SUGAR BLACKSLAVE HISTORY

15713054607238903501092629203849.jpgBlack History Month October celebrates abolition of slaves whose wealth enrich G7 Western Europe and America but deprived slaves of their dignity and long life so slaves became traumatized. 15713056029367773464045337576003.jpgTriangular trade from Europe on ships to Africa to Carribean to America back to Europe. G7 member nations enslaved Africans. Belgian King Leopold invited them jointly to divide and own Africa.15713055252467866924691785551731.jpg Almost a thousand years black slavery continued despite official abolition law. Slavery produced sugar, cocoa, coffee, cotton for “triangle merchants” of slave trade in Britain, Africa and West Indies. 15713054895557916154530721927074.jpgTriangle trips carried guns, goods from England to Africa for slaves from Africa to Caribbean. Sugar, coffee, cotton and rum to England for commercial slavery by supply and demand on plantations. 1571305574491870094090532857700.jpg15714076486934305525943298638509.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0021.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0011.jpgAtlantic crossing from Africa Middle Passage shows cruelties of plantations in the British Caribbean. Africans were herded on slave ships and branded with irons labels people property of owners.15713033917892027579692775521469.jpgPortuguese also built sugar plantations in 1550’s off the coast of their Brazilian settlement colony, located on the island Sao Vincente. Portuguese and Spanish colonial presence in Caribbean Iberian Peninsula wealth cultivated cash crops.15713030689847713844378615539055.jpgThe economic boom of these plantations began colonizing remaining American territories to capitalize on the lucrative cultivation and trade of native’s natural resources. Sugar is the most important crop in Caribbean but other crops such as coffee, indigo, and rice also grown. 1571303161531508320018965015780.jpg15712992630563548705097506481294.jpgThe coastal sugae cane was best grown on the flat land near coastal waters as the soil was naturally yellow and fertile. The mountainous parts of islands were used for sugarcane cultivation industry. IMG-20191017-WA0010.jpg15712987137944748591809211620677.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0004.jpg348s.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0020.jpgThe coastal placement of commercial ports gave imperial states a geographic advantage to ship the crop throughout the transatlantic world. Sugar Slavery  trading of the Africans highly profitable not paying slaves for enforced labour. downloadfile-1.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0014.jpgSlave-Ship-pic-4-Wikipedia.jpg15714064266664307134901227462768.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0015.jpg15713038953617219558390950064672.jpg15713037481496759185923572241666.jpg15713036678907107097446613800368.jpgSlaves lived in appalling conditions but masters indulged in excessive luxury by toils of slaves. Triangular trade profits  prospered the West but underdeveloped blacks made poor despite the hardwork. 15713035569197275545111601093952.jpgwp-1571322668408.jpgManufactured goods were traded to the West African coast for slaves, who were shipped to the sugar colonies by middle passage. Sugar, molasses, rum, shipped from these islands back into England.15713038363315671248783757607047.jpg15713038628448686754927140878564.jpg15713036996912748769302716101649.jpg15713036364091737502484623690543.jpgSugar was the main crop produced on  plantations throughout Caribbean in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Most of the islands were covered with sugar cane fields and mills for refining sugar. IMG-20191017-WA0003.jpg15713001247174007076067301082629.jpg15713002203195667591899451618769.jpg15713001854538734211621372862312.jpg15713001504746913528570416798187.jpgwp-1571311816344.jpg15713002724015553289083152949101.jpgThe main source of labour was enslaved Africans. After the abolition of slavery, indentured labourers from IndiaChina, Java migrated to Caribbean to work on sugar plantations. Plantations produced 80 – 90% sugar used in Western Europe.15712995770488034116736118045599.jpg15712996195613941216406783616691.jpg15712997447027764109633942991300.jpg15712995281323834808765635583176.jpgSugar enabled slave labour for profits with tragic consequences in Caribbean. Imperial powers forced West Africans to cultivate sugar by slaves. Exploited labour, natural world created imperial conflicts in these Caribbean regions.IMG-20191017-WA0002.jpg15713029223757577184974282763473.jpg 157130286531419080874850560467.jpg15713027760246994249402391806889.jpg15713028101291278500655225486775.jpg15712977059634715966485674610399.jpgUse political and economic control they create to divide and rule people policy of animosity. Conflicts among English, Spanish, French and various indigenous people was used for territorial gain.15712964787331552835795446583723.jpg15712950696973492756233402938394.jpg15712972087976309023403494269657.jpg15712989701492300170279122619503.jpg 15712973826202918078063655814609.jpg15712954764466783854135368343091.jpgEuropean states exploited environment, resources so sugar production began to stagnate. Due loss of trees for timber in the sugar refinement process, European imperial powers competed and fought over Caribbean in middle 17th century.15712948461163990403389790355463.jpg15712948817835962190680372982605.jpg15712953753492679276778321664742.jpg15712961917284396878281626055702.jpg1571294941734562424695867162323.jpg15712950360621362782314632360478.jpgEuropean settlers’ entry into Caribbean world caused changes. The indigenous populations died due to influx of world diseases of colonists. Population losses from 8.4 – 112.5 millions of these native populations cleared way for plantation industry and less conflict for Europeans and all these indigenous peoples too15712965493371578408370674417736.jpg15712966476488592384520750409745.jpgColonial arrival of sugar cane culture impact societie’s economy in Caribbean. Increased ratio of slaves to freemen and increased the sizes of slave plantations. Sugar plantation use of slaves affected cash crop economies in cultivation. The large plantations with the slaves Africa  imported worked on plantations. 15712956357681865740619933022642.jpg15712955869055477780312402713803.jpgPrior to 1650 three-quarters of island’s population was of European descent. In 1680 plantation in Barbados increased to about 60 slaves. So sugar plantations expanded transatlantic trade prospers. In 1832, plantation in Jamaica had 150 slaves one in four lived with 250 slaves. 15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15712947049235987567928405600593.jpgAbout 100 years, Barbados was richest European colony in Caribbean region. Then sugar cane production expanded to larger colonies Saint-Domingue and Jamaica. Mass sugar industry sugarcane processed commodities: rummolasses, and falernumWest India Interest was formed in 1740s by British merchants to West Indian sugar planters. 15712969933543584698609408312672.jpg157129755509656600633346701060.jpg15712963455442945155011821550429.jpg15712962302017147386549329208022.jpgwp-1571322746426.jpgBritish and West Indies shared profits or costs. needs. This first sugar-trading company was powerful in Parliament. In 1740s Jamaica and Saint Domingue or Haiti world’s main sugar producers. IMG-20191017-WA0000.jpgIncreased production in St. Domingue used irrigation system French engineers built. Reservoirsdiverted dam levees  aqueducts and canals. Improved mills and varieties of cane and grasses helped increase profits. St. Domingue in 19th century Haiti and Cuba sugar plantation Caribbean did better than British island.1571297025702538564298899779586.jpgIn the 19th century, sugar dominated  MartiniqueGrenadaJamaicaSaint CroixBarbadosLeeward IslandsSaint DomingueCuba, and other island run by FrenchBritish, or Spanish owners. During late 19th and 20th centuries the sugar cane industry dominated Puerto Rico‘s economy by colonial rule of Spain and under United States. 1571294727684996436954631513550.jpgAfter slavery, sugar plantation labour was workers imported from colonial India, Southern China. In 20th century, large-scale sugar production using wage labour continued in many parts of the region. Sugar cane industry’s negative impact affected the environment as this industry grew in Caribbean countries. 15712951825801502632195092917389.jpgThese include the destruction of forests, water pollution, loss of fertility, erosion of soils. These problems on a different scale in Dominican Republic in the 16th century; Lesser Antilles in 17th century; Jamaica, Haiti in 18th century, Cuba and Puerto Rico in 19th century. The nations impacted by sugar on the environment.15712952542173744336540029352835.jpgThe deterioration natural environment, had socio-economic consequences. And took its toll on Africans an integral part to cultivation, production of sugarcane. Slaves toiled in fields, boiling houses to supply huge amounts of labour sugar required. Four million slaves survived  Caribbean sugar plantations. wp-1571330195777.jpgConditions were harsh, mortality rates high through all stages of slaves’ lives. Some sugar colonie’s slave population ten times less than the European slave uprisings ever-present fear of planters. Slave trading highly profitable triangle of trade of Atlantic manufactured goods traded to West African coast for slaves shipped to sugar colonies of the middle passage and sugar, molasses, and rum were shipped from islands to England.wp-1571330138914.jpgSlavery in England  deemed illegal since 1772. The slavery in sugar colonies was vigorously pursued in Parliament and publication throughout last quarter of eighteenth century to time of abolition of trade in 1807, emancipation in 1833.15712977450102090396760846491987.jpg wp-1571330017603.jpgwp-1571330075100.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0001.jpg15712970952265673717702786919787.jpg15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15713021011131294159836164367675.jpg15712969306591487070998245117838.jpgdownloadfile-2.jpg12355_2014_311_Fig1_HTML.jpgAbolitionists arguments against slavery was support in England and in America. Abolitionist movement boycotted slave-grown sugar by protests is celebrated as key component of abolition’s success.15712979796166770357711539697198.jpggettyimages-919491468-612x612.jpg15712985345335906738950765594570.jpg1571300771153191415282151247452.jpg15713004757394126936251265247884.jpg15713005171167919886088148258374.jpg15713007268423280865825419848256.jpgBoycott from writings to educate sugar is derived from blood, sweat and tears of slaves pollutes the body. The planters by prospect of abolition emancipation, attack on their financial interests, place in empire argued in favour of slavery.15713009777485298377118240667583.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0006.jpg15712980902104280568193144664796.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0005.jpg15713003436563749568168188652437.jpg15713014110543316473429243866261.jpg15713013089491042850157734430430.jpg15713011469935621723745379844781.jpgWilliam Beckford, large-scale Jamaican planter wrote about the island unable to inherited plantation debt. Plantations profit dwindled by later plantation era so planters were compensated for their loss of earnings. Slaves never received compensations, restitution or apology. 15712989421675147982996667160052.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0009.jpg15713018236223543718958756404016.jpg15713016238362599330973898756795.jpg20191018_194544.jpg15712991574789124671528049609976.jpg15713015641859068275661653780133.jpg1571301463714798903122388001392.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0008.jpg15713014963618985587415087318746.jpg1571301334033345284614607997855.jpgInstead suffer racism from the people who sent ships thousand of miles to drag them from their homeland into strange lands. Many slaves after the wars were sent from America to Liberia and Sierra Leone in western Africa.20191017_095342.jpgIt was a problem their roots could not be traced having been renamed by force despite protests of Kunta Kinte. Natives discriminated against them because they were not indigenous citizens. And residue from slavery and colonialism is institutional racism still directed black people today.20191017_095707.jpgInvincible chain of slavery, colonialism racism hatred propaganda promote the harassment of black people. Western countries built by slave labour, natural resources usurped controlled by West. African economies are still owned by Western nations exploiting resources. Yet conqueror parasites play the victim despite depending on African slavery and ccolonialism. Kings like Prempeh exiled to Sierra Leone and Seychelles for resisting slavery and colonialism. So was Nelson Mandela incarcerated with others who fought back. Some toppled by coup detat directed from the West were replaced by stooges put in place. The Africans enslaved or colonised both victims of a system that exploited them. Africa’s resources of gold from Ghana, Guinea,  Mali, Songhai empires, Mansa Musa had supersized gold tied to horse taken by whites. Gold was so abundant it was dished out freely to loyal citizens. Gold taken over as diamonds. Africans did not gain from slavery to enrich the kings as people claim. But were stripped of natural resources owned by Western countries. Africa never has economic so still controlled by the Western nations today.

