JESUS KING OF Kings/Princes

20190901_215455.jpgJesus is KING OF Kings and Princes Who return to rule in Israel. Revelation 20:4+ says resurrected saints rule and reign with Christ. Jesus and saints return with a heavenly army in Jude 1:14 as Enoch the seventh from Adam prophesied. The Lord comes with ten thousands of His saints and many passages in the old and new testament confirm saints will rule. Isaiah 32:1 says the righteous reign with Messiah and princes rule with justice. Daniel and John says saints rule after the beast destroyed in Revelation 19:20 in Second Coming of Christ, reign of saints not yet come. Four kings arise out of earth but saints of Most High God will receive to possess kingdoms forever in Daniel 7:17-18. The Ancient of Days will come to judge but favour saints of Most High in Daniel 7:21-22. God’s Kingdom,  dominion, greatness of kingdoms under the whole heaven given saints. Kingdom is everlasting, dominions will serve and obey Jesus in Daniel 7:27. Jesus given an authority over cities Luke 19:17-19. Not as James and John want position on left and right of Jesus share rule in Mathew 20:20, Mark 10:37. Revelation 3:21 says Jesus tells overcomers to sit with Him on His throne as He sits on His father’s throne: God’s gives high authority to the believers with Jesus on David’s throne in Matthew 25:31 as kings on this earth. This kings and priests of God’s kingdom iRevelation 5:10 reign in the FUTURE as kings and priests to God. Joint heirs with Jesus as believers in God’s Word by royal priesthood. New new creations as His special people, Body of Christ, heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ Jesus. KINGS AND PRIEST.jpgAs Jesus Rules and Reigns all in Christ will rule and reign as kings, queens and royal priests on earth. Jesus is ONLY KING’S KINGDOM citizens made Kings and Queens. People in other kingdoms are NOT ALL Kings as UNIQUE Kingdom of God. People must know because some are going around saying they kings and queens. In Deuteronomy 17:14–15, God said, “ In land the LORD your God gives you say, ‘set king over us like all nations be sure to appoint a king LORD chooses. God promised Jacob, Nations will come from you and kings among descendants in Genesis 35:11, Genesis 36:31; 49:10; Numbers 24:7–9; Deuteronomy 28:36. In Bible, Jezebel the woman she – devil in 1 Kings 16:31; 18:4-19; 19:1, 2; 21:5-25; 2 Kings 9 manipulates King Ahab to control nation. Its a misnomer to encourage the people to think all are kings and queens all at the same time. One reigning king and queen and subordinate kings and queen living in harmony. Hierarchy structure of kingship is birthright seniority from God but exceptions happen on special occasions. Hierarchy structure includes set formal positions with authority of each king. A paramount King is bowed to by lesser king during durbars. During procession event lesser king got out of his palaquin to walk on foot by a Senior King’s palace as a sign of respect and honour. Repeats again on return after procession to sit in palaquin after passing the King’s palace. Each king holds their strategic positions in battle knows which location to be in to cover the Senior King permanently associated with each kingdom. These kings meet together at international and local level to help celebrate community and to keep in touch with the citizens. thought-1.jpgDisputes or differences settled amicably but warring faction may disagree on the issues they do not see eye to eye. This is a traditional kingship which treats their king as God’s representative on earth. A lesser king brings specific gifts, tributes, to the Senior Kings. During the hunting season parts of the game veal belonging to Senior King given to them. A public  sitting, arrival, processions are all based on preset protocol of Kingdom structure for thousands of years. Highly followed protocol based on hierarchy of an office and position of a king is established by the traditions. They are not based on the favouritism or popularity of the King or opinions of the people. Those close to a kings family are trained from birth to be aware of these traditions. People not familiar with a kingdom rule may find a standard protocol strange but it has the very role to establish order and security or safety. Some misunderstand protocol demand to be treated as they like do not respect a traditional setting structure. Some declare they are kings wear huge gold chains, gold teeth, distorts true reality of kingship. Lack humility and mislead people by delusion of grandeur megalomaniac impostor syndrome of a royal paranoia always feeling superior to others. Do not submit to authority or understand that kings are not arrogant pompous tyrants who order the people around. Its King makers who choose a humble considerate and pliable person they feel will cope well with position. They are trained and taught kingship is duty for life not self aggrandisement for negative attention seeking behaviour to outshine others and to show off to the world. It is essential to educate modern generations about social structure to understand role of subjects and citizens. Lack of modern education makes social media want to dictate structures they do not fully understand. Security reasons require discreet communication silence, using trained eyes, blink, wink, handle position of teacup, bags, subtle language in the presence of dignitaries. One cannot be blunt, raw or outspoken all the time for personal safety. Revelation 8:1 says when the Lamb opens seventh seal is silence in heaven for about half an hour. There is a time to speak and a time to be silent we must know when to talk and when to say nothing as Bible says in Ecclesiastes 3:17. Jesus SUBMITS to God yet He is the ONLY KING of Kings SEATED AT GOD’S RIGHT HAND. Good to know wealth or fame is not reason to become king. Some think being rich in powerful positions automatically makes them king. So make unrealistic demand on others to fulfil their fantasy so if they are rebuffed get so angry and irrational. They live in a utopia fantasy world with blindspots not realising life is tough and challenging so must adapt and grow up.  Must put other people first because life is not exclusively only all about them. IMG-20191029-WA0004.jpgThere is ONLY ONE KING OF Kings Jesus Head of all Children of God. Jesus warns in the last days highminded people who feel above their station have minds on physical things not real things of God. God is not retained in their thoughts in Psalm 10:4, Romans 1, despise authority do their own thing for they think they are superior to God and Jesus. They are presumptuous, self-willed, impose their strong will on others by their way or no way behaviour, act out of dictates of their own hearts to influence public opinion than following God with humility and trusting HIM to bring HIS WILL to pass. 2 Peter 3 says: 1 Know in the last days perilous times will come 2 people will be lovers of themselves lovers of money, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, 3 unloving, unforgiving, slanderers, without self-control, brutal, despisers of good, 4 traitors, headstrong, haughty, lovers of pleasure than lovers of God 5 having form of godliness but deny God’s power. From such turn away 6 For this sort creep in houses and make captives of silly women load down with sins, led away by lusts 7 always learning and never able to come to knowledge of truth. 8 As Jannes and Jambres resisted Moses, resist truth, men of corrupt minds disapproved of by faith 9 will not progress their folly manifests to all they misled. Man of God using Word of God must 10 follow doctrine, lead Godly life, faith, longsuffering, love, perseverance 11 face challenges like Antioch, Iconium endured as the LORD delivered. 12 All who live Godly in Christ go through life challenges 13 as the evil men impostors grow worse deceive so deceived.KINGS AND PRIESTS.jpg2 Peter 3 says 14 You continue in things learnt in childhood 15 known Holy Scriptures to make you wise for salvation by faith in Christ. 16 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God is profitable for doctrine, reproof, correction instruction, righteousness 17 man of God to be complete equipped for good works. ONLY JESUS MILLENNIAL REIGN believers made kings so don’t be deceived or think too highly of yourself not submit to God. Daniel 2:21 says God changes times seasons HE makes  kings,  removes kings, promote kings. HE gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to the humble. A TV show put only kings in a house without servants so did chores, cooked, cleaned. SOVEREIGN LORD gave Jesus all POWER of authority in heaven and earth in Matthew 28:18-19. To teach all nations, baptizing them in Name of Father God, Son, Holy Spirit. Jesus in John 14:12–14 gives power as crucified risen Christ. But satan tries to be like Most High God in Ezekiel, Isaiah 14 cast out of heaven. So Most High God is KING could not have another king in heaven. Kings and queens in kingdoms so no two kings or queens at same time. After satan cast out of heaven to earth the world became his kingdom as ruler of world in John 12:31. Kingdom of God has One KING, Jesus Christ ruling KING in 1 Corinthians 15:28. Jesus refused the offer of satan to make him king after He fasted 40 days and nights in wilderness. In future all overcomer saints rule with Jesus as sons and daughters of God. The Kingdom of God gives leadership power of dominion to saints. Jesus is Absolute KING OF Kings and Lord of lords.

