COFFEE’S HISTORY & ORIGINS

20191014_110716.jpg15710468834321102168724083807666.jpg15710437345183676338762388191799.jpgCoffee global originated from Ethiopia as earliest evidence of coffee drinking and knowledge of the coffee tree spread from early 15th century. Africans grow coffee harvested, grounded and drank by families as tropical crops. Coffee spread as commodity for trade from Ethiopia Horn of Africa to Yemen Arabia Felix monks monasteries spreading into Mecca and Cairo. Goats were seen hyper stimulated inspired coffee concoction born long ago in the mountains of Ethiopia. Legend says that Kaldi saw his excited herd dancing after eating coffee cherry berry, 16th century reached rest of Middle East, South India (Karnataka), Persia, Turkey to rest of Horn of Africa and northern Africa. Coffee spread to Balkans, Italy, the rest of Europe, Southeast Asia and Americas despite ban imposed in the 15th century by religious leaders in Mecca and Cairo, and later by the Catholic Church.15710460124356859565088160134012.jpg15710436855935512932863149678515.jpg15710447815743466109153844499277.jpgCoffee spread from Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Kaffa Province name of coffee, the first to recognize energizing effects of native coffee plant. So the tribesmen consumed as hunters on days-long treks benefitting from coffee plant’s ability to quell hunger and provide more energy. Studies of genetic diversity of Coffea arabica varieties retained the residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica. Oral history direct evidence has indicated Africans coffee grow among other crops natives used as stimulant so known earlier spread into seventeenth century. Original domesticated coffee plant from Harar, native population use derived from Ethiopia distinct is found populations in Sudan and Kenya.1571043405765699259889766813539.jpg15710434270053024933810851534611.jpg15710436277878114956373217936851.jpg15710435846402047751185959458711.jpg15710434925723954462411793900624.jpgCoffee is native to tropical Africa but its Brazil that is the world’s largest coffee producing country. Vietnam, Colombia are second and third biggest producers. Coffee was traded through Middle East, Asia and Europe before its taken to the Americas by European colonizers. The crop’s success there depended on slave trade. The history of coffee recognizes racism and the role of colonialism. The history of coffee has a dark side of the exploitation of Western countries taking advantage of the African countries. And multibillion multinational corporations making so much profit but don’t invest in these countries of the supply chains. 15710433560353172288782735507670.jpg15710440983255412735373397344862.jpg15710445900461747951835999486447.jpg15710441400893604583404307719482.jpg15710439366083654047546056266942.jpg15710440294184227315937896153147.jpg15710444445985513000575336350508.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.1571044828283157220128130682346.jpgwp-1571137280306.jpgdownloadfile.pngwp-1571007286187.jpgIMG-20191014-WA0001.jpgwp-1571136784509.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.15710478444701786177490462436469.jpg15710456532011356605169476525987.jpg15710456143886626766098078755663.jpg15710455659128566144229800899532.jpg15710448803383604231430384290796.jpg15710449771794187086487037815745.jpg15710450656392204661356868672582.jpg15710451149853942328613469727459.jpgBarbados and Jamaica were some of the earliest British colonies as slave traders provided outposts with human labour from Africa to work on sugar and coffee plantations. Goods and people moved in a triangle between West Africa, colonies in Caribbean and Americas and Europe.wp-1571143326145.jpg15710465101715420187119285288633.jpg1571046665177784825754492463044.jpg15710465806261383212562540144503.jpgwp-1571143230605.jpgwp-1571143279802.jpg15710462101437150544227229786142.jpgSan Domingo in French-occupied Haiti was supplying half of the world’s coffee in 1788 as a direct result of slave labour. Living conditions was appalling, slaves underfed, overworked and housed in the windowless huts. The African slaves were beaten, tortured or killed by their white European rulers.15710466183022452900408860596017.jpgwp-1571142356971.jpgwp-1571138218332.jpgwp-1571142304784.jpg15710467716452899072847031383823.jpg15710449165545412649823065829850.jpg15710450356353051306629389501833.jpg1571046353063816915106442229309.jpg15710432352042400621271070553203.jpgNapoleon tried to regain Haiti in early 1800s led to decline in coffee production prompted the Dutch to fill the gap with coffee produced in their own colony of Java, Indonesia. But has rigid hierarchy between the native Javanese and their colonial overlords. Laziness and apathy of Dutch landowners forced Javanese natives to harvest coffee for a pittance, whole villages died of starvation.15710462360581092218315998157921.jpg15710463381055154496466313978760.jpgwp-1571136892649.jpg15710470158994600447489546368637.jpg15710433079216012543656666705158.jpgUK drinks 95 million cups of coffee day with 500,000 tonnes of waste coffee grounds a year. Some business’s small waste coffee grounds customers to take home as garden fertiliser or homemade exfoliant. Wet coffee grounds waste into landfill in UK tax £88.95/tonne to £94.15 from 1st April 2020 levy operators cost to collection fee. Waste management companies charge for contaminated dry mixed with recycling. 15712234953994380269245425115741.jpgLandfill harmful greenhouse gases such as methane 34 times more potent than carbon dioxide over a 100 year period causing climate change. The wet coffee grounds in an anaerobic digestion plant absent of oxygen microorganisms break down biodegradable material managing waste or producting fuel but grounds sink to bottom in ‘belly’ inhibit rate of biomethane production. Waste grounds incinerated energy generation, not best usel. Bio-bean utilise wet coffee grounds waste recycled bio-products by disposal recycling service generate savings for businesses saving emission as bio-fuel.15710432727097757498507419898001.jpgCoffee declined in the West Indies but it thrived in Latin America. So first coffee bush in Brazil was planted by Francisco de Melo Palheta in Pará in 1727. Brazil became a coffee superpower under the rule of the Portuguese and continued to after independence. By the 1830s, coffee became Brazil’s largest export is around 30% of world coffee production.15710461315717905217574155760681.jpg15710452158122014500876146091126.jpgBrazilian coffee plantations used black or indigenous slave labour. Indentured labourers worked and lived in horrific conditions. Plantation owners treated their labourers as dispensable imported new slaves as they died from overwork. Did not treat existing slaves with any compassion most slaves last seven years from initial bondage.wp-1571142201640.jpg15710455063321556057087774078740.jpgBrazil made slavery illegal in 1888, but four million slaves had been brought from Africa. In Latin America, coffee industry depended on the indigenous labour. Black people not used as slaves in Central American countries anymore, Mayans and other native peoples served as semi-slaves.15710451884962273506023802601097.jpg15710452671042518442429950312232.jpgThe Mayans occupied best fertile lands for growing coffee and so increasingly became disenfranchized by colonial governments. Violently evicted by the military as the demand for coffee grew, forced to work land for the oppressors. Revolts and rebellions common during that time government brutality and the oppression was response.15710454680217849189674356110640.jpg20191015_133547.jpgThe coffee industry in Latin America explaining why the world is dominated by their coffee production. Slave labour no longer but paved the way for today’s industry. Many regions of Brazil and Colombia are now traditional coffee-growing areas with farming as main resource. Legacies of colonialism affect coffee supply chain in Latin America racial divide between farm owners and labourers.15710464500078699002128982820492.jpgMillions of blacks in Latin America Asia, and Africa live in poverty producing the affordable coffee for Western markets. African coffee is the best in the world as Tropical Africa origin of coffee. But that continent not treated on same level of Latin America. Colonialism by former European colonies in Africa left without infrastructure or stable political system. Structural racism economic oppression exists in supply chain. Inequality in the coffee production, baristas, economics. Education, politics of coffee-producing regions of the community in producing countries must contribute to improving sustainability, working conditions, and quality of life for people globally.tree-goat-morocco.jpg15712272641128742041996406789531.jpgObviousTimelyAlligatorsnappingturtle-size_restricted.gifThe Argan coffee like Ethiopian Coffee, Nepal coffee grown on Himalayan climate is ideal for coffee growing. The aroma of brewed coffee fragrance, coffee’s global recognition beans, grown in Nuwakot, a scored 90 points on a scale of 50 to 100 in Coffee Review, California-based trade magazine. In first-ever blind assessment Nepali coffee in Lekali is “savoury sweet in structure with gentle acidity; crisp, satiny mouthfeel.” Concluded the coffee is worth seeking its confident savoury-sweet cup. In 2016, coffee produced by Greenland Organic Farm scored an 89 Specialty Coffee Association of America, California trade group Nepali coffee producers elevate quality of country’s beans to international standards.Workers sort cherries for processing at Lekali Coffee Estate’s farm in Nuwakot in central Nepal. Nepali coffee’s in 2014, Banjara became Nepal’s first Q-grader trained in Xining in China. The West are calling coffee aficionados value beans’ from exotic origin to local cafe. Coffee companies create market for vacuum packed cans of coffee grounds and jars of instant coffee kitchens in the world,  Nepal’s high-end market export coffee. Some claim goat eaten berry coffee also exist like Luwak kopi coffees. Coffee farm in Mauja district of Kaski, view to the Annapurna mountain range Nepal’s first national coffee cupping as Q-graders identify characteristics and flavour, quality of coffee beans. Eight of the world’s 10 highest peaks like Mount Everest Nepal ideal climate high-quality beans. Nepal’s Arabica variety Bourbon and Typica coffee grow on rolling, misty mountain slopes at altitudes from 800 meters to 1,600 meters. First introduced to the country by a monk in the middle of 20th century the crop supports 32,000 farmers in 40 of country’s 77 districts. It exports coffee but Coffee Review rating recognition gives them a much-needed boost in the international market.15712209071994545813192981911343.jpgThe world’s most expensive is Coffee alamid highly sought-after brew among coffee aficionados is “caviar” of coffee. Odour-free coffee alamid aroma, syrup texture, chocolate hint, coffee alamid’s clean aftertaste and flavour is processed by acid from stomach of animals eating coffee cherry berries. The coffee seeds remain intact undigested excreted as a faecal material collected, washed and is grounded as premier luxury coffee sells U$500 -U$1000 per pound. Kopi luwak one of most expensive coffees in world. Vietnamese weasel coffee collecting coffee beans eaten by wild civets in India. Luwak coffee kopi luwak of Java Indonesia is second best.  But traders of this type of coffee exploit animals by caging, feeding them solely on coffee beans instead on an enriched variety of diets in wild more suitable to thrive. The tourists travel to see caged animals in action oblivious to animal rights issues involved in most expensive coffee processs. A cup of coffee cost $80 per cup in the tourist epic centres.