GOD GIVES PERFECT PEACE

GOD keeps in PERFECT PEACE the MIND kept on GOD because of TRUSTING GOD says Isaiah 26:3. A man declared FAITH in God that if GOD slays him he STILL LOVES AND TRUSTS GOD. In Job 13:15, Job’s faith in GOD was tested yet TRUSTS God and maintains his ways before God.15710500170627782202892357446392.jpgJesus Disciples said, they have nowhere else to go because Jesus has the WORDS OF ETERNAL LIFE. In John 6:68, Simon Peter answered Jesus, Lord to whom do we go? No matter their fate, challenging circumstances of life they had nowhere to go but run to LOVING ARMS OF GOD.1571049947069757816999684027485.jpgJesus asked His twelve disciples “Do you want to leave too like Judas Iscariot for greedy love of money, for pleasures of the world etc betrayed Jesus? They said absolutely not because he who has the Son has life. No matter the issues of life Jesus warned of these perilous times.D.15710498484774482450719129202222.jpgThe Have CONFIDENCE in GOD to see you through life in Jesus Name. GOD says do not fear those who kill flesh but cannot kill the soul in Jesus Name FEAR GOD who kills soul. Bible says in John 16:2 they will put you out of synagogues or kill thinking they are DOING GOD a favour. The day is coming they will face WRATH of GOD on DAY of the LORD.wp-1571053184636.jpgJESUS COMES TO GIVE LIFE EVEN LIFE MORE ABUNDANTLY IN JESUS NAME. As citizens of heaven THE REAL LIFE ETERNAL IN ETERNITY IS YET TO COME to reunite LOVED ONES as devil burns in hell for attacking GOD’S people globally. Example of faith is testimony of Horatio Spafford’s faith in GOD in his time of adversity. Weeping may endure  but joy comes in the morning for those who MOURN with HOPE in Christ.15710499640867255745608443986295.jpgOn being notified of tragedy at sea and the loss of his children, Horatio Spafford immediately set sail for Wales to reunite with his heartbroken wife. Once at sea, Spafford asked the captain to point out exactly where the Ville du Havre sunk.
As he crossed fateful spot grief-stricken father sat with pen in hand and wrote what become one of Christendom’s most beloved song of HOPE and TRUST in GOD ELOHIM JEHOVAH in CHRIST.wp-1571053218214.jpgChristian believer’s salvation is in Christ alone because there is no other name given among men by which to be saved. In Psalm 139:8 Bible says, “If I ascend to the heavens GOD is there; if I descend in Sheol GOD is there. GOD’S WORD does not go void so achieves GOD’S purpose for sending word. In Psalm 139:9 If rise on wings of dawn or settle by farthest sea GOD is there. There is nowhere to go to escape wrath of God its a futile desire to run from the LORD so RUN to GOD. 15710853891056583687574779996534.jpgPhilippians 4:7 says the PEACE OF GOD which passes all human understanding will keep your HEART and MIND SAFE in UNION with CHRIST JESUS. Its GOD’S Grace, Mercy and Compassion that gives Strength to endure in adversity to cope with grief, sorrow, pain, loss. GOD is still on the Throne so in Control of your life. 