 

JESUS UNITES ALL IN ISRAEL

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Galatians 3:26-28 says not a Jew, Gentile, Greek, SLAVE, free, MALE, FEMALE ALL ARE ONE IN CHRIST JESUS. In the Bible Jesus Christ of Nazareth came to SAVE to redeem ALL FAMILIES in Christ. God created all black and white people equal in God’s Kingdom, no rank, class, status. SOVEREIGN GOD JEHOVAH and CHRIST JESUS are Ultimate Authority all submit to in ETERNAL LIFE. So Matthew 22:30 says after resurrection people DO NOT MARRY so no virgins to marry. Glorified body is like angels in heaven in eternal life so no need to marry, to give birth to replenish earth in future. All restored to youthful bodies, healed, live perfectly healthy lives eternally. Love is directed totally first to God and to Jesus Christ flowing through all people. There is no need to seek fulfilment through a human being because all are fulfilled in Christ Jesus. The supernatural love God fills mankind with is superior to human love. All LOVE comes from God through Jesus the Bridegroom, enriched deeply in Christ Jesus Alone in eternal life. So human romance pales in comparison to GOD’S DEEPEST LOVE BEYOND human understanding in terms of earthly love. Earthly love is full of disappointment, pain, hurt and grief. A Heavenly LOVE yet fully experienced on earth glimpses of true love found here, there on earth.4bdde64e26478018c275ab2ae84328d6.jpgPERFECT LOVE after GLORIOUS BODY IS FOUND IN CHRIST so no human can provide angelic love for glorified body higher being in Christ Jesus. ETERNAL LIFE IN GOD’S PRESENCE is NO HATRED VENGEANCE, Bitterness or vendetta for only the PURE IN HEART FULL OF LOVE ENTER GOD’S PRESENCE. GOD IS LOVE in heaven no evil on earth exists after judgement BY JEHOVAH. Only the sheep enter heaven and goats are thrown out into hellfire burning forever. A banquet by KING MASTER JESUS for all no slaves IN HEAVEN. Emancipate yourself from the arrogant mental slavery justifying abuse of people in THE NAME of God. Vengeance belongs to Jehovah to meet out so stop misleading the people with twisted lies misquoting Bible to deceive naive vulnerable people. Only Jesus is able to Comfort us and restore PERFECT PEACE we crave because human love is limited. Be content, so grateful, thankful for families you feel not good for you. It is God who puts people in families for a reason. Trust God with your family and AVOID ANYONE WHO DIVIDES FAMILY! 29131.jpgJesus the Messiah is surrounded by His mother, father siblings in His Ministry on earth and in heaven with Jesus. Any Church that divides family is a cult for manipulation naive members to control them by CUTTING OFF from loved ones who SEE THROUGH FAKE PASTORS. The fake pastor deceives people for control weakens them without back up support challenging controlling behaviour. They fear families standing up to stop abuse so anyone who knows the Bible well or confronts them is blackmailed and also vilified to subdue members. They make examples of people to humiliate them to put fear in them to become ZOMBIES or robots they control. Beware of anyone twisting BIBLE to CONTROL your life because who the SON JESUS SETS FREE IS FREE INDEED!!! God is LOVE and by love people know you are the children of God.  Jesus LOVE YOUR ENEMIES do good to those who hate you and do not inherit enmity and hatred from a bitter miserable people preaching evil hatred.  God’s promise to Abraham the land of Israel is a BLESSING to ALL NATIONS.Galatians_3-28.jpgIn Genesis 12:2; 18:18; 22:17–18; 26:3–4 God fulfilled promise to Abraham, first in the nation of Israel then all nations. Israel’s technological, agricultural, and medical innovations, advances help all people in the world. God’s greatest meaningful fulfillment of covenant promise is Word of God Jewish people gave all world. God faithfully protects and brought Israel’s eternal salvation through faith in Jesus the Messiah. So Father God in Lord Jesus Messiah by His great mercy Christians born agains are raised the Messiah from dead. To live in future is a great expectation of priceless inheritance in heaven, pure, undefiled, beyond death and decay. Through faith, God protects by HIS power to endure to end, receive crown of life 1 Peter 1:3–5.  God’s destiny for Abraham to become the father of MULTITUDE of NATIONS includes Gentile nations fulfilled in Jesus, a direct descendant of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob Israel in Matthew 1:2–17.  God LOVES people of all tribes, tongues, nationalities, languages in Jesus as heirs of Abraham and joint heir with Christ.