Mark Pendergrast: Uncommon Grounds, History of Coffee & How It Transformed Our World.

Sprudge.com, The Question of Racism

CHOCOLATE COCOA HISTORY

4c5fac28b63b8d018ddf1f40a5193a8fChocolate’s cocoa history dates to 5000 years as cocoa-based confectionery the archeological finds says Ecuador people from ancient Mayo-Chinchipe culture ingested a cacao-based in 3,300 BC. The Maya civilisation peak from 250 to 850 CE is first evidence human’s consumed chocolate as hot drink. Aztecs made it so popular and dyed it red achiote seeds. It is “Food from God” nobility, kings, chiefs drank so is scientific name for chocolate is theobroma cacao. In mid-1700s Carl Linnaeus Swedish made classification of animal and plants species. Britain’s first shipment of chocolate was mistaken for sheep poo when a Spanish shipment of cocoa beans was off course, seized at a coast of Britain in 16th century assumed contents sheep droppings and burned it. Cacao fruit in an Ecuadorean rainforest is cacao-based substance first ingested. The Pope stopped the priests arguing in 17th century as two orders of Catholic monks ask if chocolate was a drink to be consumed if fasting. Pope Alexander VII decreed chocolate beverage drinks monks allowed if fasting.20191012_224622.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0004.jpg1570957965885497972497589516589.jpgPeople receive heart-shaped chocolates on Valentine’s Day since 1935. Chocolate was associated with rebellion. In France and Spain chocolate drink reserved for privileged and in England consumed by intellectual, political thinkers. In 1660s Charles II threatened to close down the chocolate and coffee shops rebels where radicals congregated. In the 1930s, a box of chocolates cost 10 weeks’ rent. Solid chocolate invented in 1847 big brands industrialised chocolate fondant centres was popular. Sold in handmade boxes decorated with silk tassel, lace, Cadbury Fancy Box. By 1930s, ornate confections popular is expensive the Rowntree’s box priced at 100 shillings a rent 10 shillings a week. Popular chocolate bars are 100 years old. From the golden age of cocoa-based creativity in 1920s,1930s products like Cadbury’s Flake, Fruit and Nut, and Crunchy bars in 1920s Mars Bar in 1933, Milky Way and KitKat in 1935, Maltesers in 1936, Aero and Smarties in 1937. First fondant eggs in 1920s but the Creme Egg Fry’s product branded later Cadbury’s.15709140345921898763941735144302.jpg15709577132403422594441858102305.jpg1570959284218922480331549334500.jpg White chocolate was made medicine for children in Switzerland in 1930s doctors wanted to give the children in hospitals a vitamin-enriched milk to drink. The children thought milk was babyish and cocoa butter added as white chocolate. This nutritionally enhanced chocolate product was popular widely sold and is modern still available in Europe today. Unofficial KitKat’s dark chocolate mixed with Ryvita in WWII. Second World War Rowntree’s stopped producing KitKats or Chocolate Crisps made guns factory workers and families missed KitKats so tried hand-making unauthorised filled moulds with strips of Ryvita. Poured in dark chocolate for soldier’s ration. Only one chocolate bar made from the British grown cocoa beans as plants thrive in equator temperatures of 16°C+. In 1932, workers at Rowntree’s factory in York grew cacao plants in Britain produced a plant in a hothouse, to harvest one pod of cocoa beans. This made a single tiny chocolate bar for Queen Elizabeth II. In 450 BC Aztecs in Latin America used the fermented cocoa seeds into powder and drunk bitter. Seeds had so much value it was used as currency. Then Westerners joined them and tasted it bitter so added sugar to sweeten cocoa drinks and bars. 20191013_101929.jpg20191012_223843.jpg20191012_223613.jpgTetteh Quashie from Ghana brought the cocoa seeds to Gold Coast and thrived so became a global commodity exported. A tropical temperature suited cocoa best it flourishes in Ghana, Ivory Coast and in Nigeria exported into Western countries Belgium, Britain Cadbury World, Nestle of Switzerland among top 15 countries. 15709666448414663460037240615432.jpgIn 1591 the first transatlantic chocolate cocoa reached Spain turns into popular product as demand grew. The cocoa tree planted from seeds grown is harvested by difficult process by slaves used in its production. History of cocoa process of industrialization of chocolate used slave labour on plantations to supply world with cocoa beans to make chocolate. international_chocolate_organizations_bg.pngThe islands of São Tomé and Príncipe a then colony of Portugal and West Africa archipelago were first to cultivate cocoa among the world’s largest producers in the 20thcentury. The increasing demand from Europe cleared more acres of this plantations. Slaves from Angola of more settlers and more machinery increased supply chain of cocoa and chocolates.15709669144015420792004222029435.jpg