PERFECT PEACE FOR ALL WHO TRUST GOD.

When peace, like a river, attendeth my way, When sorrows like sea billows roll;
Whatever my lot, Thou has taught me to say, It is well, it is well, with my soul.

Though satan should buffet, though trials should come,
Let this blest assurance control,
That Christ has regarded my helpless estate,
And hath shed His own blood for my soul.
(Refrain)
It is well, with my soul,
It is well, it is well, with my soul.

GOLD/GEM’S BLACK HISTORY

15703599427795849490005497582097.jpgDiamonds and golds are a variety of the precious fine elegant jewellery items of everyday or special occasion celebrated. Western Europeans value diamonds as investment of great significant interest to them. Gold and diamond gemstones exhanged plus slaves sold for cowries or empty bottle glass beads during slave trade in Africa. Europeans travelled to the Maldives to harvest cowries filled with ships to West African Coast as currency for trade. The glass bottles are shipped to West Africa, grinded for making beads in exchange for the diamonds, gold and the slaves.15703593971038371000270296116611.jpg IMG-20191006-WA0004.jpg15703596092627729972377068231247.jpg15703594510032028393125005315779.jpgIMG-20191006-WA0003.jpgA bizarre exchange took place whereby two waste products as cowrie shells and empty glass bottles recycled to Africa in exchange for gold,  diamond and slaves. A deeper reflection of precious priceless treasures of gold, diamond and slaves in unfair exchange of cowry, glass bottles.15703601079021629804224632030148.jpgIMG-20191006-WA0005.jpg15703600189287282435431865502778.jpg15703598531044087406023553158766.jpg15703596674004412191520517798868.jpgThe slave traders shipped thousands of barrels of glass, crystal and coral beads to Venice in Italy into West and Central Africa. Broken glass bottles melted used to make beads for exchange of African captives. English East India Company imported millions of the cowry shells to Europe sold in Africa by slave traders. 15703595479508843222281945377230.jpg15703594724334800070438091881338.jpg15685440748807277633702931880292.jpgSlave traders exchanged gold shells of certain species historically used their currency in several parts of the world. Used in the past is presently extensively used in jewelry and other decorative or ceremonial purposes. Cowry shell is most used worldwide as a shell money.  Liverpool controlled 80% British slave trade and over 40% of glass bottle beads from Italy, cowries from Indian Ocean.15703654416986799591359005112019.jpgShell money medium of exchange is like coin money or other commodity money  used in many parts of the world. Shell money consisted of whole or partial sea shells worked into beads by shapes. Use of shells traded by commodity exchange valued body ornaments. The distinction between beads, commodities as money debated by economic anthropologists.Africa+Before+Europeans.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0025.jpgashantikingdom-768x299.jpgIMG-20190808-WA0006.jpgimage.jpgSome kings recruited women of Agoji to fight as an army of 4,000 women who battled against Europeans. West African Yaa Asantewaa in Ashanti, Gold Coast now Ghana and Kingdom of Dahomey between 17th and 19th centuries fought. These brave women who fought against slavery and colonialism. Lupita Nyongo went to Benin to explore army’s legacy.poster,840x830,f8f8f8-pad,750x1000,f8f8f8.u2.jpgasantwea-1-680x365_c.jpgwp-1571498295453.jpg15713056029367773464045337576003.jpgMore than 1 billion tonnes of ivory has been taken by Western countries over a thousand years from Africa. But after independence they ban Africans from benefitting from ivory trade destroy by burning or crushing high-profile events in 21 countries around the world. Kenya and others forced to burn ivory in each country destroy 105 tonnes (231,000 lb) of ivory by fire so not funding projects.021639A3-6D15-48F6-83C1-18C0B93154C9_w640_s.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0022.jpg15714104985158493773424962768652.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0012.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0009.jpg15714099074491660731594248591932.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0013.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0024.jpgIMG-20190918-WA0010.jpgPrecious gold was exploited by Western G7 countries which continue to own the mines all over the world. They brought bottles and cowries exchanged for gold and slaves exported to work in mines Brazil, South Africa among others. This underdeveloped African without them investing in people to own resources.15703583848418688805040572864609.jpgShell money in exchange for glass beads in AmericaAsiaAfrica and Australia. The most familiar the wampum created by the indigenous peoples of East Coast,  North America. Ground beads cut from purple marine bivalve shells. The shell used worldwide as currency is the shell of Cypraea moneta money cowry. 15703584223038067271825762797665.jpg15703585606134465096612475839878.jpg15703585357865249895412656567623.jpg15703585026025926365042799769893.jpg15703584687476343591616701578432.jpgBeads exchanged for gold and slaves or diamonds and cowries. Cowry species abundant in Indian Ocean was collected from the Maldive Islands, in Sri Lanka, along the Malabar coast in Borneo and other East Indian islands and African  coasts from Ras Hafun or Mozambique.  Cowry shell money traded by networks of Africa, South Asia, and East Asia.IMG-20191006-WA0000.jpg15703573743066753630029787445541.jpg15703574141542657800047709871768.jpg20191006_112007.jpg20191006_112058.jpg15703577026686191533060876311596.jpg15703574929207567621432847011562.jpg15703575513795785535363368352890.jpgThe first European nation in Transatlantic Slave Trade was Portugal in mid to late 1400’s. Captain John Hawkins made first English slaving voyage to Africa 1562 reign of Elizabeth 1. Hawkins made three journeys in six years. He captured over 1200 Africans sold as goods in Spanish colonies in Americas. British traders supplied slaves for Spanish, Portuguese colonists in America. British settlements in Caribbean North America grew in wars with European countries as Holland, Spain, France, British slave traders supplied British colonies. The British ships took part in the Slave Trade in the 245 years between Hawkins voyage or abolition of Slave Trade in 1807. British merchants despatched over 10,000 trips to Africa for slaves. Merchants in other parts of British Empire sent out a further 1,150 voyages. Portuguese, British, France, Spanish, Dutch Netherlands, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Norway all sold slaves as the Arabs sold slaves for centuries. The  Arabs used cowry as Cypraea moneta. IMG-20191006-WA0006.jpg15703656922301612021566349132130.jpg15703666082696824174557729869127.jpgd984d85d60ae0ec484903eecd261119b.jpgA print from 1845 shows cowry shells used as money by Arab traders. And in  Western Africa shell money legal tender until mid 19th century. Before abolition of slave trade, large shipments of cowry shells sent to English port’s reshipment to the slave coast. The shells of Olivella nana a sparkling dwarf olive sea snail harvested from Luanda Island used as currency in Kingdom of Kongo. Al-Idrisi in mid-twelfth century described a King of Ghana tethering his horse to the huge gold in his palace taken by whites like a similar but lesser size gold in Australia. Abundant gold in South Africa cause the apartheid the bad treatment of blacks in their own motherland. Gold Coast now Ghana became finished because of gold. Black history deals with injustice issues of African suffering despite gold riches.15705320153876161750733975044943.jpg1570530133933986560778091953603.jpg15705302340738369641996290500847.jpgMansa Musa I from 1280 – c. 1337 was the tenth Mansa, translated as “sultan” “conqueror” or “emperor” of a wealthy West African Ghana, Guinea, Songhai Mali Empires. Mansa Musa, the Malian emperor was richest person in history with so much gold he is noted in ancient maps. He caused inflation in Egypt by giving away too much gold with 60,000 people entourage each carried gold bars he gave as gifts on his journey to Mecca.