imageGod’s joint heirs are kings and priests of God in Christ Jesus. There is neither Jew nor Greek, neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; you are ALL ONE IN MESSIAH YESHUA. In MESSIAH you are Abraham’s seed heirs according to promise in Galatians 3:2729. Today know Jesus better by READING BIBLE to STUDY LIKE BEREANS not just do what so called fake control freak cult pastors order you to do to manipulate your life. Messiah Jesus is coming to decide your reward based on if you are HIS SHEEP. Not what the fake prophet misquoted in Bible designed to lie to you because you lack knowledge. God says  MY PEOPLE are destroyed for lack of knowledge of Bible. God says Study to show yourself APPROVED TO GOD not show off Bible verses you memorized. But APPLY the Bible to each need you have, read the specific TEXT daily to meet your need.Galatians+3_26-28.jpgEach one faces God alone on judgement day so remember God will not ask about what the pastor told you. God demands account of your PERSONAL LIFE not the total social media number of followers, bank accounts, mansions, private jets, size of your family, your status, class, colour or race. Each person must share Gospel to DIRECT PEOPLE TO GOD IN CHRIST. The Church you attend or the denomination  is IRRELEVANT TO GOD. Letter to seven Churches in Bible warns Churches. Israel and Jewish people are ONE IN CHRIST JESUS to fulfill all God’s feasts, prophecies covenant promises.  Isaiah 27:6 says, God will cause them that come of Jacob to take root Israel shall blossom and bud to fill the face of the world with fruit. The people of Israel return from parts of the world  their ancestors dispersed take root. The land is blessed and people blessed in the world. Israel’s desert desolate is a major exporter of food to the world. The crops are major export by companies in Israel Isaiah predicted. Isaiah predicted in the Word of God over 2,600 years ago fruit of the land blessing Earth with physical food exported and fruits of God’s Word confirms by Holy Spirit in Christ Jesus. Matthew+1-22+To+Fulfill+What+Was+Spokne+By+The+Lord+Through+Prophets+red.jpg Zechariah says all nations on earth will come yearly to Israel to celebrate Feast of Tabernacles to worship LORD of Hosts. Zechariah 14:16. Isaiah points to road connecting Egypt to Assyria and through this area access road is being built called King’s Highway. Building a super highways links them with all the surrounding nations. These prophesies of Isaiah and Zechariah prepares way in advance in time for Messiah’s rule from His Throne in Israel. Jesus Rules whole Earth and all people will know God in the millennial kingdom in Israel after rapture and His second coming on earth after Armageddon. The land is prepared today to fulfil prophecy of Messiah Jesus as KING of Kings and Lord of lords. And above all countless multitudes of people of all nations, tribes, languages, colours, BELONGS TOGETHER IN HEAVEN AND LATER DWELL ON EARTH WITH GOD. God is not a respecter of persons to put any person above others by class, race, colour, wealth or status. Death is their leveller making all equal before God. No man is bigger or stronger than Jehovah God no matter how powerful they may feel in own eyes to inflate their ego.