screen-shot-2015-03-12-at-7-45-58-pm.pngThe British Journalist Henry Nevinson documented plight of plantation slaves in articles, magazines and book Modern Slavery published in 1906 in a Harpers Monthly Magazine.“A long line of men and women at intervals of about a yard, were clearing plantation. ..To the back of every woman clung an infant’s head lay between her shoulders, bumped against her back as she struck hoe in the ground.15709668577338478487483041897377.jpgscreen-shot-2015-03-12-at-7-11-13-pm.pngFive or six yards behind them officers stood, white men, or three parts white, dressed in traditional planter style of big hat, white shirt, and loose trousers. Each carried an eight foot stick of hard wood, whitewood, pointed at ends” Nevinson’s work included numerous photographs, descriptions of the working conditions that fueled controversy in Great Britain.1570913992381271102547401987556.jpg15709576587538243842794166318413.jpg157095762463894220843834516828.jpgwp-1570973939028.jpgwp-1570975857142.jpg15709616753066208273275664093074.jpg1570957416522359261156549676512.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0001.jpg20191012_223727.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0006.jpgDespite attention to business practices of Cadbury company of Great Britain as biggest owner then of these plantations manufactured chocolates. It publicised situation, shows complicated network dodges blame. Public pressure results in government intervention investigations court case. Cadbury stopped purchasing from São Tomé and Príncipe tranferred the cocoa plantations into West Africa.15709589640531476278166812542906.jpgwp-1570974378415.jpgwp-1570974323215.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0008.jpg15709581362018921958481800225620.jpg15709601948667178737729845178804.jpg15709574448313460189514792968319.jpg15709580230053693676271048576345.jpg15709580965951627154621136725728.jpg15709580676498724700736445595630.jpg1570958672381763599102141026146.jpg20191012_223649.jpgDespite official abolition of slavery the slaves were transported another 400 years and ongoing in parts of the world. In 2001, slave ship MV Etireno carrying several hundred children from Benin were reported missing refused entry to Gabon and Cameroon rescued children. 15709609201355720542936295948445.jpgUNICEF becomes involved investigating reveals slave trafficking operation links West Africa in Ivory Coast. Ivory Coast is the world’s largest supplier of cocoa beans provide 43 % of world’s supply. IMG-20191013-WA0003.jpg15709610769421398615502886880121.jpg15709612150727871124352297305669.jpg15709610018138559175942143094065.jpg15709613775144636840332272573726.jpg15709616191443179012462901860512.jpgThe 600,000 cocoa farms in Ivory Coast account for one-third of nation’s entire economy half the world’s supply for chocolate trade. Most people who are trafficked tricked and lied to with fantastic job prospects with good pecks assured. Find themselves enslaved and victims abused by such traffickers.15709127031975255928808816704229.jpg15709122732244232830728597531413.jpgIMG-20191012-WA0007.jpg
15709125937671682014492957299521.jpg1570912315162438997010313738705.jpg15709152571901898279892588286755.jpg15709152270256971228287323585406.jpg15709151587383094067555383762175.jpg15709151843573151428979682105142.jpg15709143369542848624500990035780.jpgwp-1570979760414.jpg15709137549442769275504908743346.jpg15709150777064823325467641070824.jpg15709124520911926464681554713213.jpg1570912497702511151652750979082.jpg15709149649204204772370625945755.jpg15709149883824262627048778293816.jpgHuman trafficking and child slavery in cocoa and chocolate industry continues today. The Freedom Project investigated series by CNN broadcasted on chocolate industry and government of Ivory Coast address modern slavery in plantations.15709138939523342688749804279542.jpg1570991586829225328139591335123.jpg15709915420956794392330243494243.jpgcacao_photo_8-498x327.jpg15709917056801320040547398428411.jpg15709916241188296576054514775087.jpg15709940654191196607743158215198.jpg1570914640871285281432986836431.jpg15709963627551472745859322635130.jpg15709938622796684368964997672713.jpg15709940303113896639172690823035.jpg15709937734724174395920450358998.jpgwp-1570994671869.jpgwp-1571007286187.jpg15710070494287827044677125274229.jpg15709974957951724047021802272273.jpg15709941748594251023928542528722.jpg15709949682263479862376989604565.jpgwp-1570996871409.jpg15710077035061774160667874051637.jpgwp-1570996769232.jpgwp-1570997036473.jpgwp-1570997695826.jpgChildren at seven years old are working harvesting cocoa pods and beans for the sweet chocolate delicacies of Western people. Education is not compulsory in some countries and due to school fees so many cannot afford to pay. Therefore children work family business to gain skills even if illiterate become farmers.  15709145074994809227748061131838.jpg15709142467478737125626412808158.jpg15709139495294799173970323903708.jpg15709144649192665944281729331706.jpg15709146612125841173579566817033.jpg1570914213505158368728100696923.jpg15709147119983881069686190393130.jpg15709143857771503011103315736757.jpg15709147788696943767045855007937.jpgCNN report felt public must know about it to take action and to stop it, said Iowa Sen. Tom Harkin with Rep. Eliot Engel of New York in response: “How many people know the wonderful chocolates they eat are produced by child labour.15709123579155304010273066167215.jpg15709136806434425289464165586051.jpg15709135207818673941076417422835.jpg15709133791519192219027226466769.jpg15709132986567961157504701423115.jpgAgreed a voluntary protocol signed by heads of chocolate industry to stop child labour to certify the cocoa trade as child labour free. The working conditions in cocoa growing bring awareness of a fair trade by consumers. A researcher noted lack of evidence of ethical consumption among end-user improved situations of the child workers on West African cocoa farms. Consider questions on the rights of cocoa farmers and conditions faced by producers. Concerns of safety or well being ignored by its sold to government as sole buyer. Western countries ensure West African cocoa grown is harvested to Belgium and G7 countries but these workers are not afforded equal rights.

