your man and treat him with respect.






Never use chemical cleaners if you have a garbage disposer, as this can cause damage to the unit.  If you are trying to remove a clog from the disposer, make sure that you switch it off first and never stick your hands inside as the blades are sharp. How to clear clogged kitchen sink drain is a familiar subject to many people. So here are various ideas recommended to try to help regain spotlessly clean sink. Often, a clogged kitchen sink drain can bring a household to a virtual standstill. Most clogs can be dealt with without the need to call out a plumber by using the 8 various of methods listed in article. To avoid the cost of calling out a plumber is preferable as experience shows. That means fixing the problem yourself by trying to unclog kitchen sink drain. It is easier than some people think. So clogs can be resolved by employing some relatively simple and straightforward techniques and tools. Once you have unclogged the sink, it is time to work on minimizing the chances of the problem reoccurring note recommendations at the bottom of page. These 7 suggestions show how to clear a clogged sink drain.A clogged kitchen sink drain can bring a household to a virtual standstill.  Most clogs can be dealt with without the need to call out a plumber, however, using a variety of methods.  I list eight of them in this article.

7 Ways unclog sink drain

  1. Check garbage disposer if has one.
  2. Use plunger to dislodge the clog.
  3. Clean the P-trap.
  4. Use a plumbers’ tool, “toilet jack” or “electric eel.
  5. Use baking soda and vinegar (the natural alternative to chemicals)
  6. Use cleaning chemicals.
  7. Call a plumber if still clogged.

More detail for each method, makes it clear the suggestions apart from calling a plumber, are relatively cheap or cost nothing. Time wise it takes ten minutes or hour to clear clog, depending on the nature of the blockage. The job can be messy, however, and care must be used if chemicals are involved, as splashes can burn skin or worse. Experience of unclogging a kitchen sink drain can also demand using a combination of more than one of these methods.A clogged kitchen sink drain requires urgent action.  Blockages can be caused by a variety of things, but can often involve foods such as coffee grinds, fat from meats such as bacon, and starchy foods like rice and pasta. A clogged kitchen sink drain requires urgent action. Blockages can be caused by a variety of things, but can often involve foods such as coffee grinds, fat from meats such as bacon, and starchy foods like rice and pasta. | Source

1. Check trash disposer

If your sink drain uses a disposer then you will need to check it for clogs. They can easily get blocked up with bits of food. If problem turns out not to be the disposer, or you don’t have one fitted, you need to explore other methods. To determine the source of clog first switch off the disposer. If you stick anything down drain, then you want to switch off the power. You can use a flashlight to look down drain and try to determine the nature of the blockage: basically, where it is and what is causing it. This will determine your tools and approach. The likeliest cause of the clog is pieces of food but more substantial valuable, jewelry, you may to call a plumber. If it is food, try breaking up the debris by manually turning the disposer blades. The manual operator is normally at the bottom of the disposer and is operated with an allen key. Refer to disposer manual for full instructions. Don’t use chemical cleaners with a disposer as these can cause it damage. It is possible to remove disposer for inspection. Be sure to pinch connections to dishwasher first, however. Use pliers to remove any loose food debris. Never stick your hand inside disposer as blades are sharp. If disposer is still clogged use a plunger

2. Try Using a Plunger

There are two types of plunger. You are better off using the type without a bell end for this job. Run a few inches of water into the sink to aid suction and begin plunging. After plunging, if you have a disposer, try running it again. Be careful not to overheat it, however, as that can damage it. Run some water into the sink. If it drains okay, you are all set. If it doesn’t run, then you will have to try some more plunging, or move onto another method. Never use chemical cleaners if you have a garbage disposer, as this can cause damage to the unit. If you are trying to remove a clog from the disposer, make sure that you switch it off first and never stick your hands inside as the blades are sharp. 

3. Clean The P-trap

The P-trap is the elbow-shaped pipe under the sink. If this gets clogged up with food and/or grease, then you may want to take it apart and clean out the gunk that is causing blockage.  Before you start, make sure that you have a bucket placed under the P-trap. Then you will need to unscrew connections to the pipe and wall. Remove the P-trap and inspect it for debris. If blockage is not in P-trap, then try unblocking the drain with a plumber’s coil.

4. Use a Plumbers’ Coil

If you have tried plunging and cleaning the P-trap and neither of those things work try using a plumber’s coil. This tool consists of a coiled spiral, typically around 1/4-inch thick with a handle at one end. The coil is used to reach down into drain and then handle is cranked, dislodging and pulling up the clog. Some snakes are manually cranked. Some are powered for extra strength.Baking soda and vinegar in combination can sometimes work when it comes to unblocking clogs.  The baking soda is added first, followed by the vinegar.  The stopper should then be pushed in to contain the reaction.Baking soda and vinegar combination can sometimes work when it comes to unblocking clogs. The baking soda is added first, followed by the vinegar. The stopper should then be pushed in to contain the reaction.

5. Baking Soda & Vinegar

This method avoids use of chemicals. It doesn’t always work, but worth trying. All you need is one cup of baking soda and one cup of vinegar. First, pour boiling water down drain. Then push the baking soda down the sink drain, use a spatula if necessary. Next pour the vinegar into the drain. Now put stopper into sink, pushing the vinegar toward the clog and blocking off action. Flush the drain with boiling water again.

6. Use Chemical cleaner

Note: If your sink has garbage disposer, I would seriously recommend that you do NOT use a chemical cleaner, as they react badly. I would recommend not using a liquid chemical cleaner if you have a complete block, rather than a slow draining clog. Because there is a chance of chemicals being backed up into the sink, along with stagnant water. The type of cleaner you get is influenced by what you think is causing the clog. Generally speaking biological materials require a more acidic cleaner. Greasy clogs are better dealt with using the alkaline cleaners. Always read the label carefully and use the cleaner exactly as instructed. Chemical cleaners can be harmful if misused.

7. Call Certified Plumber

Clearly the least affordable option and the last resort for those seeking to save on expense, calling out a professional plumber remains a possibility if nothing else works. It can be less trouble for when nothing seems to work, or for those who really don’t want to start messing around with the plumbing. It may be the least troublesome in certain situations, however, just to get someone else in to fix the problem. Causes of sink drain to be clogged is most food types are potentially capable of causing clogs. Some types worse than others include:

  • Meat or grease (such as bacon fat) which can coagulate and then catch other foods.
  • Coffee grounds, which can form into hard, compressed lumps if not properly drained
  • Starchy foods, such as rice, potatoes, pasta.
  • High fiber foods, such as certain greens, corn husks and celery.

Clogged sink drain issues

The initial problem is usually slow drainage. If not resolved, the water will begin to back up and drainage may stop altogether. It’s important to note once drainage problems have begun, they will usually only get worse over time, unless action is taken. The sooner you deal with problem easier to resolve.

Prevent Future Clogs

Prevention is almost always better than cure, of course, so don’t abuse your drain with the worst food types (see causes list above). You may also wish to invest in a good sink strainer to stop the sink drain getting clogged up with food pieces. It’s also sensible to have some essential tools on hand, such as:

  • Clamps
  • Pipe wrench
  • Pliers
  • Allen wrench
  • Plunger (a flat cup without a bell generally works best for most kitchen drains.)
  • White vinegar and baking soda

As mentioned, a drain augur is a very useful tool to have around too, not for sinks, but unclogging shower drains too.

Updated on January 20, 2018
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Since leaving college, Paul has worked in a variety of roles, including: painter and decorator; general handyman; and freelance writer.