20191006_105616.jpgThey were traded north in the Kingdom of Benin. In Kongo called nzimbuzimbo  or eli in Ghana. The value of the cowry was much greater in West Africa than in the regions from which supply obtained so trade extremely lucrative. Some cases of gains said to be 500%. Use of cowry currency spread inland Africa. About 1850 German explorer Heinrich Barth said widespread in Kano, Kuka,  Gando and Timbuktu. Barth said in Muniyoma one of ancient divisions of Bornu, king’s revenue estimated at 30,000,000 shells, with adult males paying annually 1,000 shells for himself 1,000 for each pack-ox, 2,000 for each slave in his possession.IMG-20191006-WA0001.jpgCountries on the coast fastened together shells in strings of forty or one-hundred each twenty strings represents a dollar. In interior laboriously counted one by one or, if the traders were expert, five by five. The districts mentioned above received supply of kurdi, as called, from the west coast. The regions to north of Unyamwezi, where they were in use under the name of simbi, dependent on Muslim traders from Zanzibar. The shells were used in remotest parts of Africa until early 20th century now use modern currencies. So other shells of large land snail Achatina monetaria cut i circles with open center used as coin in Benguella, Portuguese West Africa.IMG-20191006-WA0002.jpgCowry shell served as their medium of exchange in the early to mid-nineteenth century slave trade. With neighbouring regions trading beads worn locally and sold abroad. It is the strange monetary value of cowry and empty glass bottles compared to slaves, gold and diamond. Reycled bottles from Western world is now a problem with tons of waste that is no longer shipped as much to Africa. As Africs us an extension of European markets now has tons of bottle waste so not all used in making glass beads15703589345984661777063266130447.jpgThe debate continues why the European slave traders duped the Africans with a cowry and empty glass bottles for gold, diamonds, gems. And above all humans created by God worth of priceless value commoditized and dehumanised. Black history month focuses attention on this past treatment of black slaves and then abolishing slavery. Modern slavery and past issues of retribution, reparations, compensation for slave descendants is pending for justice. Bible says, Eye has not seen, ear heard or entered heart of man things God prepared for those who love Him in 1 Corinthians 2:9. God says HE will deal with injustice. Seek God in Christ Jesus to help supply your needs.