BLACK EYE PEAS & COWPEAS

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PALM OIL’S WORLD HISTORY

15706519201323376503804768971247.jpgThe palm kernel is the edible seed of the oil palm fruit. The fruit yields two distinct oils: palm oil derived from the outer parts of the fruit, and palm kernel oil derived from kernel. Four types of products from palm fruits are palm oil palm kennel oil, palm kernel husk or fibre, palm kernel sludge and palm kernel shell crushed used as a biofuel from palm kernel nuts. The production of fats and oils from vegetable sources is the process of extraction of vegetable oils, pulp oils produced close to location of oil fruit tree. Pre-treatment of a palm fruit is cooked and the fruit is separated from bunch stalk. The oil is extracted by pressing, stirring by hand centrifuged.15706522931853525998838418182285.jpg The extracted pressed oils can be used for cooking and dried and pulp used as combustible material. Red Palm Oil in a semi solid state at room temperature is turned liquid at a warm temperature of the body and reduces build up of artery clogging plaques. Substituting other fats and oils for Red Palm Oil reduces bad cholesterol. Only 2 tablespoons full of a Red Palm Oil a day needed to benefit from healthy positive effects. Too much greasy oil food causes bad cholesterol15706518941072910073924305563785.jpg15706523259017526720814455555611.jpgRed edible palm oil is a very nutritious cooking oil is used by West Africans for years. It is known for the high contents of Vitamin E with more distinctive anti-oxidant benefits for our health. Palm oil is the flag ship product for export since 1950’s for the West Africans in diaspora as niche product. The benefits of edible palm oil provides the energy needed for production of palm kernel oil process yields used edible fats, soaps candles.15706540375737277640299754569592.jpgPalm oil is used for cooking oil, soaps, candles, margarines, candy. A healthy conscious people concerned about an atherosclerosis stay away from foods rich in saturated fats. Palm is used in confectionery, pharmaceutical, perfume industries. The pulp left after oil from the kernel is formed into “palm kernel cake” fibre used as high-protein feed for dairy cattle or burned in their boilers to generate electricity for palm oil mills or surrounding villages. Palm oil is mixed with clay straw built castles in places.15706566006917909993720545286503.jpgPalm oil vegetable oil is grouped into a category broadly as follows.  Seed oils from palm oil germ fibre are used after extracting palm oil and palm kernel oils. Palm fruit oil and palm kennel oil both as the world’s most produced oil. Palm oil is forecast is world’s most produced and internationally traded edible oil.
Apart from being use as cooking oil, Palm Oil also found in an astonishing range of processed foods and cosmetics.15706535105222023988644772620506.jpgSupermarket products contains palm oil as part . Engineers targeting for the use of agro fuels in Europe, China or North America are making palm oil a hotter commodity. Palm Oil is used to produce biodiesel. Manual processing of palm oil for centuries takes place globally. Whole villages are known for palm plantation and palm oil production globally. Their community has abundant palm trees so palm products plays prominent roles. 15706534817468219236276730459932.jpg15706530089714150645542904436474.jpgThe palm fruit is sold in market used in  the traditional method palm oil is done by hand involving many people. It is a long process from harvest of palm fruit to finished products. Millions of people use traditional processing to make palm oil. Authentic original palm processing boils, pounds fruits separated from the kennel seeds and the fibre. The husk is compressed and used as fire enhancer or straws to build castles by the Whites.15706531091386308259624896540580.jpg15706531760656801411446369805901.jpg15706530414433115345172981072350.jpg15706531995623200291729606335389.jpgThe villagers work in teams together to ensure palm oil is processed on time to keep its excellent quality in a fresh good condition. Machines are introduced to combine with these manual processing of many small scale industries. A latest developed palm fruit processing gadget technology modified mechanical palm oil or kernel extraction process today. It involves separation of the digested fruit mash to palm oil and palm nut. Pressed separated pulp from palm oil extraction is used as mosquito repellent in villages smoke filled room.15706520386074640352914106555652.jpg1570652107303863022797526537226.jpg15706530796525622755470493684892.jpgIMG_20191009_33609157065240247048307681822970888.jpg15707214469164325242281493055369.jpg15706524548056509202359592381041.jpg15706536775917976862947626024117.jpg15706529199191633090186054712202.jpgIMG-20191009-WA0005.jpg15706541448975660841913415108193.jpg1570652805915565624425964344295.jpg15706527581207076161408861407956.jpg15706526981953949071761727145106.jpg15706527299768024498615894087837.jpg15706533668134575461850538961457.jpg15706534482774496658163521283835.jpg15706536318227273062163711658922.jpg15706532975257879326069220296981.jpg15707217991351440742699380060086.jpg15706529686738958575593995054697.jpg15706534197847985349839654719709.jpg15706526480467103743540190144892.jpgDried palm kennel nuts cracked open is processed into palm kennel oil. Kennel shell is used for firewood or charcoal by blacksmiths and for cooking in a hearth fireplace. Often some Palm trees grow for many years until it is so tall climbed by expert tree climbers for harvest. The palm fruit is also processed cold press or raw palm fruits used. Palm oil from a raw palm fruit is not as tasty as a boiled palmfruit. Adds special seasoning spices or herbs to enhance the aroma flavour of cooked palm oil. Then cooked dregs are filtered and eaten as a palm oil dip with yams, cassava cocoa, plantain. And the highly nutritious oil full of vitamins. The purified oil is sold to many people globally. Raw palm oil enhanced to taste by frying onions, spices to make stews. 15706538512988308734538781915767.jpg1570653819111760165957753334812.jpg15706546687118507060490957611929.jpg15707216018576220598925542783709.jpgPalm oil is used in many recipes and is popular globally. The kernel cake is also used in ovens to cook food. Palm kernel cake is produced by economical screw press, less than more expensive solvent extraction. It is processed by small scale industries or the home made equipment from scrap metal pressed, using stones to weight it down. The compact fibre is used under plants to protect from heat, drought to moisten soil. Oil palm is big business. Palm kernel cake high-fibre is medium grade protein feed by product of palm oil ruminants. Fodders of palm kernel cake is ranked little higher than cake and husk. Composed of 16% fiber, palm kernel cake has high phosphorus to calcium ratio and contains essential elements as magnesium, iron or zinc.  The typical ration formulated for the feeding of dairy cattle consists of palm kernel cake (50%), molasses (5%), grass hay (42%), limestone (1.5%), mineral premix (1%), and salt (0.5%), with trace element/vitamin premix.20191009_215250.jpgOil palm fibre is equivalent to coconut fiber at competitive price. Oil palm fiber non-hazardous biodegradable material extracted from oil palm’s empty fruit bunch (EFB) through uses decortation process. The fibers are clean and non-carcinogenic, free from pesticides and soft parenchyma cells. Palm fibres are versatile, stable processed into various dimensional grades to suit the specific applications such as mattress cushion production, erosion control and for soil stabilization / compaction, landscaping, horticulture, ceramic used in the brick manufacturing, thermoplastic filler, flat board manufacturing, paper production acoustics control, livestock care, and is a compost or fertilizer, animal feed, etc. IMG-20191009-WA0006.jpgSumptuous palm fruit soup recipes are major meals eaten with fufu, banku or gari, Kenkey. By product of Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) are used for Wood plastic Medium Density Fibre board (MDF), for Erosion control, landscaping. Leading producers of palm oil in world oil palm fiber abundantly resources. Oil palm fiber used in different areas common usage is in asphalt mixes. The Oil Palm Fiber is extracted from the palm oil vascular bundles in empty fruit bunch (EFB). In the manufacturing process of Palm Fiber, EFB shredded, separated, refined and dried. The manufacturing process does not involve any chemical reaction or exposure so material clean so non-toxic. Economic environmental benefits tapped from oil palm industry waste for Energy and Green Technology. Right innovative technology potential in generating electricity with the economic and environmental benefits from biogas and biomass. Palm Oil Mills earn money converting biomass EFB to higher-value renewable fuels chemicals, reducing greenhouse gas emissions.1570653699384258625274659884593.jpgPalm fruit bunches (FFB) are processed raw uncooked as soon as possible after cutting down from the trees to prevent rapid rise in free fatty acids (FFA) affect quality of crude palm oil (CPO). Palm oil mills located in the plantations facilitate timely transportation effective processing of FFB. Palm oil mills located in palm oil milling process of physical extraction of palm products crude palm oil, palm kernel from FFB. The process begins with sterilization of the FFB. The fruit bunches steamed in pressurized vessels and fatty acids prepared fruits for sub-processing. Bunches stripped of fruit in rotating drum thresher stripped bunches or empty fruit bunches (EFB) transported to plantation for mulching so fruits conveyed to press digesters.15706539370591606996776675537061.jpgPalm fruits heated using live steam and is stirred to loosen oil-bearing mesocarp from the nuts to break open the oil cells in the mesocarp. The mash is pressed to extract oil by means of screw presses so the pressed cake is conveyed to kernel plant and kernels are recovered. The oil from the press is diluted and pumped to vertical clarifier tanks. The clarified oil is fed to the purifiers to remove dirt and moisture dried in the vacuum drier. The clean dry oil is ready for storage and is despatched. The sludge from clarifier sediment is fed into a bowl centrifuged for further oil recovery. The recovered oil is recycled to clarifiers so the water / sludge Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is treated in effluent treatment plant (ETP) further. The press cake is conveyed to depericarper where the fiber and nuts are separated. Fiber is burned as fuel in boiler to generate steam as nuts cracked shell and kernel separated by winnower and hydro-cyclone. Then clean kernels are dried prior to storage for oil later.15706522666875080660915981808681.jpgPalm oil production in metric tons of oil by industries and small-scale processors contribute to 60% crude of the palm oil production. Most countries are not self-sufficient in fats and oils for industrial consumption. The palm oil produced by small-scale processors are utilized by the larger scale industries explored and causes identified the way to address the situation assessed. And the practices of small-scale oil palm fruit processors has shown storage of palm fruits for a long period before boiling. Then disposed of effluent into drains using spent tyres for boiling fruits clarification of oil. 54% of processors store palm fruits weeks by processing, fermentation, to increase extractability and reduce labour costs. Storage period of quality affect quantity of seasonal oil content of oil palm fruits. Innovation in small-scale oil palm fruit processing will improve quality of life.15706517110758696765975411672584.jpgThe history of palm oil production dates back thousands of years, with the oldest record of its use from 3,000 BC. In late 1800s archaeologists discovered palm oil in a tomb located in Abydos, Egypt. It is believed Arab traders brought the oil to Egypt. A fresh fruit bunch (FFB). The variety shown in this picture is called Tenera. Palm oil is extracted from each of the individual fruits contained on the bunch. In 3.000 BC the mass of several kilograms of palm oil found in a vessel enclosed in a tomb at Abydos. In Middle 15th Century written records of palm oil used as a local food source by European travelers to West Africa. By 16th & 17th Century red palm oil an important item in the developing trade network used in supplying caravans or ships of Atlantic slave trade. In the 18th Century British industrial revolution created a palm oil demand for candle-making or lubricant for machines supplied by exports from West Africa. In 19th Century European run plantations set up in Central Africa and Southeast Asia traded the palm oil.15706539056746807580998390183146.jpgIn 1902 Germans invested in Cameroon after the discovery of the Tenera breed of palm oil. This high-yielding breed is used today in large-scale plantations. In  1910 Palm oil introduced to Malaysia by a Scotsman named William Sime and an Englishman Henry Darby. Between 1940 and 1960 technological improvement in edible oil refining and transport driven use of unrefined unhydrogenated palm oil in western foods. 1970-1990 Malaysia emerged as the worlds largest palm oil producer. By 1990 global production of palm oil reached more than 11 million metric tonnes. Palm oil primary source of dietary fat for countless people has nutritional and healing properties.15707025711802215076446866121332.jpg 15707023867614656298759665449622.jpgIt is recognised for generations till modern medicine arrived. Red palm oil was the remedy of choice for nearly all illness in many parts of Africa. If someone is sick they drank a cup full of palm oil. Many people in villages rely on such age-old method of treatment. And Palm oil is regarded essential diet for pregnant and nursing women for assured good health of mother and child. Scientists recognise value of red palm oil in treatment or prevention of diseases. Scientific presentation International Conference Centre Birmingham Biomedical Science Congress, Dr. Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju, Department, Biomedical Sciences, said. Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University, Technology, Bellville Campus, South Africa further elucidated potential of red palm oil in moderation in the healing process body.1570653776803564907221306921431.jpg

