God’s joint heirs are kings and priests of God in Christ Jesus. There is neither Jew nor Greek, neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; you are ALL ONE IN MESSIAH YESHUA. In MESSIAH you are Abraham’s seed heirs according to promise in Galatians 3:27–29. Today know Jesus better by READING BIBLE to STUDY LIKE BEREANS not just do what so called fake control freak cult pastors order you to do to manipulate your life. Messiah Jesus is coming to decide your reward based on if you are HIS SHEEP. Not what the fake prophet misquoted in Bible designed to lie to you because you lack knowledge. God says MY PEOPLE are destroyed for lack of knowledge of Bible. God says Study to show yourself APPROVED TO GOD not show off Bible verses you memorized. But APPLY the Bible to each need you have, read the specific TEXT daily to meet your need.Each one faces God alone on judgement day so remember God will not ask about what the pastor told you. God demands account of your PERSONAL LIFE not the total social media number of followers, bank accounts, mansions, private jets, size of your family, your status, class, colour or race. Each person must share Gospel to DIRECT PEOPLE TO GOD IN CHRIST. The Church you attend or the denomination is IRRELEVANT TO GOD. Letter to seven Churches in Bible warns Churches. Israel and Jewish people are ONE IN CHRIST JESUS to fulfill all God’s feasts, prophecies covenant promises. Isaiah 27:6 says, God will cause them that come of Jacob to take root Israel shall blossom and bud to fill the face of the world with fruit. The people of Israel return from parts of the world their ancestors dispersed take root. The land is blessed and people blessed in the world. Israel’s desert desolate is a major exporter of food to the world. The crops are major export by companies in Israel Isaiah predicted. Isaiah predicted in the Word of God over 2,600 years ago fruit of the land blessing Earth with physical food exported and fruits of God’s Word confirms by Holy Spirit in Christ Jesus. Zechariah says all nations on earth will come yearly to Israel to celebrate Feast of Tabernacles to worship LORD of Hosts. Zechariah 14:16. Isaiah points to road connecting Egypt to Assyria and through this area access road is being built called King’s Highway. Building a super highways links them with all the surrounding nations. These prophesies of Isaiah and Zechariah prepares way in advance in time for Messiah’s rule from His Throne in Israel. Jesus Rules whole Earth and all people will know God in the millennial kingdom in Israel after rapture and His second coming on earth after Armageddon. The land is prepared today to fulfil prophecy of Messiah Jesus as KING of Kings and Lord of lords. And above all countless multitudes of people of all nations, tribes, languages, colours, BELONGS TOGETHER IN HEAVEN AND LATER DWELL ON EARTH WITH GOD. God is not a respecter of persons to put any person above others by class, race, colour, wealth or status. Death is their leveller making all equal before God. No man is bigger or stronger than Jehovah God no matter how powerful they may feel in own eyes to inflate their ego.
Traditional music of African continent is passed down orally and is not written. Sub-Saharan African music tradition is based on many percussion instruments including xylophones, drums, and tone-producing instruments such as mbira or “thumb piano.” The music and dance of African diaspora is from these various regions of diaspora origins. The degree of influence of African musical tradition includes American music or Caribbean genres like soca, calypso and zouk. And Latin American music genres: rumba, conga, bomba, cumbia or samba music of the music of enslaved Africans. These in turn influence African global music.Replica of a Akan West African chief’s drum used for dance music events. The artist is high ranking West African well slave community. Drum denotes a wood carving specialist but drums prohibited because white colonists feared its used to communicate for revolt. So Virginia preserved African Cultures from 1700 – 1800, drums made of animal material and Wood. Drums are oldest African-American objects collected early 1700s in Colony of Virginia in America. Drum was made in the Akan region in Ghana West Africa is played during ceremonies or social occasions. The music is fusion of sounds from Ghana, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Gambia, Uganda, Morocco, Belgium, Scotland, England, Denmark, and France. instruments include Kora, Ngoni, Gimbre, Krakab, Axatse, sticks, Gakogui, Seprewa, Sogo, Apentema, Kpanlogo, Atumpani, Fontonfrom, Dondo, Endingidi, Goje, Bolong, Atenteben Flute, the orchestral Flute and Egoe Calabash Gourd.
The drum travelled across Atlantic on a slave ship used to exercise slaves to keep healthy. Music legacy of drumming on plantations by over 12 million Africans transported to America between 1501-1800s. Provided labour for mines, plantations of sugar, rice, tobacco and cotton. Drumming, African musical tradition in colonies of different music, shouts, hollars, work songs, fife, drum and spirituals. Ghana drum opens news broadcast with ‘Ghana muntie’ ie Ghana listen.