BLACK HISTORY IN BRITAIN

African-Romans-12-1.jpgBlacks live in UK since time records in history of sailors, traders and settlers, before slaves arrived since 1450. And modern archaeology techniques and historical research show black were in Roman Britain from African heritage of all classes. The fourth-century ‘Ivory Bangle Lady’ of York and ‘The Beachy Head Lady’ from sub-Saharan Africa, lived in East Sussex c. 200 AD. Africans travelled to Britain long before arrival of Romans. Burial site of Roman London cemeteries is settlement of multicultural society. A bioarchaeology DNA analysis of grave goods by London archaeologist in Museum identified number of burials of people with black African ancestry. Some travelled or were born in London during the Roman period. Evidence of people with African including the North African ancestry in Roman Britain. The craniometric study of the 22 individuals from Southwark, Roman London, found four of them to be African ancestry. And isotopic analysis of their bones evident of childhoods spent in a climate warmer than Roman Britain.African-Romans.jpgAfrican-Romans-16.jpg Autosomal DNA analysis of one of four individuals in a Roman London found he had Black ancestry, with brown eyes, dark brown or black hair. Bone isotopes of individual male is aged over 45 years, spent his childhood in London region. Ivory Bangle Lady’s rich burial found in York’s cranial features of mixed white or black ancestry. Her sarcophagus of stone, contained jet bracelet, an ivory bangle of great wealth of time. Written evidence of presence in Roman Britain residents from a multiethnic Romanised North Africa. Inscriptions of inhabitants involved in military and some in upper echelons of society. Augustan History, of Roman emperor Septimus Severus’ visit to Hadrian’s Wall in 210 AD inspection of wall said mocked by “Ethiope” soldier holding a garland of cypress-boughs. So Severus ordered him away, ‘frightened’ by his dark skin colour saw his act and appearance as omen. The “Ethiope” its written said: “You have been all things, you have conquered all things, now, O conqueror be a god.” The Black Britain’s history of two millennia show the black people born, lived and died here. Their history of political activism or historic struggle and artistic roles exist despite adversity. Social history of black people shaped societies and cultures lived in. The Cheddar Man, first modern Britain had blue eyes and ‘dark to black skin’ as his fossil unearthed in 1903 in Gough’s Cave in Cheddar Gorge, Somerset tests show black heritage. His face revealed “dark to black” skin and piercing blue eyes. Britain’s oldest complete skeleton  known Cheddar man by the pioneering research has given scientists clues into what our first ancestor looked like. This is the most accurate model of what scientists now think the very first British man looked likeThis is the most accurate model of what the scientists think the very first British man looked like. The Cheddar man had lived around 300 generations ago in the area some believe he still has ancestors living in Somerset. Research suggested dates to the Mesolithic period and lived in Britain when its almost completely depopulated. He is thought to have died in his twenties and had a good diet. And according to historians, his tribe was one of the first groups of people to move back into Britain at the end of the last Ice Age. He had dark to black skin, blue eyes and dark curly hair. This findings are a dramatic departure from earlier reconstructions depicting first Britains as lighter skinned male. Experts say this surprising find shows paler complexion and lighter hair in northern Europeans is a more recent development. Professor Ian Barnes research leader at  Natural History Museum said “It’s not just skin colour that’s interesting it’s combination of features” that makes him look like the others seen today. Researchers carried out an examination of his DNA with a facial reconstruction of his fossil for the Channel 4 show First Britains: Secrets of a 10,000 year old man. Natural History Museum scientist’s modern techniques extracts DNA from fragments of ancient bones, and teamed up with specialists at UCL to carry out extensive analysis. The result passed to Dutch artists Alfons and Adrie Kennis specialist palaeontological model makers. Another black African pioneer recognized in c.125 to 350 is the Beachy Head Lady shown here.72748915 ancestors 7Scientists determined this woman was around 30 years old when she died. Her  remains give insight into long history of Africans in Britain. In 1953, her remains as the Beachy Head Lady were found in East Sussex. Her skeleton show origins from Sub-Saharan Africa date to around 125 AD. In 2012 the archaeologists again found her skeletons. Using 19th Century Analysis revealed this skeleton, named Beachy Head Lady after the Eastbourne beauty spot where she was discovered, belonged to the woman of sub-Saharan African descent of 125 AD. She lived in England most of her life and held a high position in Roman society. Is first black Briton confirming African presence in Britain from second, third centuries. In 2013, another skeleton discovered in Fairford, Gloucestershire by the forensic anthropologist revealed to be of a sub-Saharan African woman. Remains dated between the years 896 and 1025. Local historians believe she was either a slave or a bonded servant. Oil paintings of the aristocratic families from period shows artists positioned black people on edges or rear of canvasses to gaze at masters and mistresses. In ‘hierarchy of power relationships,’ they were placed next to dogs and domestic animals. As shared by the art critic and the novelist David Dabydeen, ‘more or less on same status,’ their humanity effaced, exist in pictures as solitary mutes, aesthetic foils to their owners’ economic fortunes.Philippa_of_Hainault-mini.gifPhilippa of Hainault 24 June c.1310 to 15 August 1369 Queen of England wife of King Edward III. Edward promised in 1326 to marry her within following two years. She was married to Edward first by proxy when Edward dispatched the Bishop of Coventry “to marry her in his name” in Valenciennes second city in county of Hainaut) in October 1327. The marriage celebrated in York Minster on 24 January 1328 in months of Edward accession to throne of England. And in August 1328 fixed his wife’s dower. The blacks brought English words of African origin like aardvark is Afrikaans word, meaning the earth or ground or pig. So apartheid is Afrikaans policy separated development and living. Banana is West African, Wolof banana. Banjo is Bantu mbanza. Basenji breed of dog from the Congo. Biltong is Afrikaans cured meat. Tumpani is large drum, Asante Ghana.queen-charlotte.jpgThe second black queen of Britain Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was the wife of King George III. Queen Charlotte 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818. Born Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz on 19 May 1744, youngest daughter of Duke Charles Louis Frederick, Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Princess Elizabeth Albertina of Saxe-Hildburghausen. She served as a Queen consort of Great Britain and Ireland from her wedding in 1761 until the union of the two kingdoms in 1801. Afterwards she was queen consort of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in17 November 1818 Kew Palace, Richmond. Children  include George IV of United Kingdom,  William IV of the United Kingdom. Both these queens had Moorish features and tanned but often portrayed whiter than white. It was From 12th century, the empire caused black people numbers to swell from 15th and 18th centuries. John Hawkins, England’s first slave trader in 1562 sailed the Barbican from Plymouth with three other ships to violently kidnap 400 Africans in Guinea, trading them in West Indies. So between 1562 and 1567 Hawkins and his cousin Francis Drake made three voyages to capture more slaves from West Africa it then called Guinea Coast.Jan_Verkolje_(I)_-_Portrait_of_Johan_de_la_Faille_-_WGA24594.jpgAt first smaller numbers, were ferried into the ports of London, Liverpool and Bristol on the same ships that brought imperial products like