Scientifically palm oil Elaeis Guineensis is super abundantly used in West Africa. Archaeological evidence on the palm oil consumption was found in Egypt over 5000 years ago. Essentially contains rich naturally balanced mixture of saturated monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats providing high level of bioavaliable nutrients than other vegetable sources. Like coconut, olive oil, palm oil is rich in medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), that mobilise body fat stores,increasing the metabolic rate as great source of energy. Palm oil is a rich source of antioxidants, especially Vitamin E. Health benefits of Vitamin E are known but Vitamin E has a complex constituents broken into the two groups of: tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) and the tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). While alpha tocopherol form most commonly marketed as Vitamin E, full spectrum of tocoperols and tocotrienols are required for optimal assimilation. And the super-antioxidant tocotrienols are important for optimal health. Natural antioxidants free radical plays the protective role in cellular aging, atherosclerosis, cancer, arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease.15706537529773419511003640038535.jpgResearchers believe the tocopherols and tocotrienols together provide necessary constituents to help limit damage from heart attack. Red palm oil supplies fatty acids essential for proper growth and development packed with assortment of vitamins, antioxidants, phytonutrients important for good health. So red colour comes from carotenes or beta-carotene and lycopene nutrients in tomatoes and carrots, other fruits, vegetables rich red and orange colours. Carotene’s valuable nutrients and powerful antioxidants are important because body converts into Vitamin A essential nutrient. Vitamin A deficiency can cause blindness, weaken bones, lower immunity, affect learning ability and mental function. Vitamin A in animal foods expensive some vegans want ban or cruelty in animal habitats.15707025212438153787872091408675.jpg 15707023009553670867157174083217.jpg15707023485737659382483707018386.jpg15707176753381643729453294235136.jpgwp-1570741499587.jpgIMG-20191010-WA0005.jpgIMG-20191010-WA0003.jpg15707183188916186410944286321541.jpg20191010_152936.jpgIMG-20191010-WA0004.jpg15707178683191311551244837819910.jpg15707179328823524300200961852299.jpg15707182551946714893949256711393.jpgIMG-20191009-WA0004.jpg15707180654631981086166843417443.jpg15707211799281650153418785419437.jpg15707249146877329145770675166689.jpg15707250221878825410605637871063.jpg1570724333720225742802031718484.jpg20191010_171100.jpgwp-1570727828248.jpgwp-1570727791770.jpg15707239639317669594999625097790.jpg15707266362638432679305406668006.jpg15707268852772449390352852451927.jpg1570726148206947713565204450155.jpg15707270696093181152666151376351.jpgCarotenes in fruits and palm vegetables supply needed Vitamin A in adequate amount of the fat consumed. Carotenes fat converted into Vitamin A. People need healthy product palm fat in small doses. Around 90% of palm oil is used in food culinary purposes in the cosmetics, shampoos and soaps. Palm oil popular biofuel. Traditional African medicine uses these Elaeis guineensis as laxative stimulates production of urine, poison antidote, can cure gonorrhoea, treat skin infection. But not harmless as studies link palm oil to cardiovascular diseases. To produce palm oil the fruit is collected from trees, which live average of 28 to 30 year. If trees grow too high it is difficult to reach fruit so cut down to make room for new trees contributing to the deforestation of the rainforests.20191012_105325.jpgPalm nut fiber separator machine and the palm fiber polishing machine called palm nut fibre separator machine.The palm nut fibre separator machine is an inclined cylindrical revolving machine used for separating the palm nuts from fibers. These palm nut fibre separators machine have screens in various sizes from which fibers escape, leaving nuts behind. The separated nuts are collected in cylindrical screen and bottom. Work principle of palm nut fiber separator machine: The palm nut fiber separator machine inclined cylindrical revolving machine heaves all around suitable size screen from fibres but palm nuts do not escape. Travelling mixture from upper end to lower end of the machine fibres escape from cylindrical screen as palm nuts are collected from the lower end of the nut fibre separator.20191012_105224.jpgPalm nut fiber separator is produced by Henan Doing Company to sell to small scale industries. Larger and heavier duty industrial machines exist churning tons if palm fibre in the processing of pal oil.  Fibres are used in the boiler as fuel. Palm nuts are sold out to palm kernel oil mill where they crack palm nuts to get palm kernels extract so palm kernels used for palm kernel oil.20191012_105131.jpgPalm nuts are used in a palm kernel oil mill plant for extracting palm kernel oil. Palm kernel cracked, separated by machine cleaning crushing, cooking and pressing. Small scale palm oil mill plant palm nut fiber separator machine is dispensable. Those who want to get palm kernel oil expand production with enough budget can buy palm nut fiber separator machine. Palm kernel cracking and separating machine.20191012_105017.jpgPalm nut fibre separator machine is a next process palm kernel oil processing machine for palm kernel cracking and separating machine. This palm kernel cracking and separating machine is also specially and newly developed to be used for cracking and separating palm nuts. It consists of palm nuts cracking machine, palm nuts kernel separator machine. Palm nuts cracking machine is mainly applicable for dividing the palm kernels into the outer hard shell with high efficiency. The palm nuts kernel separating machine is for separating the palm nuts kernels from the cracked shells clearly and completely. Despite modern industrial developments of this technology majority of people still use ancient traditional harvesting of palm fruit and processing manually. Involves the whole family or a cooperative small scale industry in their communities. Yet some campaign to curb overuse of lands destroying habitats of over 200 species of animals. Professional palm kernel oil extraction machine palm kernel crusher and separator also reduce employment as fewer people needed compared to the manual process. Overall palm oil is a good investment if properly managed. The other side of the coin is tons of the one use only plastic container wastes if not recycled for other purposes. 