Music of 12 million Africans into Brazil, Caribbean, America by Europeans from West Africa. Europe used war captive as slaves to farm plantations and domestic slaves. Chained below deck, did not see outside travelling on deck to breathe air or dance. Shackled, densely packed like sardines got sick some died, killed from their societies at sea. Sloane’s collected the material culture of Drum objects in African-American slave trade era. These middle passage forced Africans to dance to exercise for slave labour. Akan drum reached Virginia as musical instrument coerced circulate as cultural resources is used in African international music.
Sloane recorded slave music in Jamaica of African drum, guitar. African-Americans play guitar or drums identity of community. Planters didn’t tolerate performances of slave societies. Sloane notes instrument bans didn’t make drums ddisappear. Sloane collected slave artefacts in C18th tools, clothing, whips, nooses, weapons or anatomical remains. Objects, were gifts from correspondents or collectors, judged Sloane on Caribbean’s natural history slavery. The Akan drum donor Reverend Clerk to Sloane identified it “as Indian drum,” but its African. True identity of African objects survived and circulated by slave traders, recreated by slaves for music to dance to. According to Roots, Kunta Kinte was born circa 1750 in Mandinka village of Juffure, in Gambia. He was raised in a Muslim family. In 1767, Kunta while he searched for wood to make a drum for his younger brother, four men chased him and took him captive. Haley traced record of ship The Lord Ligonier to Maryland where Kunta arrived in chain in America. Kunta Kinte kept name of his village and native name of Gambia River origin from Portuguese cambio for exchange or trade. Kunta Kinte’s life in village is similar to Masaka Africana.
Cambio is Kamby Bolongo native trade route like Naplis is Minneapolis. By 1600s large agricultural or commercial estates in Brazil needed more slaves. Portuguese slave traders of Gambia kidnapped Kunte. He traced his roots back to the Gambia. Kunte Family was: Omoro (father) and Binta (mother); Belle (wife); Kizzy (daughter); Chicken George (grandson). Kunte was born in c. 1750 in Juffure, The Gambia and died: c. 1822 (aged c.71–77); in the Spotsylvania County, Virginia. Despite attempt by the slave master to erode his name, Kunta Kinte held onto his memories passed on to his descendants written about in his life history book, Roots made into films.
Courtesy & Credit Images
Professor Kwesi Ampene, CU West African High Life & World Music International Team
Adam Holden, Obroni Dance Music
Anthony Appiah, Princeton University,
Alex Haley, Roots, Kunta Kinte, Virginia
James Delbourgo, Associate Professor of History, Rutgers University, USA
Patton, S.F. (1998) African-American art. Oxford, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.Hans Sloane’s collection?
Missionary E J Glave wrote in his diary, ‘we persuade ourselves African’s skin is very tough but at first blow victim yells horribly quietens down into groaning. After 25 or 30 blows a victim loses his senses. Punishment far worse inflicted on women and children. Small boys of 10 or 12 working for the hot tempered masters most harshly treated. Stanislas Lefranc, a Belgian prosecutor in Congo, sickened at brutal whipping of thirty people whose crime was to laugh in presence of a white man. The terrible carnage of people of Congo increased by rubber boom. In 1887 more demand for rubber grew as used for inflatable cycle tubes for bicycles. Motorcars became so popular tyres for motorcars use rubber. In 1891, Leopold issued decree creating monopoly of trade in rubber, ivory to himself. Joint ventures between Belgian, British, Dutch firms says Stuart Nolan in Belgium’s Imperialist rape of Africa, ‘the astronomical profits built Leopold’s rich empire. Earned the 700 percent profits of his Anglo-Belgian India Rubber and Exploration Company (ABIR).’ A private army Force Publique used to brutally extract from the native labour rubber without any payment of money. Adam Hochschild said terror tactics use by an officer Fievez against those who did not collect rubber to meet the quota: “I made war against them. One example enough was hundred heads cut off and then plenty of supplies ever since. My goal is ultimately humanitarian. I killed hundred people… allowed five hundred others to live.” Another Belgian Captain Rom used heads of 21 natives murdered on his flowerbed to punish them. Those who failed to supply required rubber quota to Belgian masters had villages burnt down, children murdered, hands cut off as punishment. Some historians said Belgian way of promoting progress in Congo was evil and dehumanising.
And death toll of slavery by Leopold in Congo is more than 10 million people as Congolese historian Professor Ndaywele Nziem states death toll is a staggering 13 million. Belgian King Leopold’s brutal exploitation in Congo was enormous he spent $6 million to upgrade his Royal Palace at Laeken. Used millions to build the monuments of Chateau d’Ardennes, Brussels’ Arcades du Cinquantenaire, Ostend’s seaside arcade and golf course. He funded universities, museums, more millions in secret purchases of more of hid properties through his doctor and his architects. Leopold used Congo to launder money for investment, billions of dollars in Asia, Latin America or Near East. His Congo-based companies built constructions in China, fishing rights off Morocco, mines in Greece, Philippines and rubber concessions in Bolivia. This Scramble for Africa, Congo by Leopold II led to more developments. The public outcry human rights movement against Belgian King Leopold forced parliament to assume control of Congo in 1906. The change didn’t improve life of Congolese, they suffered forced labour and heavy taxation. Congolese were used as cheap labour in Belgian mines or agricultural firms. Exploitation was so huge by 1950 profits Congo produced twice domestic average income in Belgium itself.