CASSAVA IN BLACK HISTORY

15700999806043825768664414506827.jpgCassava plays a major role in black history as a valuable subsistence cash crop in many countries. Cassava farming is made popular in agricultural endeavours for its durability and longevity as a crop and processed food.15701000221464867956713913357522.jpg 157012424161541310914407740074.jpg15701243065766467411996274915613.jpgThe processed cassava lasts very well for its storage and in transit. This is why it was fully exploited by slave masters who used it to feed slaves. Cassava said to be introduced in Africa in sixteenth century by Portuguese slave traders. 15700998237728739612559767715343.jpgThe Portuguese began to import slaves from Africa from 1550 and used cassava in the form of meal farinha to provide food to sustain the slaves. Its cultivated in Africa for hundreds of years and also processed in a variety of ways. 15700981491587221729125657570359.jpg1570124619932904628965496065059.jpgIMG_20191004_23505.jpg15701259791047400650882647545777.jpg15701260356521499747372103173655.jpg15701261092411378454319017863669.jpg15701230328683420556536533851367.jpg15701231082225387273312182487086.jpg
Safe processing destroys cyanide poison causing Konzo deformity deficiency by lack of vitamin in body. Dried cassava is grinded to flour. In drought emergency eaten raw to sustain life if safe variety. 15700989697897450658739552856085.jpg15700985028274978919304327532155.jpg15700986196777326550185249568168.jpg15700985396945033385490985002606.jpg15700986499171048318423939864404.jpg15700986846781036881210689403379.jpg15701170043108400465710040480247.jpgGarifuna ereba or cassava bread made from grated cassava root yucca as the Garifuna’s from Caribs “Karifuna” or cassava clan. “Garifuna” means cassava-eating African people arrived in 1675 by wreck of slave ship from Bight of Biafra. Survivors members of Mokko people of Nigeria Ibibio. British sailors reached a small island of Bequia, Carib took them to Saint Vincent and intermarried with them, supplying the men with wives, as it was taboo in their society for men to go unwed. Grated cassava is put into a large cylindrical woven bag “ruguma” hung from tree weighted at bottom with heavy rocks squeeze out the poisonous liquid starch from grated pulp. Weight pierce bottom of “ruguma” tree branch one or two Garifuna women sit on the branch to drain starch and dry dough.15701302840986870671403231638660.jpgThe Garifuna cassava is made into flour, the rest of pulp dried overnight sieved through flat rounded basket hibise flour baked as pancakes on large iron griddle ComalEreba eaten with a fish machuca  pounded green and ripe plantain, gravy lasusu with fish soup “hudutu.” Or dish  bundiga green banana lasusu, mazapan, bimecacule sticky sweet rice or coconut rice with red beans. Nigerians eat “eba,” “gari,” “fufu” from dried grated cassava flour dishes “ewuro” or egusi” are eaten with melon seeds soup. Alcoholic drink called gifiti is rum bitters made soaking roots, herbs. Cassava dough fermented dry is roasted gari and eaten with soup.IMG-20191004-WA0003.jpgIMG_20191004_42340.jpg15702020387975466995755152923365.jpg15701295966361576106819538589512.jpgIMG-20191004-WA0005.jpg15701293352654780439362192279750.jpg15702015902053537057114595303431.jpgIMG-20191004-WA0004.jpg15702016623514957994804075773008.jpg1570201568070910860951730314518.jpgWild cassava plants or taller larger than normal cassava and is toxic not advised to eat unless properly processed so the toxins removed. And after is prepared by draining its poison thiamine cyanide thrown away as yellow top liquid layer.15700990930616221314849729254632.jpg The white starchie soft velvet is dredged as a dough after draining its pressed by weight to extract the pure farina starch used for tapioca. Less starchy dough is bagged or stored in baskets to dry out.1570116662697460291419114319383.jpg15700994651302555562733309869833.jpgIMG_20191004_57328.jpgwp-1.jpgThe spread out detangled flaked dough is roasted as gari. Gari eaten as savoury or sweetened by sugar, milk with nuts, coconut pieces etc. Cassava is eaten for centuries but was domesticated globally and fuelled by the slave trade. 15700993375697322468602728789524.jpgGariba, Bami, yakeyake are eaten with sauce in many places daily. It is almost always available in Africa and Central or South America, Caribbean countries plus other places in Western world. 15700994936636529658242956518731.jpg15701305158058006745810737442447.jpg15700982858818817695744191059975.jpg15700984080884419915385874955338.jpg15700967182378510289728036609210.jpgThe southern border of Brazil has wild cassava among other places. Toxicity of cassava is removed to stop the presence of cyanogenic glucosides compounds of cyanide and glucose, hydrogen cyanide HCN potent toxin plant tissue damaged.15700984440246136830838925534693.jpg Cyanogenic glucosides is removed from all the varieties of cassava. The varieties referred to as ‘sweet’ low-cyanide have low levels of cyanogenic glucosides in the flesh of the root. And can be peeled and cooked like other root vegetables.15700983554834610658471765710192.jpg The bitter or high-cyanide higher level cyanogenic glucosides in the root peeled and the flesh requires their extensive processing before are safer to be eaten. Different cassava processing techniques to grate, peel tube, ferment and sun dry.15700993820442721571294578208250.jpg 15700990085591779173120637929485.jpg15700984722484822652591740495530.jpgreuters-goma-woodbike.jpg15702720804197723159071665385846.jpgIMG-20191005-WA0006.jpg20191003_114040.jpg Then adding water to some masticated roots and allowing mixture to ferment. High-cyanide varieties prepared from manicuera cooked juices and thin bread, masticated, cooked root tubers and gari.15700991570941049642023886601092.jpg15702721360284604438417127342920.jpgIMG-20191005-WA0007.jpgIMG-20191005-WA0004.jpgProcessing removes the damaged plant tissue toxin makes it safe to eat. Chicha  mild alcoholic beer made from the low-cyanide and high-cyanide cassava. Low-cyanide variety is prepared by peeling, cooking, mashing roots or making gari. 20191003_145317.jpgIts a national cuisine of South America, low-cyanide cassava used vegetable and boiled, or boiled, fried. In Brazil farinha is part of their traditional dishes and in Colombia breads made with fermented starch of high-cyanide cassava or gari. 20191003_150128.jpgCassava is the second most important food crop in sub-Saharan Africa. So the majority of cassava-based foods made in Africa by fermentation products. 20191003_130703.jpg 20191004_201152.jpg20191004_194333.jpgGranular meal farinha, cooked cassava pounded fufu; grated fermented roasted gari; leaves cooked eaten. A raw cassava is frozen; kept underground and grated cassava dough is steamed as yakeyake.20191004_210655.jpg20191003_114730.jpgCassava products include chikwange or baton de manioc, a steamed boiled paste from the soaked roots, and lafun, a flour from the soaked roots. 20191003_150244.jpgCassava roots are prepare similar to the Asian countries by boiling, baking, frying, peeled, sliced, sun dried.20191003_130819.jpg The roots grinded as flour used to make porridge, traditional food chappatis and dosas India, bibingka rice-like landong  Philippines. 20191003_165054.jpgCassava starch is exported sold in shops as tapioca eaten with milk and sugar plus fruits added.20191003_140100.jpgCassava chips are eaten globally and is in different flavours from plain to spicy ones depending on taste. Cassava dough mixed with corndough makes banku.20191003_164749.jpg Dried cassava is pounded, grinded in mill as kokonte cooked, eaten with peanut butter, palmfruit okra soup.20191003_141254.jpg Semi dried dough made as agbeli kaklo fried and served with coconut pieces. Its important to realise global connection. 20191003_164700.jpgCassava spread by slavery and culture of retained food in black history month celebrations to bring awareness. Agbeli,  ‘agbe’- life + ‘li’ – exists = life exists is the Ewe name for cassava sustaining life.20191003_165800.jpg 15700987250555808220578403239938.jpgIMG-20191004-WA0001.jpgFrom 1525 to 1866, 12.5 million Africans were forcibly transported across Middle Passage to serve as slaves in the New World. Documents detail cuisines of the Africans by English and Dutch explorers in 1400’s depict gari essential ingredient in dishes including spinach leaves with palm oil. West African Palm Oil is still used in dishes in Nigeria, Congo, Sierra Leone, Guinea Gold Coast and Angola. The slaves in 1530’s forced to improvise used on their plantations coconut oil for cooking. The flavours between palm oil different coconut oil and palm kennel is clear but used.  Life aboard ships was a brutal experience, many died in transit due to harsh conditions. Lack of healthy nutritious food caused death and the dead thrown overboard into the sea but slave traders claimed insurance for loss of property and loss of earnings.15702848867455727850678033769823.jpg15702869526787599744170919682563.jpgSo slaves were barely fed during Middle Passage. The best slave ships fed slaves beans, corn, yams, rice, palm oil dregs. But slaves were not always fed daily. If there was not enough food for all sailors and slaves the sailors eat first and so the slaves did not get any food. Conditions on board ships during Middle Passage were appalling. The men were packed together below deck and were secured in the ship’s hold. Slaves were chained ankle to wrist, with no place to move so dehumanised as cargo and humiliated.15702868630696748270198992347843.jpg The captains try to cut Middle Passage voyage as short as possible. But despite efforts tragedy of slavery killed many. It the heritage of rich foods and enriched culture retained by the indigenous slave descendants that preserved these foods. Cassava roots, gari, cassava, leaves, rice, and beans eaten globally by Africans or African descendants. These foods links continents by cultural food celebrations, festival that bring people together. Care must always be taken if one processes cassava. Check with experienced person to ensure a correct, safer processing of cassava products. Many people suffer from effects of the cassava not properly processed as Konzo leg or fatal cases. It is interesting the variety of the products made from cassava with various names. The fresh and dried cassava peels and leaves are eaten by goats and sheep.