tea, sugar, cotton, coffee, rum, fruit, wine, tobacco and oil enriched national economy. Guinea coin named after West African region area from which hundreds of thousands of indigenous people were seized against their will. Slave traders from 17th – 18th century in Britain used African guinea as their unit of currency. Like Apache tribe named for Helicopter or Cherokee, Zulu tribe named vehicles after natives. Some blacks in Britain were brought in by planters, government officials, and military and naval officers returning to the United Kingdom. Slaves were seen as reassuring companions to the lonely white expatriates on long voyages back to UK island away for decades. Other black people offered to commanders of slaving vessels as gifts and later sold in domestic service at quayside auctions or at coffee-houses in London. They were given names as John Limehouse or Tom Camden. Early in 16th century, Africans arrived in London when Catherine of Aragon travelled to London so brought group of African attendants with her. Africans trumpeters served Henry VII and Henry VIII in London when trade lines opened between London and West Africa. The record of African in London in 1593 named Cornelius show Africans found themselves working as butlers or the household attendants in aristocratic families. Their duties or a chief function looked at was decorative. They were the symbol of status, human equivalents of porcelain, textiles, wallpaper, lacquered pieces the English nobility bought for a display of their wealth. People dressed in fancy garb, their heads wrapped in bright turban, selected on basis of looks and skin tones like Lord Mansfield Dido.3ee44280ffa0ee08001d3a105730a420.jpgDido here in this photo played crucial role in Lord Manfield’s understanding of black slaves in Britain. Dido a family member and his brother the Captain’s daughter lived with, cared for by Lord Mansfield. Her ability to influence him by researching the plight of black slaves helped paved the way and also shaped minds to abolish slavery in Britain. This helped women sewing bags with notes inside to boycott slavery products in the UK. Manchester mill workers refused to use slave cotton from America leading to closure of mills. So Abraham Lincoln wrote to thank them for helping to stop the triangular slave trade in Britain. The London resident falsely perceived rapid increase of black population. Elizabeth I declared black “Negroes, black Moors” be arrested and expelled from UK but it did not lead to legislation. The Africans continued to live in Britain despite such racist negative attitudes. British empire expanded and African, Caribbean slaves still shipped on seas work plantations in Caribbean or in America. One of black musicians of six trumpeters in the royal retinue of Henry VIII in a Westminster Tournament Roll manuscript dates from 1511 revealed. Royal livery is mounted on horseback a man identified as “John Blanke, the blacke trumpeter,” listed in payment accounts of Henry VIII and his father, Henry VII. A group of Africans at court of James IV, Scotland includes the drummer, “More Taubronar” and John Blanke paid wages for their services.Westminster Tournament Roll shows  John Blanke, wearing a brown turban latticed with yellow. Trade lines opened from London to West Africa the people from this area began coming to Britain on board merchant and slaving ships. The merchant John Lok brought several captives to London in 1555 from Guinea now West Africa. The voyage accounts in Hakluyt reports said they: “were tall, strong men, could well agree with our meates and drinkes. The colde moyst aire somewhat offend them.”During the later 16th century to first two decades of the 17th century, 25 people named in records of a small parish of St. Botolph’s in Aldgate identified as “blackamoors.”  In a period of war with Spain between 1588 and 1604, there was an increase in the number of people reaching England from Spanish colonial expeditions in parts of Africa. The English freed many of these captives from enslavement on Spanish ships. They arrived in England as a by-product of the slave trade; some of mixed-race African and Spanish, and were interpreters and sailors. American historian Ira Berlin classified as Atlantic Creoles or Charter Generation of slaves, multi-racial workers in North America.  After a slaver John Hawkins arrived in London with another 300 captives from West Africa, slave trade was entrenched by 17th century. And Hawkins although embarked on three expeditions lobbyist joined forces to kidnap more slaves for plantations in Caribbean and America.IMG-20191018-WA0014.jpggeneral_francis_sweet_potato_dinner.pngFrancois Auguste Biard - The Slave Trade detail.jpgBlackamoor servants were seen as the fashionable novelty popular in homes of wealthy and Queen Elizabeth I. Other servant “John Come-quick, blackemore” a servant to Capt Thomas Love. Others in parish registers includes Domingo “a black neigro servaunt unto Sir William Winter” buried xxviith daye of August [1587] and the “Frauncis a Blackamoor servant to Thomas Parker” was buried in January 1591. Some freed workers, employed as servants and entertainers to the wealthy. Some worked in ports or chattel labour. The black population of several hundred during the Elizabethan period settlement actively discouraged by Queen Elizabeth I’s privy council. In  archival records of 360 African people between 1500 to 1640 in England and Scotland. Racist reaction to black people and biracial parentage, as George Best argued in 1578 black skin was not from heat of the sun in Africa but was caused by biblical damnation. So Reginald Scot associated black skin with witchcraft, in his book Discoverie of Witchcraft. As an unprepossessing devil in 1584 “horns on his head, fire in mouth, tail, eyes bison’s, fangs like dog, claws like bear, skin like niger and voice roaring like lion.” These racist views spread in British society by playwrights and royalty. Black slaves were coach porters of King James VI of Scotland. Black people seen as different and common without white “virtues.” In this period English subjects people born on the island as citizens. IMG-20191002-WA0008.jpgMoors enslaved British and Europeans and built Europe. From 1500s to 1600s took around 35,000 European Christian slaves to Barbary Coast in Tripoli, Tunis, Moroccan, Algiers. The Barbary corsairs took British ships 466 in 1609, 1616 and 27 by Plymouth, Baltimore in Ireland, in 1625. In 1682′ of 160 British ships taken by Algerians from 1677 to 1680. Sailors taken on ships 7,000 to 9,000, fishermen and coastal villagers into Africa, Spain, Italy. Thousands taken by slave raiders from the coasts of Valencia, Andalusia, Calabria, Sicily till none left to capture. White slaves in Barbary men and women Christians of impoverished families. 8,500 slaves needed annually to replenish about 850,000 captives over the century from 1580 to 1680. For 250 years from 1530 to 1780, 1,250,000 over a tenth of Africans taken in slavery. The Arabic black Moors influenced English words like coffee from kahveh, lemon is from laimum limon in France, Alcohol is from al kohl, algebra is from al jebr.Phillis_wheatley_frontpiece_1834.jpgBy 1596, Queen Elizabeth I privy council issued letters to lord mayors of major cities that “of late divers blackmoores brought into this realm, of the kind of people there are already here to manie.” Sir Thomas Sherley, Caspar Van Senden, merchant of Lübeck tries to capitalise on this by petitioning Elizabeth I’s Privy Council to transport slaves captured in Africa to Lisbon, to sell them there. The relevant Privy Council Letters of July 1596 and draft proclamation papers of Robert Cecil attempt to deport captives from England. Van Senden and Sherley did not succeed in correspondence with Sir Robert Cecil. In 1601 Elizabeth issues proclamation expressing how “highly is discontented to understand those great number of Negroes and blackamoors as informed carried into this realm” again licensing van Senden to deport them. So her proclamation of 1601 stated that the blackamoors “fostered, powered here to great annoyance of the queen’s own liege people, covet relief, those people consume.” “Most are infidels, having no understanding of Christ or His Gospel.”  