In 1960 Congo was independent from Belgium as Patrice Lumumba became first prime minister of Congo. ‘On the first day of independence, the Belgian King, Baudouin,’ writes Osei Boateng ‘made an ill-judged patronizing speech praising genius and courage of Leopold II whose reign of terror caused death of over 10 million Congolese.’ Confessions of CIA Agent…How the imperial powers control Africa by remote control in New African-April 2007. The speech incensed Lumumba who went to the podium and trashed the Belgians’ colonial record. He spoke of need ‘to bring an end to slavery imposed by force.’ Lumumba saw their degredation by Belgian colonial rule as Congo state had less than 20 university graduates with no cadres of doctors, lawyers or engineers. Brussels planned to allow Congolese political freedom but retained control of military, economic and commercial power. Guiding Congo to safe was an uphill task for Lumumba.Smarting under rebuff by Lumumba the Belgian government caused trouble for independent Congo. On 11 July 1960, the province of Katanga of Congo’s copper, cobalt, uranium, gold, mineral wealth to secede. Belgium the principal owner of wealth perceived in Brussels resources of Katanga tied Belgian interests to the secession. A painful lesson of history is historians glorify conquerors is deeply ironic and sad because African history written from point of Colonial masters. Colonizers wrote textbooks and books but ban different perspective. The press was censored. The written record of the devouring of Africa by colonialism was excised from memory. Memories of the rubber era cruel exploitations is never written into official Western history. So, Mark Curtis in Web of Deceit, explained backgrounds to conflict struggle a tribal war. Television portrays Africa by very little understanding of events developed world, major international institutions created. Much reporting promotes view as faults of Africans. The Western press reinforced the stereotype of Africans as post-colonial failures of tribalism wars.
Disguise as civilizing mission system of forced black labour by usurper imperial domination during scramble for Africa. In 1876, famous explorers at European society, Leopold II delivered the keynote address couched in high moral purpose said, ‘To open civilization to parts of our globe not yet penetrated, to pierce the darkness hanging over entire people is crusade worthy of century of progress. The objective of International African Association was to abolish “Arab slave trade to establish peace among chiefs to procure impartial arbitration.” Leopold II’s overseas territorial expansion states, ‘No country is complete without owning overseas possessions.’ Grabs territories in Africa between 1880 and 1884, writes J. Stengers, King Leopold’s imperialism, ‘sent expeditions, led by Stanley, which established a fairly loose occupation of territory in Congo by means of outposts. At Berlin Conference 1884-85, Leopold laid claim to huge tract of Congo region 80 times the size of Belgium he declared a Congo Free State in 1885 with himself as sole owner. The Scramble for Africa, Congo under Leopold II developments had to obtain the consent of Bismarck of Germany. Conditions of Germany was European nation occupied African coast or declare ‘protectorate’ to notify action, signatory powers forced blacks to serve colonial masters.
International institutions relationship’s reporting promotes view of the innate faults of Africans.’ Western press with few exceptions reinforced stereotype of Africans post-colonial failures destiny to tribalism. Niall Ferguson, empire writer ideology: Africans can’t rule themselves Writing history from the standpoint of Whites as “helping” is dark history of its colonial past need to understand link to policies of Western countries conflicts bred in Africa. Leopold’s Congo claim alarms Bismarck but given to “civilise” blacks in Conyo negotiated to obtain the concessions from Bismarck. So Leopold got French in January 1885, permission to extend control over Congo. Northern, eastern boundary owned by Germany, Leopold driven by greed for territorial expansion control to the south between Congo and Zambezi. In 1884 obtained recognition for Congo by United States. Frontier free State of Congo territory,’ Stengers, said ‘disproportionate to the resources at disposal. Slender finances did not allow establishment of more than a rudimentary government.’ The resources occuping a large territory in Congo did not curb greedy ambitions of Leopold to expand territories outside Congo Free state 1885 capital establish port town of Boma. Transport systems established to exploit and plunder rich natural resources of Congo. A system of transportation connected Atlantic coast to Stanley Pool Leopoldville, Kinshasa. Africans brutally used as human mules relay heavy load supplies maxim guns another 250 miles. From there, steamers cruise Congo River 900 miles to Stanley Falls in Kisangani. The river, renamed Lualaba, navigable another 500 miles deep into rainforests of southern Congo. Leopold financed building of river fleet of steamers. And thousands of Africans died as porters forced to serve colonial masters. Views of West is the innate faults of Africans by Western press reinforced stereotype of Africans post-colonial failures destiny to tribalism. Niall Ferguson on empire ideology says Africans cannot rule themselves, history from standpoint of Whites, “helping” the dark history of the black colonial past must understand link to policies of Western countries breeds conflicts in Africa. And still deprives billions of own resources.