COOKING, WASHING, TAMES

Man holding babyCooking, washing clothes, cleaning and childcare, tames men who once thought it was only the women’s job. Like most men, Jean Pierre 32 lives in Mwulire in Eastern Province in Rwanda and leaves domestic chores to his wife. Impatient, angry, demands perfection due to lack of awareness that a woman’s job is 24/7 so never ends day or night. He becomes aggressive if his wife did not meet the standards of his expectations so beats her. A grassroots intervention program trying to reduce domestic violence in Rwanda teaches men how to do household chores, and a recent study suggested it has a positive effect on communities. So Muhoza Jean Pierre used to beat his wife because he saw her as someone he married just to have children and and look after them. “I was following example of my father. My father did not do anything at home,” he said. “If ever I came home and found something not done yet I insult her. “I called her lazy, told her she was useless so must go back to her parent’s house.” But something changed after he learnt to cook and clean. It was all part of a grassroots intervention programme in Mwulire village in Eastern Province, Rwanda encouraging men’s domestic roles, including childcare. Jean Pierre says the project called, ‘Bandebereho’ or role model in Kinyarwanda helps tamed and transformed his behaviour. He took part in classes covering everything from cooking and cleaning and discuss how to challenge men’s traditional gender roles. “They asked, if a man can sweep the house, and we would say ‘he can’,” he said. “And then they would ask us: ‘Who among you does that?’ And there was no one.”Man cooking next to his wife

Real men shouldn’t cook

Facilitators from ‘Bandebereho’ taught Jean Pierre how to do tasks previously he believed his wife should do. He also added: “We would go home and try to put this into practice. “Then we would go back to training with witnesses who would testify they had observed some changes in us. “I know how to cook. I do laundry for the kids. I know how to peel plantains, I know how to pound dry cassava and sift the flour.” Jean Pierre and his wife have been married for 10 years and never helped her before. And making changes was not easy as Jean Pierre’s friends discouraged him from doing household tasks, telling him: ‘No real man should cook.’ “My family and friends said my wife bewitched me by giving me some magic drugs. They said no genuine man should carry a bundle of firewood in the street because that is for henpecked men,” he said. But Jean Pierre continued when he saw benefits to his family. He says his children feel closer to him and his wife now runs a banana business that has allowed them to improve their home. “The way my wife treats me now is different from the way she used to treat me,” he said. “She used to treat me badly because I was mistreating her too, but now we discuss and agree on things to do. “I set her free, now she is working and I am working too; whereas before I was convinced she had to stay home and be available whenever I would need her.” Fear and little freedom affected Jean Pierre’s wife Musabyimana Delphine who says she used to have little freedom and lived in fear. She said: “Sometimes I felt like a mere worker, and I would remember a worker has a salary. “I never thought a woman can ever have her own money, because I never even had time to think about any activity that generate money. “Now I have enough freedom in house, I go out and work for money like others. Start training young boys now so when they grow up they will help their wife and help look after the children. When both work, it’s a burden on the woman to care for the family or children alone.man washing a plateThe ‘Bandebereho’ project taught Jean Pierre to do tasks previously believed his wife should do. Delphine leaves at 5am to sell plantains at a market, while Jean Pierre stays at home and takes care of their four young children. “I come home relaxed and find food ready,” she said. The project’s curriculum originally developed in Latin America by global fatherhood campaign MenCare believes true equality will only be reached when men take on 50% of world’s childcare and domestic work. The research looks into changing men’s attitudes towards family care and traditional domestic. It was soon realised the good impact on men. A study looking at couples taking part in the project found two years after taking childcare lessons in Rwanda men were less likely to use violence against their female partners than those who did not attend the classes. But the study suggested one in three women whose partners took part in the programme still reported experiencing intimate partner violence. National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda, released a data in 2015, around 52% of men in the country were violent towards partners. Rwanda Men’s Resource Centre, which delivered the programme in the country, wants ‘Bandebereho’ to be widely adopted by communities and country’s government. Fidele Rutayisire the chairman of centre, said: “We still have negative social norms, negative masculinity perception cultural barriers as main factors of high violence against women in Rwanda. “Traditionally men don’t take care of children here but men control sex, resources, decision-making. “When men are actively involved in the home they realise sacrifices of women in childcare so their attitude on gender changes positively, they understand the value of gender equality.” Delphine and Jean Pierre said the program benefited their family and the whole community. “We are now on honeymoon, 10 years after our wedding,” said Jean Pierre. If there is conflict or security issue in our neighbourhood our opinion is respected because they see we don’t have problem in our household. Men appreciate and help their wives and not demand they do all the housework or take care of the family, business, Church alone without support of husbands. A happy wife is a happy life and the Bible says love your wife as Christ loved His bride Church and gave His life for you. Timothy says a husband must first look after his family and own household before serving the Church. Don’t neglect your wife and the children in the NAME OF GOD leisurely talking to single women while your wife and children at home suffer. Remember your wife is that same beautiful single woman you married and used her body to give birth to your children. And don’t abandon her for fresh young woman to give birth later to become abandoned as wife. This causes baby mama problems because men want to eat their cake and have it. So wants exclusive attention of wife at the expense of the children some are jealous of. Forget their parents took great care of them as done to children. Grow up and be father to the children to mature a responsible man not manchild depending on wife as mother. For even the Son of Man Jesus did not come to be served but to serve and give His life as a ransom for many says Mark 10:45.