In March 2019 two skeletons found on the Mary Rose have Southern European or North African ancestry; one found to be wearing leather wrist-guard bearing arms of Catherine of Aragon and royal arms of England is thought to possibly be Spanish or North African, the other, known as “Henry” have similar genetic makeup. Henry’s mitochondrial DNA showed his ancestry is from Southern Europe, the Near East, or North Africa. Dr Sam Robson from the University of Portsmouth “ruled out” Henry as black or sub-Saharan African origin. And Dr Onyeka Nubia cautioned the number on board Mary Rose had heritage beyond Britain was not representative of whole of England was not one-off.  Travelled through Spain or Portugal to arrive in Britain. Jacques Francis, seen as a slave by some historians, described himself in Latin as “famulus” a servant, slave or attendant. Francis was born on an island coast of Guinea, Arguin Island, off the coast of Mauretania. He worked as a diver for Pietro Paulo Corsi in his salvage operations on sunken St Mary  and St Edward of Southampton and the other ships as Mary Rose, which sunk in Portsmouth harbour. Corsi was accused of theft, Francis stood by him in English court. With help from an interpreter, he had support his master as innocent. The depositions in case displayed negative attitudes towards slaves or black people as witnesses. Studies of the blackamoors in early modern Britain shows minority continuing presence. Others did a back-breaking labour all their lives under the hot sun. Slavery was legal in Britain till 1772 though it continued another 400 years. Images of black people in family portraits of the rich and wealthy.Detail from a painting of Dr Johnson leaning on his stickDr Johnson forbade his black servant to buy food for his cat and Black men and women found life in UK preferable to lives of punishing work others faced in the West Indies. Though comparatively well treated, they were not treated as fully human and equal to white people. Some were paraded as commodities on show, others displayed naked to portray size of their buttocks. Dehumanised and treated as property of masters. During this era there was a small rise of black people arriving in London. Britain was involved with the tri-continental slave trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas. Black slaves were attendants to sea captains and ex-colonial officials as well as traders, plantation owners and military personnel. This marked growing evidence of the black presence in the northern, eastern and southern areas of London. There were also small numbers of free slaves and the seaman from West Africa and South Asia. Many people were forced into beggary due to lack of jobs and racial discrimination. There is evidence that black men and women were discriminated against by dealing with law because of their skin colour. In 1737 George Scipio accused of stealing Anne Godfrey’s washing so case rested on if or not Scipio was only black man in Hackney at time.William Hogarth’s engraving Four Times of Day: Noon (1738) shows black London resident. Evidence of African presence in LondonEngland from Roman times to the present day experience racism. By 1750s London became home of many Black people, Jews, Irish, Germans and  Huguenots. In 1764 The Gentleman’s Magazine reported its ‘supposed to be near 20,000 Negroe servants.’ Evidence of number of black residents in London found through registered burial. People of London viewed blacks, less human.  These views expressed in the slave sale advertisement led black activists of era  Olaudah EquianoIgnatius Sancho and  Quobna Ottobah Cugoano campaign to stop racism. By support of other Britons these activists demanded Blacks freed from slavery. Supporters involved in this movements included workers and other nationalities of the urban poor.  At this time the slavery of whites was forbidden, but the legal statuses of these practices were not clearly defined. Free black slaves could not be enslaved, but blacks who brought as slaves to Britain considered property of their owners. It was in this era Lord Mansfield declared slaves who fled from his master could not be taken by force or sold abroad, in case of Somerset v Stewart. This verdict fuelled numbers of Blacks that escaped slavery, and helped send slavery into decline. In this same period many slave soldiers who fought on the side of the British in the American Revolutionary War arrived in London. These soldiers were deprived of pensions and many of them became poverty-stricken and were reduced to begging on streets. Blacks in London lived among the whites in areas of Mile EndStepneyPaddington and St Giles. Majority of people lived servants to wealthy whites. Holy Church records Woodchurch Cheshire of baptism on 16 May 1784, of “Robert Cleaveland a Black boy of about 15 years old.” And St. Anne Manchester of baptism on 17 February 1786 of “William Ballard a child about eight years old son of late William Tate late of the Isle de Las on the Winward coast of Africa.downloadfile-51.jpgMany labeled “Black Poor,” low wage soldiers, seafarers and plantation workers.During the late 18th century publications, memoirs written about “black poor.” Writings of Equiano, unofficial spokesman for Britain’s Black community. Memoir of his life titled The Interesting Narratives of Life of Olaudah Equiano. Equiano became a landowner in Cambridgeshire, married Susannah Cullen, from Soham. His daughters were born and baptised there. In 1787 4,000 blacks were transported from London resettled in colony of Sierra Leone with help from Committee for Relief of the Black Poor. In 18th century and freed Black American slaves who fought for the Crown in American Revolutionary War, Black Loyalists. In 1787, hundreds of London’s black poor include the East Indian seamen known lascars agreed to go to West African colony on condition they retain the status of British subjects, live in freedom under the protection of the British Crown, and be defended by the Royal Navy. Some white people with them said Committee for Relief of Black Poor. Lovers, wives and widows of the black men. 1200 Black Loyalists, former American slaves freed resettled in Nova Scotia join new colony. Black presence in northern, eastern, southern areas of London, had one most famous slave a sea captain Sambo, fell ill after arriving in England and consequently buried in Lancashire. His plaque and gravestone stand to this day. Small numbers of free slaves, seamen from West Africa, South Asia, beg as discriminated against.A 1651 painting of this Scottish noble woman Elizabeth Maitland, Duchess of Lauderdale with her black servant. In 1687, “Moor” was given freedom of the city of York. He is listed in the freemen’s rolls as “John Moore – blacke.” He is the only black man or woman found to date in York. And the British merchants in the transatlantic slave trade important factor in development of Western Black British community. The communities flourish in port cities in slave trade of Liverpool and Bristol. By 1795 Liverpool had 62.5 per cent European Slave Trade. Liverpool home to Britain’s oldest black community, dating at least to the 1730s. Some Liverpudlians trace black heritage in city back to ten generations. Early black settlers in the city, seamen, the mixed-race children of traders sent to be educated in England, servants, and freed slaves. In 1787, Thomas Clarkson, English abolitionist said in Manchester “I was surprised to find a great crowd of black people standing round the pulpit about forty or fifty of them. Evidence of black men and women discriminated against in dealings by the law because of skin colour. In 1737, George Scipio was accused of stealing Anne Godfrey’s washing, case rested on if Scipio only black man in Hackney at time. Ignatius Sancho, black writer, composer, decent shopkeeper, voter Westminster, wrote  despite being in Britain since age two he felt “a lodger.” Sancho said a, “national antipathy of prejudice” of native whites Britons to wooly headed brethren. And Sancho frustrated so many stereotyping their black neighbours. The financially independent householder the first black of African origin voted in parliamentary elections in Britain, a time 3% of British population were allowed to vote. 