Black History Month October celebrates abolition of slaves whose wealth enrich G7 Western Europe and America but deprived slaves of their dignity and long life so slaves became traumatized. Triangular trade from Europe on ships to Africa to Carribean to America back to Europe. G7 member nations enslaved Africans. Belgian King Leopold invited them jointly to divide and own Africa. Almost a thousand years black slavery continued despite official abolition law. Slavery produced sugar, cocoa, coffee, cotton for “triangle merchants” of slave trade in Britain, Africa and West Indies. Triangle trips carried guns, goods from England to Africa for slaves from Africa to Caribbean. Sugar, coffee, cotton and rum to England for commercial slavery by supply and demand on plantations. Atlantic crossing from Africa Middle Passage shows cruelties of plantations in the British Caribbean. Africans were herded on slave ships and branded with irons labels people property of owners.Portuguese also built sugar plantations in 1550’s off the coast of their Brazilian settlement colony, located on the island Sao Vincente. Portuguese and Spanish colonial presence in Caribbean Iberian Peninsula wealth cultivated cash crops.The economic boom of these plantations began colonizing remaining American territories to capitalize on the lucrative cultivation and trade of native’s natural resources. Sugar is the most important crop in Caribbean but other crops such as coffee, indigo, wheat and rice grown. The coastal sugae cane was best grown on the flat land near coastal waters as the soil was naturally yellow and fertile. The mountainous parts of islands were used for sugarcane cultivation industry. The coastal placement of commercial ports gave imperial states a geographic advantage to ship the crop throughout the transatlantic world. Sugar Slavery trading of the Africans highly profitable not paying slaves for enforced labour. Slaves lived in appalling conditions but masters indulged in excessive luxury by toils of slaves. Triangular trade profits prospered the West but underdeveloped blacks made poor despite the hardwork. Manufactured goods were traded to the West African coast for slaves, who were shipped to the sugar colonies by middle passage. Sugar, molasses, rum, shipped from these islands back into England.Sugar was the main crop produced on plantations throughout Caribbean in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Most of the islands were covered with sugar cane fields and mills for refining sugar. The main source of labour was enslaved Africans. After the abolition of slavery, indentured labourers from India, China, Java migrated to Caribbean to work on sugar plantations. Plantations produced 80 – 90% sugar used in Western Europe.Sugar enabled slave labour for profits with tragic consequences in Caribbean. Imperial powers forced West Africans to cultivate sugar by slaves. Exploited labour, natural world created imperial conflicts in these Caribbean regions. Use political and economic control they create to divide and rule people policy of animosity. Conflicts among English, Spanish, French and various indigenous people was used for territorial gain. European states exploited environment, resources so sugar production began to stagnate. Due loss of trees for timber in the sugar refinement process, European imperial powers competed and fought over Caribbean in middle 17th century.European settlers’ entry into Caribbean world caused changes. The indigenous populations died due to influx of world diseases of colonists. Population losses from 8.4 – 112.5 millions of these native populations cleared way for plantation industry and less conflict for Europeans and all these indigenous peoples tooColonial arrival of sugar cane culture impact societie’s economy in Caribbean. Increased ratio of slaves to freemen and increased the sizes of slave plantations. Sugar plantation use of slaves affected cash crop economies in cultivation. The large plantations with the slaves Africa imported worked on plantations. Prior to 1650 three-quarters of island’s population was of European descent. In 1680 plantation in Barbados increased to about 60 slaves. So sugar plantations expanded transatlantic trade prospers. In 1832, plantation in Jamaica had 150 slaves one in four lived with 250 slaves. About 100 years, Barbados was richest European colony in Caribbean region. Then sugar cane production expanded to larger colonies Saint-Domingue and Jamaica. Mass sugar industry sugarcane processed commodities: rum, molasses, and falernum. West India Interest was formed in 1740s by British merchants to West Indian sugar planters. British and West Indies shared profits or costs. needs. This first sugar-trading company was powerful in Parliament. In 1740s Jamaica and Saint Domingue or Haiti world’s main sugar producers. Increased production in St. Domingue used irrigation system French engineers built. Reservoirs, diverted dam levees aqueducts and canals. Improved mills and varieties of cane and grasses helped increase profits. St. Domingue in 19th century Haiti and Cuba sugar plantation Caribbean did