GOD KNOWS YOU BY NAME

15696018096118520238093821280294.jpgGod called Moses in Exodus 2:1-6 in the burning bush by name ‘Moses! Moses in verse 4. God knew and called Moses by name for God knew Moses by name and God knows your name too. In Exodus 33:17 the LORD God told Moses I will do the thing you asked for you found grace in my sight and I know you by name.15695936359615921057643056964170.jpg1 Samuel 3:1-10 says God called Samuel by name five times that night. Samuel’s name is known by God who knows your name too. Jesus after death when ladies at His tomb told by angel, “Go tell the disciples and PETER, Jesus is going ahead of you to Galilee in Mark 16:7.  Peter is named by Jesus and God knows your name too. Be confident God knows your name to care in HIS LOVE for you.15695930491324585302263683787082.jpgtumblr_ca0a2765cf4867f498a1ffd18607a767_81b9a534_540.gif15695928353085138114838400789948.jpg15695937154576726216725543685279.jpgIsaiah 43:1 – Bible says in Jeremiah 1:5 Before God formed you in the womb He knows you, before you were born God sanctified you, ordained you prophet to the nations. Before you were born God called you from birth and mentioned you by name in Isaiah 49:1-26. Listen, O isles, hearken people from far. The LORD called Isaiah from the womb so God mentioned Isaiah by his name.IMG-20190927-WA0003.jpgIsaiah 43:1-28, The LORD God created you Jacob and He formed you O Israel, Fear not, God redeemed you and called you by your name as God’s property. In John 10:14-15, The GOOD SHEPHERD is God HE knows HIS sheep and HIS sheep know God and hear HIS VOICE daily.15695927732523471099889250649876.jpg15696018479875481401615843368842.jpgIn John 10:3, the Good Shepherd Jesus the door opens and the sheep hear His voice. Calls His own sheep by name and leads them into green pastures. Psalms 139:1 – 127:24, in the Psalm of David, O LORD you searched me and know me. It is written in Psalms 91:14, Because you set your love on God, therefore God will deliver you and set him on high because you know God Elohim Jehovah’s Name.IMG-20190925-WA0001.jpgIn Isaiah 43:2, When you pass through the waters I will be with you through rivers they shall not overflow you. When you walk through fire you will not be burnt or flames burn you. Isaiah 43:7 Says everyone called by MY NAME is created for God’s GLORY formed by God WHO made him. Exodus 33:17 The LORD told Moses I will show you MY GLORY as you said for you found grace in my sight and I know you by your name.20190927_153428.jpgMoses negotiates with God to lead Israel by cloud in the day and by fire at night. Moses no longer carried the burden of leading the people allowed Moses rest to let people God tells them to move or to stop. Moses told “the LORD lead the people so everyone will know You are leading us.” God’s response in Exodus 33:17 is I will do what you ask because I know you. God knows Moses and Moses knows God will do as HE said HE will do for Moses trusts who God knows Moses. 15696020670754183882991775581690.jpgThe LORD assured Moses HIS Presence will go with Israel and responded with these words in Exodus 33:17: “I will do this thing you spoke of you found grace and favour in My sight, I know you by name.” This profound statement and is confidence boosting for Moses under so much pressure from people. This truth from to Moses is significant in our lives. Leaders find people look up to them not God to settle problems. So may not seek answers in Bible for guidance look for others for advise them. God is needed despite angelic help for journey to help with challenges of life in Promised land. 15696016206507657032653170389037.jpgMoses said, “If You know my name and I find grace in Your sight be with us. The LORD knows your name HIS favour on you to truly to experience HIS presence, grace in life, family, work or future. God knew all his mistakes, his anger, pride, murder, grief of loss of Miriam, his need for a new leader to help. God knows us by name. God knows moment from time knitted in womb and named. When we feel lonely God knows we are not alone for the Father God is with us. And Jesus promised to be with us to the end. God leads and gives rest. We trust God to be with us shows up in HIS Shekinah Glory to reveal His presence to give us hope.15696015692418302686744808717505.jpgRevelation 20:15, says God knows those whose are found written in the book of life but those found cast in a lake of fire. God sees good deeds in secret. Matthew 6:4-8, says all your gifts in secret Father see in secret to reward you openly. The Almighty God, Creator of the Universe created you in HIS OWN IMAGE knows your name each hair on your head. He knows details of your life and loves you, wants to spend time with you. So God is part of your life as you are in HIS Image you have God’s inbuilt nature, qualities of God. All who call upon the Name of the LORD shall be saved in Jesus Name156960351765152153874966760369.jpgIn Isaiah 43:1-28 The Lord who created you Jacob and formed you O Israel: says “Fear not for I redeemed you and called you by name you are mine. And when you pass through the waters I will be with you and through the rivers they will not overwhelm you; when you walk through fire you will not be burned and the flame shall not consume you. For I AM the Lord your God the Holy One of Israel, your Saviour. I give Egypt as your ransom Cush and Seba in exchange for you. You are precious to me, honoured and I love you, I give men in return for you in exchange for your life. Fear not, for I AM with you and I will bring your offspring from the east and west. I will gather your children from the north.15695940672132046145896182366750.jpgIn John 10:14-15 Jesus as good shepherd knows His own and His own know Him  the Father knows Jesus and Jesus knows the Father and He lays down His life for His sheep. In John 10:3 His sheep hears His Voice, and He calls his own sheep by name and leads them out. Psalm 139:1-24 says,  LORD, you search and know me you know when I sit down or when I rise up. You discern my thoughts from afar. You search out my path and my lying down and acquainted with all my ways. Before I speak the words on my tongue O LORD you know it. Your hedge of protection is behind and before me to and keep your hands upon me. God.15696016868903921635021051869826.jpgIn Psalm 91:14 “Because we hold fast to God in love He will deliver and protect us because we knows God’s Name. And  Isaiah 49:1-26 says Listen O coastlands, give attention people from far. God has called me from my mother’s womb and named me. He made my mouth like a sharp sword; in the shadow of HIS hand he hid me, made me a polished arrow in HIS quiver he hides me. God said, “You are God’s servant in whom Israel will be glorified.” I said, “I laboured in vain and spent my strength for nothing in vain its LORD God who will recompense me. So the LORD formed Isaiah from the womb to be his servant to bring Jacob back to HIM and Israel gathered to him. Isaiah is honoured in the eyes of the LORD and God is our strength in Jesus Name. 