A 1744 painting of Hon. John Spencer, his only son and their black servant. In 1764, The Gentleman’s Magazine said its  “supposed to be 20,000 Negro servants.” Morning Gazette said 30,000 in country as whole but numbers were “alarmist” exaggerations. Same year the party for black men or women in Fleet Street pub so unusual and written in newspapers. Their presence in the country started a heated outbreak of distaste for colonies of Hottentots. Modern historians say the parish lists, baptism, marriage registers and sales contracts 10,000 black people lived in Britain in 18th century. Others put the number at 15,000. In 1772, Lord Mansfield put number of black people in country at 15,000 but to most modern historians its 10,000. Black population 0.1% of overall London population 1787. Black female population less than 2% of overall Afro-Caribbean population. The 1780s end of American Revolutionary Wat hundreds of black loyalist America resettled in Britain. Some emigrated to Sierre Leonne helped by Committee for Relief of black poor suffers destitution.

Composer, shopkeeper Ignatius Sancho  was first black person of African origins to vote in parliamentary elections was symbol of humanity of Africans on the immoral slave trade. Ignatius Sancho engraved by Francesco Bartolozzi first African prose writer in England. Sancho financial independence householder the first black British voter. Born on slave ship, Sancho orphan Sancho was taken to England. Was butler but intelligence noted by employer Duke of Montagu who sponsored his creative endeavors. Sancho wrote plays, poetry, music, shop in Westminster meeting place for black writers, artists and musicians. Sancho counted Samuel Johnson, Laurence Sterne and David Garrick friends. First part of my life unlucky, placed in family who judged ignorance the best and only security for obedience. Slavery was not legal in England. Cartwright decision of 1569 resolved England was “too pure an air for slave to breathe in. Black African slaves bought and sold in England in the eighteenth century. Slavery not legally contested until Somerset case of 1772, James Somersett black slave of Virginia. Lord Chief Justice W.M. Earl Mansfield  Somerset do not force to leave England against his will, “The determinations go further master cannot by force compel him to go out of the kingdom. article-0-1CF6B15E00000578-284_634x543.jpgSlavery common law despite previous ruling in 1706 declaration clarified by Lord Chief Justice Holt. Slavery not legal in Britain ignored argument slaves as property not be considered people. A slave owner Thomas Papillon took his black servant “to be in nature and quality of my goods and chattel. In 1731 the Lord Mayor of London ruled “no Negroes to be bound apprentices to Tradesman or Artificer of City ruling, forced to work as servants.  Black Londonet unpaid servants were slaves in disguise. In the 1750s, London home of Blacks, Germans, Irish, Jews,  HuguenotsGretchen Gerzina in Black London mid-18th century accounted for one three percent of London populace.  Evidence of number of Black residents in city found through registered burials. Some black people in London resisted slavery through escape, others resettled  free men in London, awarded pensions, poverty-stricken beg on streets, “had no prospect of their subsisting in country by depredation on public or common charity.” Observer said “black refugees from America and others by land or sea in his Majesty’s service distress. White loyalists had no goodwill to new arrival of America. Harris List of Covent Garden Ladies from 1757 to 1795 on prostitutes’ working in Georgian London, ”mulatto” woman in 1789 ”Eliza dark complexion, by thickness of her hair and eyebrows, is well-furred. Charged little more than worth of scarcity complexion in country imported from West Indies. During the 18th century, publications and memoirs on “black poor writings of Equiano. The former slave was unofficial spokesman for Britain’s Black community. Memoir about his life entitled The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano.Olaudah EquianoIn 1786, Olaudah Equiano became the first black person to be employed by the British government, made Commissary of Provisions and Stores for 350 black people suffering from poverty who had decided to accept government’s offer of assisted passage to Sierra Leone. In the 1787, Committee of Relief of Black Poor, sent 4,000 black Londoners into Sierra Leone in West Africa first British colony on continent. British subjects  recognize duty Royal of Navy defend black people from London. It was the view of British West intermarriage was abhorrent. The chair wrote to Standing Committee of West India Planters and Merchants and advice and assistance in procuring act of parliament “prevent Foreign Blacks brought to this country to remain. The  Indian Briton, Dadabhai Naoroji, stood for election to parliament for Liberal Party in 1886. He was defeated, leader of Conservative Party, Lord Salisbury to remarks “however great the progress of mankind and how far we advanced in overcoming prejudices, doubt if got to point of view British constituency elects Blackman. Led to discuss term, “black” to South Asians and Naoroji elected to in 1892 as a first Member of Parliament (MP) of Indian descent. In 2007, scientist found a rare paternal haplogroup A1 in a few living British men with Yorkshire surnames. This clade is exclusively found among males in West Africa but rare. The haplogroup brought to Britain enlisted as soldiers during Roman Britain or slave trade. Turi King, a co-author on study, noted the West African slave trade individuals arrived through slave route, as Ignatius Sancho or Olaudah Equiano high social rank. Some married in population.

Pablo Fanque, celebrated circus owner and performer in Victorian Britain. In 18th century British slave trade decline in response to changing public opinion. Great Britain and US abolish Atlantic slave trade in 1808. Cooperate liberating slaves from illegal trade ships off coast of West Africa freed slaves sent to Sierra Leone. Slavery abolished in the British Empire by 1834 stop profit of Caribbean plantations. Few blacks came to London from West Indies, West Africa, resident British black population trickled. Slaves or servants of West Indies and America.  Abolition virtually halt to Britain. Black population of Victorian Britain so small those living outside larger trading ports isolated from the black population. The black people and descendants in parish registers declined in early 19th century. Descendants of black servants Francis Barber, Jamaican-born servant lived in Britain in 18th century. Descendant live in England white. Abolition of slavery in 1833, black and Chinese seamen put down roots in communities in British ports abandoned by employers. Late 19th century, the race discrimination theories of scientific racism, felt whites superior race and blacks less intelligent than whites. Failed to support theories of such ‘scientific evidence.’ James Hunt resident of the London Anthropological Society, in 1863 in his paper “On Negro’s place in nature” wrote,”Negro is inferior intellectually to European…and only be humanised civilised by Europeans. The 1880s, small groups of black in dockside communities in towns such as Canning Town, Liverpool and Cardiff.

Sara Forbes Bonetta, this West African princess goddaughter to Queen Victoria. Orphaned in intertribal warfare, given a “gift” to Queen Victoria. Despite social prejudice discrimination in Victorian England in 19th-century black Britons achieve good success. Pablo Fanque as William Darby in Norwich, become the proprietor of Britain’s most successful Victorian circuses. Lyrics of the Beatles  song “Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!” Thirty years after 1871 death, chaplain of Showman’s Guild said: Brotherhood of equestrian world has no colour line. Pablo Fanque of African extraction, he speedily made his way to the top of his profession. Camaraderie of the ring has only one test ability. Joseph Hillier, took over and ran Andrew Ducrow‘s circus company as Ducrow died. Walter Tull, professional footballer mixed-heritage British Army officer and fellow officers.