better than British island.In the 19th century, sugar dominated Martinique, Grenada, Jamaica, Saint Croix, Barbados, Leeward Islands, Saint Domingue, Cuba, and other island run by French, British, or Spanish owners. During late 19th and 20th centuries the sugar cane industry dominated Puerto Rico‘s economy by colonial rule of Spain and under United States. After slavery, sugar plantation labour was workers imported from colonial India, Southern China. In 20th century, large-scale sugar production using wage labour continued in many parts of the region. Sugar cane industry’s negative impact affected the environment as this industry grew in Caribbean countries. These include the destruction of forests, water pollution, loss of fertility, erosion of soils. These problems on a different scale in Dominican Republic in the 16th century; Lesser Antilles in 17th century; Jamaica, Haiti in 18th century, Cuba and Puerto Rico in 19th century. The nations impacted by sugar on the environment.The deterioration natural environment, had socio-economic consequences. And took its toll on Africans an integral part to cultivation, production of sugarcane. Slaves toiled in fields, boiling houses to supply huge amounts of labour sugar required. Four million slaves survived Caribbean sugar plantations. Conditions were harsh, mortality rates high through all stages of slaves’ lives. Some sugar colonie’s slave population ten times less than the European slave uprisings ever-present fear of planters. Slave trading highly profitable triangle of trade of Atlantic manufactured goods traded to West African coast for slaves shipped to sugar colonies of the middle passage and sugar, molasses, and rum were shipped from islands to England.Slavery in England deemed illegal since 1772. The slavery in sugar colonies was vigorously pursued in Parliament and publication throughout last quarter of eighteenth century to time of abolition of trade in 1807, emancipation in 1833. Abolitionists arguments against slavery was support in England and in America. Abolitionist movement boycotted slave-grown sugar by protests is celebrated as key component of abolition’s success.Boycott from writings to educate sugar is derived from blood, sweat and tears of slaves pollutes the body. The planters by prospect of abolition emancipation, attack on their financial interests, place in empire argued in favour of slavery.William Beckford, large-scale Jamaican planter wrote about the island unable to inherited plantation debt. Plantations profit dwindled by later plantation era so planters were compensated for their loss of earnings. Slaves never received compensations, restitution or apology. Instead suffer racism from the people who sent ships thousand of miles to drag them from their homeland into strange lands. Many slaves after the wars were sent from America to Liberia and Sierra Leone in western Africa.It was a problem their roots could not be traced having been renamed by force despite protests of Kunta Kinte. Natives discriminated against them because they were not indigenous citizens. And residue from slavery and colonialism is institutional racism still directed black people today.Invincible chain of slavery, colonialism racism hatred propaganda promote the harassment of black people. Western countries built by slave labour, natural resources usurped controlled by West. African economies are still owned by Western nations exploiting resources. Yet conqueror parasites play the victim despite depending on African slavery and ccolonialism. Kings like Prempeh exiled to Sierra Leone and Seychelles for resisting slavery and colonialism. Nelson Mandela was incarcerated many years others like Lumumba killed for fighting back. Kwame Nkrumah was toppled by coup detat directed by West replaced by stooges to control Africans. Africans enslaved and those colonised are both victims of the West exploiting them. African resources: diamond, gold, in Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Songhai empire Mansa Musa Aldrisi supersized gold tied to horse taken by whites. Gold abundant it was dished out freely to loyal citizens. Gold taken over as diamonds. Africans did not gain from slavery to enrich the kings as people claim. But stripped of natural resources owned by Western countries. Africa never had economic independence is still controlled by the Western nations today. West markets all finished goods processed from natural resources from Africa back to Africans. Forced dependency on West sabotages Africa’s self-sufficiency stops revenues of multibillions of dollars for the West. Average person consumes 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar a year or 33.1 kilograms (73 lb) in Western developed countries, over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the 20th century, a diet high in refined sugar damages human health. Excessive consumption causes obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, and tooth decay. The World Health Organization recommend adults and children reduce their intake of sugar to less than 10% encouraged to reduce to below 5%, total energy intake.