GOD’S WRATH: gold calf idol

15690979064902713126790492251793.jpgA golden was calf made as Moses stayed on the mountain, it caused people to tell Aaron to, “Come, let us make gods to go before us. Moses who brought us out of Egypt, we don’t know what happened to him in Exodus 32:1. Instead of sending a search party to check on Moses ask for a god to replace the LORD God Elohim. So 2 Aaron said, “Take off the gold earrings your wives, sons, daughters wearing to bring it to me. 3 All the people took off the earrings so brought them to Aaron. 4 He took put into fire to make idol cast calf fashioned by a tool. They said, “This is god Israel which brought you out of Egypt.”5 Aaron built altar in front of the calf said, Tomorrow will be a festival to the LORD. 6 The next day people rose early to sacrifice burnt offerings and sat down to eat, drink, indulged in revelry. 15690854387152242805834355396970.jpgThe LORD said to Moses, Go down, because your people you brought from Egypt became corrupt. 8 They turned from command to make idol cast calf. They bow and sacrifice to it and said, These are your gods Israel which brought you from Egypt. 9 God told Moses they are stiff-necked people so MY anger burns against them to destroy them so I will make you a great nation.” 11 Moses pleads with God, “why should your anger burn against people you brought out of Egypt with great power and mighty hand? 12 The Egyptians will say, ‘Your evil intention brought them to kill them in the mountain to wipe them off the face of the earth. Stop your fierce anger don’t bring disaster on the people. 13 Remember your servants Abraham, Isaac and Israel, to whom you swore by your self: ‘I will make your descendants as numerous as stars in the sky to give your descendants all this land promised their inheritance forever.’14 God relents and did not bring on HIS people threats. 15 Moses went from mountain with two tablets of the covenant law inscribed on 16 Are tablets God wrote and engraved. 15690850117201042018437546389012.jpg17 Joshua heard noise of shouting said to Moses, “There is sound of war in the camp.”18 Moses said: “Its not sound of victory its sound of singing.” 19 Moses by camp saw calf and dancing, his anger burned, threw tablets out of his hands, breaking them to pieces at the foot of mountain. He took calf, burnt it in fire, ground to powder mixed in water and made Israelites drink it. 21 Asks Aaron “What did people do to you to lead them into great sin? 22 Do not be angry my lord Aaron said, “You know people these prone to evil 23 They said, ‘Make gods to go before us. Moses who brought us out of Egypt, we don’t know what happened to him. 24 I told them bring gold jewelry I threw into fire to make calf.”25 Moses saw people running wild Aaron let them get out of control and a laughingstock to their enemies. Moses stood at entrance of the camp and said, “Whoever is for the LORD, come to me all Levites went to him. 27 This is what the LORD God of Israel says: ‘Each man strap sword to his side. Go in camps from one end to other killing, brother, friend and neighbours.”15690853861033695279721949296149.jpg 28 Levites did what Moses commanded so that day three thousand people died. 29 Moses said, “You are now set apart to the LORD today as you were against your own sons, brothers HE has blessed you this day.” 30 The next day Moses told people, “You committed a great sin so I will go to the LORD to make atonement for your sin.”31 Moses went to the Lord and said, “What great sin the people committed to make gods of gold. 32 Please forgive their sin if not, blot me out of book you have written.” 33The Lord replied to Moses, “Whoever has sinned against me I will blot out of my book. 34 Now go, lead the people to the place I spoke of, and my angel will go before you. However, when the time comes for me to punish, I will punish them for their sin.” 35 The Lord struck the people with plague because of what they did with the calf Aaron made. God of Israel freed them from their slavery in Egypt in Exodus 32:8 forgotten wants god made from their trinkets, jewelry, bangles borrowed in Egypt. 15690978052441768923771628213165.jpgIsrael given gifts from God turned it into idols to replace Moses mediator with an idol of gold meant for God’s Glory. Their gifts from Egypt from God turns to evil abomination. Seems ridiculous to turn gold to idol declared “gods that brought them out of Egypt.” Israel is taken out Egypt but Egypt is not taken out of them copied idols in Egypt. Took the gifts God to Israel to worship idol not the Creator Almighty God. Knowing God deserves loyalty to be faithful to the Covenant. Impatient waiting a long time for Moses to return from Mount Sinai with the 10 Commandments. God’s timing is not by their terms, conditions, schedule but decided to take matters into own hands. God’s High Priest Aaron’s words to remind them of God’s goodness is non existent. Didn’t seek monotheistic God’s face in prayer, frustrated acted by their permissive freewill of their timetable. Force God to act quickly as HE DID and sent Moses to their own destruction by death and plagues. Aaron tried to justify his reason he set up calf with an excuse the “people made him do it.” Aaron’s job depended on the direct instruction from God not from people who mislead him. To obey God rather than men not make idol for sacrifice or feast uncalled for by God to please people out of fear. Aaron compromised but spared by God for the sake of Moses and his calling by God. IMG-20190921-WA0014.jpgIMG-20190918-WA0011.jpgIMG-20190918-WA0013.jpgGod Elohim Elohim saved the children of Israel through Moses and Aaron who spoke to Pharaoh. But people forgot God did great miracles in Egypt after Moses  was away for 40 days demands Aaron  “make gods to go before them.”So Aaron said took gold rings and he fashioned it into molten calf said “They said, these are your gods O Israel  who brought you from Egypt. So “Aaron built an altar and organised festival to celebrate god tomorrow.’ Fear of mob or doubt sets in so Aaron as a leader who should know better joined in. Moses returned from mountain shocked by their actions and broke the tablets of ten commandments. Aaron’s weak position compromised his faith so they behaved even worse after the calf was made. Wrong action Aaron took to please the crowd made it worse. Moses saw Aaron’s lack of their strong leadership and irresponsibility grinds the god calf. Moses asked him in Exodus 32:21 “Why he led people to sin? Moses angry they made idol at Sinai are told forbidden, worship it, credit it with the GLORY and HONOUR due to Elohim. Aaron’s answered, “the people prone to  evil in fear put gold, silver in fire made golden calf. Aaron said, “remove gold rings in ears of your wives children” in 32:2. Aaron ask Israelites to contribute gold for Tabernacle shortly after. Made a complete U turn Aaron used jewelry for God. “These are your gods, O Israel” in Exodus 32:8 shows ignorance after all the miracles in Egypt in Exodus 12:38.15690853396981651610688323950098.jpgMoses punished people involved killed by sword or died forced to drink water of ground golden calf, plagues, in 32:20-35. For the sake of Moses, Aaron spared by God made High Priest. And God told Moses in 32:7–8, “Go to your people you brought from Egypt made a molten calf. Moses in Exodus 28:1, pleads with God for helper God told Moses “Bring Aaron to serve Me.” God told Moses to, “bring him near.” Aaron, despite flaws chosen by God for job. Moses, Aaron had flaws too but God’s Divine Choice overruled Moses’ anger. So Aaron and Moses God permitted to enter Holy of Holies. God spoke to Moses and Aaron who told the Israelites “remove gold rings in the ears of your wives and children” in Exodus 32:2. Miracles and plagues witnessed by Israel that destroyed Egyptians by God soon forgotten by Israel. The idols gods of gold, silver, stones, statues, rocks or wood, rivers, etc. cannot compare with God Elohim. Romans 1:25 says, people changed truth of God into lie, worship and served the creature more than the Creator Elohim who is blessed for ever. 15690852998777617629643321381310.jpg
Psalm 115:5 says gods have mouths but cannot speak, eyes but cannot see. And  Psalm 135:16 Have mouths do not speak have eyes but do not see. Deuteronomy 4:28 says “They serve gods the works of man’s hands, wood, stone, neither see, hear, eat or smell. Daniel 5:23, you exalt yourself against the LORD of heaven, took vessels of HIS HOUSE you and your nobles, wives and concubines use to drink wine you praise gods of silver and gold, of bronze, iron, wood and stone, which do not see, hear or understand. YET God is One in whose hand your life breath is in, you do not GLORIFY HIM. So become like what they worship blind to Spirit of the Living God deaf to Word of God, dumb to the Everlating Gospel of Testimony of Jesus Christ, Revelation 5:1-14. People become like the idols they worship. What they adore is resembled but believers are to love God to conform to the Image of Christ with God. Antioch people recognised apostles and disciples being with Christ by imitating Him. 15690854132716197525446172792585.jpgIn Jeremiah 10:1-10 same instructions to all to hear the words the LORD spoke to the house of Israel and to all the nations 2 Thus says the LORD Learn not ways of heathens and be not dismayed at signs of heaven; for heathen are dismayed at them. 3 The customs of the people are vain, one cuts a tree out of the forest the work of the hands of the workman with an axe. 4 Decks it with silver and gold so ties it with nails and hammers to fix it not to move. 5 Like an upright palm tree speaks not, is carried because it cannot move. Be not afraid of them they cannot do evil or is it in them to do good 6 And there is none like Elohim O LORD. You art great and your Name is mighty God. 7 Who will not fear you O King of all the nations? For to you belongs all nations And among all the wise men of nations and in all the kingdoms there is none like you. 8 So altogether is a brutish and foolish doctrine of vanities. 9 The Silver spread plates is brought from Tarshish, gold from Uphaz, work of workmen and hands of foundering blue, purple is the clothing of all the work of cunning men. 10 But the LORD is the LORD God, HE is the Living God and Everlasting KING. At HIS wrath earth tremble nations unable to abide at HIS anger.IMG-20190922-WA0001.jpgIMG-20190921-WA0015.jpg15690979577412213509752473793311.jpgQueasyEllipticalBlowfish-size_restricted.gifJeroboam told people of Israel, “It is too much to go to Jerusalem to worship God so, Here are your gods O Israel, which brought you up from land of Egypt in 1 Kings 12:28. Divided kingdom period of Israel in 931-723 BC, Judah: 931-587, Jeroboam built Danite pagan altar high places of 1340-723 BC. Dan tests people through their idolatry in Israel. The sons of Dan set graven image and Jonathan son of Gershom son of Moses and sons priests to tribe Danites until day of captivity of the land in Judges 18:30. God tore Israel from house of David to make Jeroboam king he drove Israel from following the LORD to commit great sin. The sons of Israel walked in sins of Jeroboam so did not depart so God removed Israel from His sight. Israel was carried away into exile from their own land. Amos heard the LORD saying: “Strike the tops of the pillars so thresholds shake. Bring them down on heads of all the people; those left killed with the sword none will get escape. God sends earthquakes in Amos 1:1 destructive power to destroy temple and homes. Survivors of the earthquake killed by sword. The LORD’S fugitives to escape judgment no escape of avenging hand of the LORD. Dig to depths below, climb to heavens above brought down. Hides on top of Carmel is hunted down, seized, hides from MY eyes at bottom of sea but commands serpents to bite them so God finds them in grave, skies on Mt. Carmel, bottom of Mediterranean. God commands giant sea serpents to destroy Israel, all people who reject Christ Jesus.15691508974177443346729491138605.jpgActs 17:27 God wants all to seek HIM to reach out to find HIM HE is not far from any one of us. 27 For in HIM we live and move and have our being. 28 your poets say, ‘We are HIS offspring 29 as we are God’s offspring should not think of God in gold, silver, stone image designed by human skill 30 God overlooks ignorance but commands people to repent 31 God  sets day HE will judge world justice by the man HE appointed and given proof by raising Him from the dead.”32 When they heard about resurrection of dead some sneered but others said, “We want to hear you again on this subject 33 Paul left Council 34 Some people follow Paul, believed one is Dionysius a member of Areopagus and woman named Damaris and number of others. Israel’s golf calf of pagan heathen nation spiritually God says idols of gold or silver cannot save. Hosea 14:3 tells Israel not to depend on strength and support of foreign powers or people’s own abilities to make war so asks people “Assyria cannot save us; we will not mount warhorses.” God alone saves His people not by the means of conventional weapons. People to love each by other mutual understanding and respect not by dominance and power. God’s compassion delivers Judah not bow, sword, battle, horses or horsemen in Hosea 1:7. Racist divisive leaders self-destruct through hatred.15691513515824318622528750280201.jpgGod’s love is to Israel and nations is: the LORD loves you and keeps oath sworn to your ancestors. God brought you out with a mighty hand and redeemed you from land of slavery. The LORD God is faithful God, keeps Covenant of love to thousands of generations all who love and keep HIS commandments in Bible in Deuteronomy 7:8–9. God’s Wrath is to idol nations as Moses and Elijah warned to stop hopping between God and baal like Jezebel and Ahab. Wrath of God has consequences for all who cling to God’s creatures not Creator. So 3000 years ago God sent Moses and Elijah to confront nations to choose between idols and HIS Kingdom. Endtime those in Christ Jesus know Rapture will come to go to heaven safely with friends and family. The lost must accept Jesus as living sermon His consuming fire burns in our bones so idols cast down. Anything superseding Lordship of Christ gone, idols destroyed, fear gone. When they saw boldness of Peter and John known as uneducated men surprised, recognized they have been with Jesus in Acts 4:13. They look and sound like Jesus. Moses face shines with God on mountain. So whoever you are around reflect in your persona Bible says God is not mocked good manners is corrupted by evil idols so be careful to worship only Jehovah in Christ Jesus.