  • 27 November 2018
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WHEN WILL CLOCK CHANGE

When did the clocks go back?

This year’s clocks go back early hours of Sunday October 28; at 2am, UK reverts to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) by goes back one hour, to 1am. This marks the official end of British summertime. A clever way to remember hour-change is “Spring forward, Fall back.” Relish extra 60 minutes in bed so mornings will be lighter for now, at least but the evenings will be darker. The event means making plans for the day despite prevalence of smartphones and other devices to alter time automatically, there is always one person who didn’t get the message.

When infernal darkness ends?

We won’t see lighter nights again until Sunday March 31st 2019, when clocks will wind forward at 1am and British Summer Time begins.

How dark UK gets in winter?

In the UK the maximum 16 hours and 50 minutes of daylight falls on longest day in June known as summer solstice. On shortest day, Thursday December 21, this dwindles to seven hours and 49 minutes when the sun rises at 8:03am and sets at 3:53pm in London.

Daylight Saving Idea Origin?

Edwardian builder William Willett introduced the idea of British Summer Time, also known as Daylight Saving Time, in 1907. Willett is a great-great-grandfather of Coldplay lead singer Chris Martin. A keen supporter of the outdoors, he noticed that during the summer people were still asleep when the sun had risen and wanted to stop Brits from wasting valuable daylight hours. Clocks were set to the Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) meaning light by 3am and dark at 9pm midsummer. So Willett published pamphlet called ‘The Waste of Daylight‘ to get people out of bed earlier by changing the nation’s clocks, arguing it will improve health and happiness so save country £2.5 million. He proposed the clocks be advanced by 80 minutes in four incremental steps during April and reversed same way during September. His idea was ridiculed and the Daylight Saving Bill got nowhere in Parliament but introduced in 1909. Willett, was not deterred. He spent the rest of his life trying to convince people his scheme was a good one. Sadly, he died of the flu in 1915 at the age of 58; a year before Germany adopted his clock-changing plan on April 30, 1916 when clocks were put forward at 11pm. Britain followed a month later on May 21 and Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and Turkey all followed. William Willett laid outserious proposition for daylight saving scheme. Britain and Germany had been fighting each other in the First World War (1914-18), and a system that could take pressure off economy and conserve fuel worth trying. So Summer Time Act of 1916 was quickly passed by Parliament and the first day of British Summer Time, 21 May 1916, was widely reported in the press. Back then hands on some clocks can’t turn back without breaking mechanism. Owners put the clock forward by 11 hours as Summer Time came to an end on 1 October 1916.

The Home Office put out special posters telling people how to reset their clocks to GMT and national newspapers also gave advice. Willett, died at his home near Bromley in Kent,  commemorated for his efforts by a memorial sundial in nearby Petts Wood, set permanently to Daylight Saving Time. The Daylight Inn in Petts Wood is named in his honour and there’s a road there called Willett Way. Willett wasn’t alone in realising the potential of utilising wasted daylight hours. As far back as 1784, Benjamin Franklin, one of America’s Founding Fathers, wrote a letter to the Journal of Paris making fun of fact people sleeping through daylight and burning candles and fuel for light at night. Franklin even suggested tax on shuttered windows or public alarm clocks to solve problem.

Time changes body clock British Summer Time ends on SundayBritish Summer Time ends Sunday 28th October affects moods: SAD disorder is Seasonal Affective Disorder one of the most depressing days of the year. When clocks go back the British Summer Time ends evenings darker hour earlier. Does it make much difference? From 1968 to 1971, the UK experimented with British Standard Time the permanent summer time was used all year. Trevor Harley, a psychologist, in his book The Psychology of Weather recalls in native Scotland he felt like “it was perpetually dark. Its bad enough when sunrise around 9am, but 10am is grim prospect in winter.” It led to more traffic accidents during darker mornings, but fewer accidents in the evenings. Overall, about 2,500 fewer people were killed due to clock change.

Time difference of one hour?

Today clocks are almost always set one hour back or ahead, but in history there were several variations, half adjustment (30 minutes) or double adjustment (two hours), adjustments of 20 or 40 minutes used. A two-hour adjustment was used in several countries during 1940s and elsewhere at times. A half adjustment is used in New Zealand in the first half of the 20th century. Australia’s Lord Howe Island (UTC+10:30) of DST schedule in which clocks are moved 30 minutes forward to UTC+11, which is Australian Eastern Daylight Time (AEDT) during DST. In 1940 during the Second World War, the clocks in Britain were not put back by an hour at the end of Summer Time. Years, later clocks continued to be advanced by one hour each spring and put back by an hour each autumn until July 1945. During summers Britain was two hours ahead of GMT and operating on British Double Summer Time (BDST). The clocks were brought back in line with GMT at the end of summer in 1945. In 1947, due to fuel shortages, clocks were advanced by one hour on two occasions during the spring, and put back by one hour on two occasions during the autumn, means that Britain was back on BDST during that summer.

 

Ditching Daylight Saving Time?

Those who want change say it’s not clear if any energy savings are made, while there are also potential health risks. Critics claim the darker mornings are dangerous for children walking to school and the energy saving argument may be invalid if people switch on fans and air-conditioning units during the lighter, warmer evenings. But unlikely to bother people in the UK. In 2011, Tory MP Rebecca Harris floated a bill calling for year-round daylight savings but failed to complete passage through Parliament before the end of the session and was dropped. A YouGov poll same year found 53pc of Britons supported moving clocks an hour permanently while 32pc opposed the change. The proposals were met less warmly by the Scottish population; Alex Salmond called campaign to “plunge Scotland to morning darkness” and SNP colleague MP Angus MacNeil said any change has “massive implications for the safety and wellbeing of everyone living north of Manchester. “It is no secret Tories in the south want to leave Scotland in darkness but fixing clocks to British summertime means the dawn wouldn’t break in Scotland until nearly 9am,” he said. He had a point. Following a 1968 to 1971 trial, BST employed all year round northern Scotland saw a net increase in the number of people killed or seriously injured. The sun wouldn’t rise fully until 10am in parts of Scotland and the country’s 1,000-or-so dairy farmers, who wake up before 5am, would have to work for hours in the dark. Other farmers and construction workers, who need sunlight to perform their jobs, would end up having to work later into the evening. Some folks keen to reach a compromise have suggested the clocks change at Hadrian’s Wall and not at Calais. Philip Broom writing on the National Farmer’s Union website in 2011 said: “A definite no. Combining will not start until midday and then have to go on until 11 o’clock. Our day is long enough now.” ‘A Thomas’ writing on the NFU site, was worried “younger people having loud parties or barbecues in gardens and youths hanging around on streets make itnightmare for people getting up for work early mornings.”