Coffee global originated from Ethiopia as earliest evidence of coffee drinking and knowledge of the coffee tree spread from early 15th century. Africans grow coffee harvested, grounded and drank by families as tropical crops. Coffee spread as commodity for trade from Ethiopia Horn of Africa to Yemen Arabia Felix monks monasteries spreading into Mecca and Cairo. Goats were seen hyper stimulated inspired coffee concoction born long ago in the mountains of Ethiopia. Legend says that Kaldi saw his excited herd dancing after eating coffee cherry berry, 16th century reached rest of Middle East, South India (Karnataka), Persia, Turkey to rest of Horn of Africa and northern Africa. Coffee spread to Balkans, Italy, the rest of Europe, Southeast Asia and Americas despite ban imposed in the 15th century by religious leaders in Mecca and Cairo, and later by the Catholic Church.Coffee spread from Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Kaffa Province name of coffee, the first to recognize energizing effects of native coffee plant. So the tribesmen consumed as hunters on days-long treks benefitting from coffee plant’s ability to quell hunger and provide more energy. Studies of genetic diversity of Coffea arabica varieties retained the residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica. Oral history direct evidence has indicated Africans coffee grow among other crops natives used as stimulant so known earlier spread into seventeenth century. Original domesticated coffee plant from Harar, native population use derived from Ethiopia distinct is found populations in Sudan and Kenya.Coffee is native to tropical Africa but its Brazil that is the world’s largest coffee producing country. Vietnam, Colombia are second and third biggest producers. Coffee was traded through Middle East, Asia and Europe before its taken to the Americas by European colonizers. The crop’s success there depended on slave trade. The history of coffee recognizes racism and the role of colonialism. The history of coffee has a dark side of the exploitation of Western countries taking advantage of the African countries. And multibillion multinational corporations making so much profit but don’t invest in these countries of the supply chains. Mark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.Mark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.Barbados and Jamaica were some of the earliest British colonies as slave traders provided outposts with human labour from Africa to work on sugar and coffee plantations. Goods and people moved in a triangle between West Africa, colonies in Caribbean and Americas and Europe.San Domingo in French-occupied Haiti was supplying half of the world’s coffee in 1788 as a direct result of slave labour. Living conditions was appalling, slaves underfed, overworked and housed in the windowless huts. The African slaves were beaten, tortured or killed by their white European rulers.Napoleon tried to regain Haiti in early 1800s led to decline in coffee production prompted the Dutch to fill the gap with coffee produced in their own colony of Java, Indonesia. But has rigid hierarchy between the native Javanese and their colonial overlords. Laziness and apathy of Dutch landowners forced Javanese natives to harvest coffee for a pittance, whole villages died of starvation.UK drinks 95 million cups of coffee day with 500,000 tonnes of waste coffee grounds a year. Some business’s small waste coffee grounds customers to take home as garden fertiliser or homemade exfoliant. Wet coffee grounds waste into landfill in UK tax £88.95/tonne to £94.15 from 1st April 2020 levy operators cost to collection fee. Waste management companies charge for contaminated dry mixed with recycling. Landfill harmful greenhouse gases such as methane 34 times more potent than carbon dioxide over a 100 year period causing climate change. The wet coffee grounds in an anaerobic digestion plant absent of oxygen microorganisms break down biodegradable material managing waste or producting fuel but grounds sink to bottom in ‘belly’ inhibit rate of biomethane production. Waste grounds incinerated energy generation, not best usel. Bio-bean utilise wet coffee grounds waste recycled bio-products by disposal recycling service generate savings for businesses saving emission as bio-fuel.Coffee declined in the West Indies but it thrived in Latin America. So first coffee bush in Brazil was planted by Francisco de Melo Palheta in Pará in 1727. Brazil became a coffee superpower under the rule of the Portuguese and continued to after independence. By the 1830s, coffee became Brazil’s largest export is around 30% of world coffee production.Brazilian coffee plantations used black or indigenous slave labour. Indentured labourers worked and lived in horrific conditions. Plantation owners treated their labourers as dispensable imported new slaves as they died from overwork. Did not treat existing slaves with any compassion most slaves last seven years from initial bondage.Brazil made slavery illegal in 1888, but four million slaves had been brought from Africa. In Latin America, coffee industry depended on the indigenous labour. Black people not used as slaves in Central American countries anymore, Mayans and other native peoples served as semi-slaves.The Mayans occupied best fertile lands for growing coffee and so increasingly became disenfranchized by colonial governments. Violently evicted by the military as the demand for coffee grew, forced to work land for the oppressors. Revolts and rebellions common during that time government brutality and the oppression was response.The coffee industry in Latin America explaining