Bible Texts on gold calf:

Exodus 32:13: “Remember Abraham, Isaac, Israel, You Swore by Yourself to them, ‘I will multiply your descendants as stars of heavens give lands to your descendants to inherit forever don’t kill them for making the golden calf.”
Exodus 32:4: Aaron took gold from their hand and fashioned it with graving tool and made it into a molten calf; and they said, “This is your god, O Israel, who brought you up from the land of Egypt.”
Deuteronomy 9:16:“You sinned against the LORD your God made for yourselves molten calf; turned aside from the way the LORD commanded you.
Nehemiah 9:18:“They made themselves a calf of molten gold and said, ‘This is your god who brought you from Egypt,’ and committed great blasphemies.
Acts 7:41:“They made a calf and brought a sacrifice to idol rejoicing in the works of their hands.
1 Kings 12:28:The king consulted them and made two golden calves and said to them, “It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem, behold your gods, O Israel, that brought you from land of Egypt.”
2 Kings 10:29: The sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat he made Israel to sin from these Jehu did not depart, even golden calves remained at Bethel and Dan.
2 Kings 17:16: They forsook commandments of the LORD their God and made for themselves molten images two calves. Made asherah worshipped all the host of heaven and served baal.
2 Chronicles 11:15: He set priests of his own for high places, for satyrs and for the calves he made.
2 Chronicles 13:8:“You resist kingdom of the LORD through sons of David being a great multitude having golden calves gods Jeroboam for you.
Hosea 10:5: Inhabitants of Samaria will fear for calf of Beth-aven so people will mourn for its idolatry, their priests will cry out over its glory departed from it.

 

THIS PEOPLE NEVER ANGRY

15619803537592179922344463155949.jpgBriggs recollected in her landmark 1971 book “Never in Anger,” about how calm and collected everyone was jarcontrast that created against her own unruly emotions. Even when some truly rage-worthy things happened like a teapot falling and smashing against floor the Inuit never betrayed a hint of anger. An “Emotional control is highly valued among Eskimos,” she wrote in the book. Indeed, maintenance of emotions under trying circumstances is essential sign of maturity, of adulthood.” Why so calm, she wondered? And more importantly, how can the rest of us get there? For the answer, Briggs looked to how children responded in difficult circumstances appeared to be something they learned from their parents. An simple parenting technique of Inuit is “Never scold child.” It became clear to Briggs when a young boy threw rock at her, related in a CBC interview, she didn’t berate him angrily, rather told him calmly it hurt. Instead of rage she told him real consequences of his actions caused her pain. Decades later, the writer Michaeleen Doucleff followed in Briggs’ footsteps in visiting Iqaluit, Canada, “in search of parenting wisdom. Said that teaching children to control their emotions is very important she writes in NPR. Doucleff found that a common strand among Inuit parents is: Across the board all mothers mentioned One Golden Rule: Don’t shout or yell at small children.”20190701_130919.jpgAmong Inuit Arctic community Doucleff found the people practiced the theory that screaming at a child only teaches the child to scream. It is a vicious circle, the University of Pittsburgh researcher Ming-Te Wang noted in a 2013 study. “It is tough call for parents because it goes both ways: the problem behaviours of children create the desire to give harsh verbal discipline. That harsh discipline may push adolescents toward the same problem behaviours.” The Inuit society seems to have learned lessons long ago, and managed to break the cycle. And so  “Traditional Inuit parenting incredibly is nurturing, gentle, tender,” as Doucleff writes. “If you took all parenting styles around the world and ranked them by their gentleness, Inuit approach would likely rank near the top.” What kind of children does that society produce? The kind who live harmoniously in world’s harshest climates often with threadbare resources. Survival hinges on making the most efficient use of natural world yet group still manages to be at peace with itself and with others. Maybe that’s because it’s also the kind of society that teaches kindness above all else. Jesus said do not let the sun radiate or set on your anger. Let it go for peace of mind.

Inuit simple way of teaching children to control anger

Christian Cotroneo

CHRISTIAN COTRONEO

Article from March 26, 2019, 2:08 p.m