A massive wind-up for some…

Spare a thought for the staff of the Royal Collection. They spend over 50 hours adjusting over 1000 clocks spread across the official residences of The Queen. Following months of planning, staff at Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle and the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh start work in the early hours of the morning to ensure that the time is set accurately. There are 379 timepieces at Windsor Castle, 500 at Buckingham Palace and 80 at the Palace of Holyroodhouse including organ clocks, astronomical clocks, musical clocks and mechanical clocks. 

Why keep Daylight Saving Time

There have been various trials over the decades from double summer time (GMT + 2 hours) during Second World War to permanent British Summer Time (GMT + 1 hour) during late 1960s but the current system of changing the clocks at the end of March and October has been in place since 1972. Those in favour say that it would reduce traffic accidents, save energy, boost tourism and encourage more people to exercise outdoors. In the 1980s, the golf industry estimated one extra month of daylight savings could generate up to $400 million (£246.6 million) a year in extra sales and fees. Daylight Savings Time “affects everything from terrorism to the attendance at London music halls, voter turnout to street crime, gardening to profits of radio stations,” said David Prerau, author of Saving the Daylight: Why We Put the Clocks Forward. This debate stretches years into the past, and the future of British time is still unclear.

Sandringham Time GMT/30mins

Added complication for Royal servants between the years 1901 to 1936 was the concept of ‘Sandringham Time’ which was introduced in by Albert, Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII. A keen fan of shooting, he wanted to make the most of winter daylight, so he ordered all clocks on the estate to be set half an hour fast. The tradition was continued by King George V after he acceded to the throne in 1925 but King Edward VIII abolished it in 1936 shortly before his abdication Sandringham House

Coping With The Time Changes

  1. When the clocks first go back, mornings are lighter so ensure bedrooms are kept dark with blinds or curtains.
  2. Alter bedtime by around 10 minutes over a few days beforehand to adjust to the new time.
  3. Maintain bedtime routines. Get ready for bed in the same order e.g pyjamas on, tooth brushing, bedtime story.
  4. Turn off all screens at least an hour before bedtime.
  5. Offer a milky, warm drink to encourage sleepiness and avoid stimulating food and drink just before sleep.
  6. Make sure all the clocks are correct.

PLASTIC FREE PARTY CHOICE

Lindsay and Glen

Lindsay, 36, a writer from Kent, and her Australian husband Glen, 38, first tried living without plastic in 2012. It started out as a month-long challenge so turned into a way of life for the pair who live in Perth, Western Australia. “I’m more the driver than him but we got involved at the same time,” she says. “I’m the one that puts in more work but he agrees with all the values.” So going plastic free for their wedding, in 2014, was a no-brainer.Table decorationsPlastic finds way into weddings in many forms of food storage, drink packaging, decorations, flower delivery – that’s just the start. For Lindsay, who blogs about living without waste, trying to make her special day plastic free came first ahead of any other wishes. “We said we want to be plastic free ‘how can we do that,’ rather than saying, ‘We want roses, we want to have canapes, can we do plastic free memorable but not break the bank. Simplicity was key. To me simple means no fuss and devoting whole weekends to projects was out, says Lindsay.Food menuInvolving suppliers from outset was the most effective way of making a plastic-free event happen, she says. “It’s really about having conversations with people and explaining why you want to do it. People are willing.” But its about taking matters into you own hands. “If you get stuff delivered to you, that’s when it comes in packaging. It was making sure on the day we went to all the deli, the bakery et cetera so we could guarantee there was no packaging.” Eco Wedding Styles done includes recycled materials.Wedding decorations

  • Invitations: electronic, sent via email or Facebook
  • Flowers: freshly picked by family and friends from their gardens, arranged in old jam-jars
  • Decorations: borrowed lace bunting from old tablecloths and curtains • tins fished out of recycling bins and wrapped in twine and in hessian ribbon, which was also used for table runners • hired tablecloths and tea cups • bought beeswax candles in jars
  • Food: local businesses focused on locally sourced produce • hired pizza oven • cakes from a bakery that didn’t use plastic packaging • Indian snacks donated by a friend as a wedding gift
  • Drink: tap beer and cider • local wine • pre-made soft drinks served in jugs • loose tea and coffee • no straws
  • Tableware: venue’s own crockery and cutlery (although having pizza minimised amount needed) • borrowed glasses
  • Gifts: guests told not to buy presents – to avoid any waste and wrapping
  • Dress: rather than spend hours trawling charity shops, the bride bought a High-Street dress she wore again and then sold on eBay
  • Hair and make-up: used make-up bride had • washed hair with bicarbonate of soda and vinegar
  • Favours/confetti: did without it

Lindsay and Glen's weddingLindsay and Glen married local bowling club in Perth Lindsay accepts achieving a 100% plastic-free wedding also meant relying on other people. For wedding, they hired a pizza oven and used a local deli to provide fresh ingredients without plastic packaging but did they know what went on behind the scenes? “It’s possible some plastic that I didn’t see… whether he got a packet of salad in a plastic bag, I don’t know were counterbalanced by air miles required to fly her family albeit just four people to Australia. “In hindsight, I should have fallen in love with the guy in the village – but I didn’t,” Lindsay jokes. “I fell in love with a guy in Australia, so it’s one of those things you have to compromise. My parents, my sister and brother flying out for a wedding – it’s a one-off.” They did decide to have the wedding as local as possible in the city of Perth, rather than the countryside, to reduce driving distances. How difficult for Eugenie to achieve? Wedding planner Katrina Otter says working with the right people is key, as some of the more “old-school suppliers” are less keen to adapt. “Make sure you have the right team on board, work with a team willing to do it or one where it’s already part of their ethos.” She adds: Bride and groom might not know plastic involved cutlery wrapped in cling film. No royal wedding is complete without a vibrant floral display.The Duke and Duchess of Sussex leaving the chapelFlowers were a big part of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex’s wedding day And, traditionally, a key part of those has been the floral foam – the bricks of green, spongy foam that provide a foundation for floral arrangements, as well as a water source. Katrina says finding an alternative to the non-biodegradable plastic material has become a big issue for the industry and many florists are looking to do it another way. The florist who created the displays for the Duke and Duchess of Sussex’s wedding, Philippa Craddock, says she didn’t use any floral foam for their big day. The number of couples requesting plastic-free weddings is on the rise, says Katrina, although it remains a small proportion. Another issue to consider for any bride having live TV coverage is the hair and make-up. Kate Arnell, who blogged about her zero-waste wedding, in 2014, says she found it tricky to find plastic-free make-up and hair products. There are a lot more available and since swapped to plastic-free alternatives she says. Whether Princess Eugenie opts for Lindsay’s bicarbonate of soda, vinegar concoction on hair yet to be confirmed. Eugenie wedding wants plastic free on big day. In addition to venue, food and drink, music, the dress, hair and make-up, a bride’s checklist goes on. And also Princess Eugenie added another factor into equation her wedding to be plastic free. The Queen’s granddaughter, who is marrying Jack Brooksbank on 12 October, told British Vogue the couple’s house was anti-plastic and want our wedding to be like that as well.” So how realistic is it? Lindsay Miles discovered, there are quite a few things to take into consideration. If it is just one day, why bother? “A wedding is such a significant day that it’s even more important to be true to your values than on any other day,” says Lindsay. “You can’t go back on your values just because you’re getting married.”

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