why the world is dominated by their coffee production. Slave labour no longer but paved the way for today’s industry. Many regions of Brazil and Colombia are now traditional coffee-growing areas with farming as main resource. Legacies of colonialism affect coffee supply chain in Latin America racial divide between farm owners and labourers.Millions of blacks in Latin America Asia, and Africa live in poverty producing the affordable coffee for Western markets. African coffee is the best in the world as Tropical Africa origin of coffee. But that continent not treated on same level of Latin America. Colonialism by former European colonies in Africa left without infrastructure or stable political system. Structural racism economic oppression exists in supply chain. Inequality in the coffee production, baristas, economics. Education, politics of coffee-producing regions of the community in producing countries must contribute to improving sustainability, working conditions, and quality of life for people globally.The Argan coffee like Ethiopian Coffee, Nepal coffee grown on Himalayan climate is ideal for coffee growing. The aroma of brewed coffee fragrance, coffee’s global recognition beans, grown in Nuwakot, a scored 90 points on a scale of 50 to 100 in Coffee Review, California-based trade magazine. In first-ever blind assessment Nepali coffee in Lekali is “savoury sweet in structure with gentle acidity; crisp, satiny mouthfeel.” Concluded the coffee is worth seeking its confident savoury-sweet cup. In 2016, coffee produced by Greenland Organic Farm scored an 89 Specialty Coffee Association of America, California trade group Nepali coffee producers elevate quality of country’s beans to international standards.Nepali coffee’s in 2014, Banjara became Nepal’s first Q-grader trained in Xining in China. The West are calling coffee aficionados value beans’ from exotic origin to local cafe. Coffee companies create market for vacuum packed cans of coffee grounds and jars of instant coffee kitchens in the world, Nepal’s high-end market export coffee. Some claim goat eaten berry coffee also exist like Luwak kopi coffees. Nepal’s first national coffee cupping as Q-graders identify characteristics and flavour, quality of coffee beans. Eight of the world’s 10 highest peaks like Mount Everest Nepal ideal climate high-quality beans. Nepal’s Arabica variety Bourbon and Typica coffee grow on rolling, misty mountain slopes at altitudes from 800 meters to 1,600 meters. First introduced to the country by a monk in the middle of 20th century the crop supports 32,000 farmers in 40 of country’s 77 districts. It exports coffee but Coffee Review rating recognition gives them a much-needed boost in the international market.The world’s most expensive is Coffee alamid highly sought-after brew among coffee aficionados is “caviar” of coffee. Odour-free coffee alamid aroma, syrup texture, chocolate hint, coffee alamid’s clean aftertaste and flavour is processed by acid from stomach of animals eating coffee cherry berries. The coffee seeds remain intact undigested excreted as a faecal material collected, washed and is grounded as premier luxury coffee sells U$500 -U$1000 per pound. Kopi luwak one of most expensive coffees in world. Vietnamese weasel coffee collecting coffee beans eaten by wild civets in India. Luwak coffee kopi luwak of Java Indonesia is second best. But traders of this type of coffee exploit animals by caging, feeding them solely on coffee beans instead on an enriched variety of diets in wild more suitable to thrive. The tourists travel to see caged animals in action oblivious to animal rights issues involved in most expensive coffee processs. A cup of coffee cost $80 per cup in the tourist epic centres.
Mark Pendergrast: Uncommon Grounds, History of Coffee & How It Transformed Our World.
Sprudge.com, The Question of Racism
GOD keeps in PERFECT PEACE the MIND kept on GOD because of TRUSTING GOD says Isaiah 26:3. A man declared FAITH in God that if GOD slays him he STILL LOVES AND TRUSTS GOD. In Job 13:15, Job’s faith in GOD was tested yet TRUSTS God and maintains his ways before God.Jesus Disciples said, they have nowhere else to go because Jesus has the WORDS OF ETERNAL LIFE. In John 6:68, Simon Peter answered Jesus, Lord to whom do we go? No matter their fate, challenging circumstances of life they had nowhere to go but run to LOVING ARMS OF GOD.Jesus asked His twelve disciples “Do you want to leave too like Judas Iscariot for greedy love of money, for pleasures of the world etc betrayed Jesus? They said absolutely not because he who has the Son has life. No matter the issues of life Jesus warned of these perilous times.D.The Have CONFIDENCE in GOD to see you through life in Jesus Name. GOD says do not fear those who kill flesh but cannot kill the soul in Jesus Name FEAR GOD who kills soul. Bible says in John 16:2 they will put you out of synagogues or kill thinking they are DOING GOD a favour. The day is coming they will face WRATH of GOD on DAY of the LORD.JESUS COMES TO GIVE LIFE EVEN LIFE MORE ABUNDANTLY IN JESUS NAME. As citizens of heaven THE REAL LIFE ETERNAL IN ETERNITY IS YET TO COME to reunite LOVED ONES as devil burns in hell for attacking GOD’S people globally. Example of faith is testimony of Horatio Spafford’s faith in GOD in his time of adversity. Weeping may endure but joy comes in the morning for those who MOURN with HOPE in Christ.On being notified of tragedy at sea and the loss of his children, Horatio Spafford immediately set sail for Wales to reunite with his heartbroken wife. Once at sea, Spafford asked the captain to point out exactly where the Ville du Havre sunk.
As he crossed fateful spot grief-stricken father sat with pen in hand and wrote what become one of Christendom’s most beloved song of HOPE and TRUST in GOD ELOHIM JEHOVAH in CHRIST.Christian believer’s salvation is in Christ alone because there is no other name given among men by which to be saved. In Psalm 139:8 Bible says, “If I ascend to the heavens GOD is there; if I descend in Sheol GOD is there. GOD’S WORD does not go void so achieves GOD’S purpose for sending word. In Psalm 139:9 If rise on wings of dawn or settle by farthest sea GOD is there. There is nowhere to go to escape wrath of God its a futile desire to run from the LORD so RUN to GOD. Philippians 4:7 says the PEACE OF GOD which passes all human understanding will keep your HEART and MIND SAFE in UNION with CHRIST JESUS. Its GOD’S Grace, Mercy and Compassion that gives Strength to endure in adversity to cope with grief, sorrow, pain, loss. GOD is still on the Throne so in Control of your life.
PERFECT PEACE FOR ALL WHO TRUST GOD.
When peace, like a river, attendeth my way, When sorrows like sea billows roll;
Whatever my lot, Thou has taught me to say, It is well, it is well, with my soul.
Though satan should buffet, though trials should come,
Let this blest assurance control,
That Christ has regarded my helpless estate,
And hath shed His own blood for my soul.
It is well, with my soul,
It is well, it is well, with my soul.
Chocolate cocoa history dates to 450 BC. when the Aztecs in Latin America were seen fermenting cocoa seeds made into powder and drunk bitter. The seeds had so much value it was used as currency. Westerners observed them and tasted it but added sugar to sweeten cocoa drink. Tetteh Quashie from Ghana brought the cocoa seeds to Gold Coast and thrived so became a global commodity exported. A tropical temperature suited cocoa best it flourishes in Ghana, Ivory Coast and in Nigeria exported into Western countries Belgium, Britain Cadbury World, Nestle of Switzerland among top 15 countries. In 1591 the first transatlantic chocolate cocoa reached Spain turns into popular product as demand grew. The cocoa tree planted from seeds grown is harvested by difficult process by slaves used in its production. History of cocoa process of industrialization of chocolate used slave labour on plantations to supply world with cocoa beans to make chocolate. The islands of São Tomé and Príncipe a then colony of Portugal and West Africa archipelago were first to cultivate cocoa among the world’s largest producers in the 20thcentury. The increasing demand from Europe cleared more acres of this plantations. Slaves from Angola of more settlers and more machinery increased supply chain of cocoa and chocolates.The British Journalist Henry Nevinson documented plight of plantation slaves in articles, magazines and book Modern Slavery published in 1906 in a Harpers Monthly Magazine.“A long line of men and women at intervals of about a yard, were clearing plantation. ..To the back of every woman clung an infant’s head lay between her shoulders, bumped against her back as she struck hoe in the ground.Five or six yards behind them officers stood, white men, or three parts white, dressed in traditional planter style of big hat, white shirt, and loose trousers. Each carried an eight foot stick of hard wood, whitewood, pointed at ends” Nevinson’s work included numerous photographs, descriptions of the working conditions that fueled controversy in Great Britain.Despite attention to business practices of Cadbury company of Great Britain as biggest owner then of these plantations manufactured chocolates. It publicised situation, shows complicated network dodges blame. Public pressure results in government intervention investigations court case. Cadbury stopped purchasing from São Tomé and Príncipe tranferred the cocoa plantations into West Africa.Despite official abolition of slavery the slaves were transported another 400 years and ongoing in parts of the world. In 2001, slave ship MV Etireno carrying several hundred children from Benin were reported missing refused entry to Gabon and Cameroon rescued children. UNICEF becomes involved investigating reveals slave trafficking operation links West Africa in Ivory Coast. Ivory Coast is the world’s largest supplier of cocoa beans provide 43 % of world’s supply. The 600,000 cocoa farms in Ivory Coast account for one-third of nation’s entire economy half the world’s supply for chocolate trade. Most people who are trafficked tricked and lied to with fantastic job prospects with good pecks assured. Find themselves enslaved and victims abused by such traffickers.
Human trafficking and child slavery in cocoa and chocolate industry continues today. The Freedom Project investigated series by CNN broadcasted on chocolate industry and government of Ivory Coast address modern slavery in plantations.Children at seven years old are working harvesting cocoa pods and beans for the sweet chocolate delicacies of Western people. Education is not compulsory in some countries and due to school fees so many cannot afford to pay. Therefore children work family business to gain skills even if illiterate become farmers. CNN report felt public must know about it to take action and to stop it, said Iowa Sen. Tom Harkin with Rep. Eliot Engel of New York in response: “How many people know the wonderful chocolates they eat are produced by child labour.Agreed a voluntary protocol signed by heads of chocolate industry to stop child labour to certify the cocoa trade as child labour free. The working conditions in cocoa growing bring awareness of a fair trade by consumers. A researcher noted lack of evidence of ethical consumption among end-user improved situations of the child workers on West African cocoa farms. All to consider and ask questions of origins of food and conditions food is produced in. This concerns of safety of well being of those who produce food in Western countries ensures West African cocoa growers and harvesters and other workers globally afforded same rights.