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Members, British West Indies Regiment  on Somme, September 1916. These men pictured were Afro-Caribbean people fought for the British Army. World War London’s Black communities on arrival of merchant seamen and soldiers, small groups of students from Africa and the Caribbea into London. The communities among the oldest black communities of London. The largest Blacks in the United Kingdom’s port cities: of London’s East End, Liverpool, Bristol, Cardiff’s Tiger BaySouth Shields in Tyne & Wear and  Glasgow. In 1914, black population was at 10,000 from parts of British Empire. The number of black soldiers in British army prior to World War I low. A Black British soldiers in World War I Walter Tull, a English professional footballer, of Barbadian carpenter Daniel Tull and Kent-born Alice Elizabeth Palmer. Slave descendant Tull was a first British-born mixed-heritage infantry officer in Army 1914 manual of Military Law soldiers of not “pure European descent.” Colonial soldiers and sailors of Afro-Caribbean descent in war settled in cities. South Shields community “coloured” seamen lascars and South Asia and Arab world  victim of  UK’s first race riot 1919. Eight cities of non-white communities hit by race riot evacuated to homelands. Some white attacked “coloured” peoples in US, Caribbean, South Africa. The displaced after war struggle to integrate veterans to work force groups competing for jobs and housing. Australian British refused Racial Equality Proposal by Japanese at Paris Peace Conference 1919. In World War II black communities in London, Liverpool in Britain. Blacks, Caribbeans, West Africa, wartime workers merchant seamen, servicemen, army, navy and air forces. In February 1941 these 345 West Indians work in factories of Liverpool, made munitions. By 1943 were 3,312 the black American GIs at Maghull, Huyton Liverpool. By 1944 GIs 150,000 from America, 1948 blacks less than 20,000 to 1958. Learie Constantine a West Indian cricketer Minister Labour was refused service at London hotel sued for breach of contract awarded damages, changed racism towards acceptance and equality of all citizens in London.2415.jpg

The Empire Windrush in Black British history in 1948 of Jamaican invited to United Kingdom. In 1950 fewer than 20,000 non-white residents in Britain. After World War II, Black people from the British West Indies, settled in Britain less than decade. In 1951 population of Caribbean and African people in Britain 20,900. HMT Empire Windrush, the first Caribbean to UK in 1948 as West Indian  Black British in post-war UK. The British friction of white communities created a Black British identity. By 1950s, blacks embraced the Black American culture imported by Black servicemen of World War II, music Jacqueline Nassy-Brown calls “diasporic resources.” These close interactions between Americans and Black British inspired the Black British women to America married servicemen later return to the UK.

Ridley Road Market in Dalston, London, sells Afro-Caribbean music, textiles, and food, goat meat, yams, mangoes, spices.

In 1961, Africa Caribbean at 191,600 less 0.4% of UK population. Black people in 1975, David Pitt appointed to House of Lords spoke against racism for equality in regards to all residents of Britain. The Black members elected into the British Parliament. By 1981, blacks 1.2% of all residents. By 1980smblacks from Africa, in Nigeria, Ghana, Uganda, Kenya, East Africa, Zimbabwe, Southern Africa. The Commonwealth Nigerians, Ghanaians used to British life, achieve best results at GCSE and A-Level, on a par or above performance of white pupils. The rate of inter-racial marriage between British citizens from Africa and Britons is still fairly low, compared to the Caribbean. Africans as part of mainstream British culture second, third generation African communities established. 20th century black Londoners, Great Britain, United Kingdom not Northern Ireland. The first blacks elected to Parliament argue there still discrimination and socio-economic imbalance in London among blacks. In 1992, blacks in Parliament increased to six, in 1997 increased numbers to nine. Problems black Londoners face global high-tech information urban economy unemployment rates of blacks relative to non-blacks affect progress so far.  By 2001, Black British 2.0%.

William cuffay

This image is thought to be William Cuffay, featured in a political journal dated 1850. Cuffay, a formerly enslaved man from St.Kitts was powerful orator. He campaigned for universal suffrage and emerged a leader of the Chartists.

Part of first mass political movement in Britain, fighting for political rights for working classes, Cuffay was arrested and accused of “conspiring to levy war” against Queen Victoria. Transported to Tasmania, he received a pardon three years. Stayed agitating for democratic rights until his death in 1870. Though he forgotten, his legacy is an inspiration for those who believe in rights of the marginalised and the poor.

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During her lifetime, Seacole’s profile is like Florence Nightingale. Born to a free black woman, Seacole’s position status in Jamaican society did not protect her from the racism experienced by black people at that time. Seacole’s mother was a healer who gave her daughter a rich education in Caribbean and African medicine. When Crimean War began, Seacole applied to the British War Office to assist but was refused. Independently she set up British Hotel near Balaclava to care for the wounded. She became a much-loved like Florence Nightingale. Destitute, Queen Victoria’s nephew got funds so lived in London until death.

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Aldridge performed Shakespeare’s roles Lear, Othello, Macbeth. Aldridge among the highest paid actors in the world at a time when black roles Othello played by white men with blackened skin. Born in New York before abolition of slavery, he emigrated to the UK in order to pursue opportunities impossible for a black man in the US. He went on to establish himself as a formidable Shakespearean actor throughout Europe. His daughters became performers. In 1896, Luranah Aldridge, was cast to perform in a racist “Ring of the Nibelung,” at the Bayreuth Festival, a full six decades before Grace Bumbry officially broke colour barrier.

Edinburgh University

Edmonstone taught taxidermy students Edinburgh University in 19th Century.  Edmonstone a taxidermist skills helped to pioneer scientific research of Charles Darwin. Edmonstone born in slavery in Guyana, gained freedom so travelled to Scotland and met the naturalist Charles Waterton, who taught him the craft of taxidermy. Became tutor at Edinburgh University, where he taught the young Darwin. His student accounts of tropics inspired Darwin’s trip to the Galapagos. Taxidermy crucial to Darwin’s research, led to his development of the theory of evolution by natural selection.

Fanny Eaton

In later life, Eaton worked as a domestic cook on Isle of Wight. Eaton, model and muse featured, work of pre-Raphaelite artists. The child of a formerly enslaved woman, Eaton moved to London from Jamaica and worked as a portrait model at Royal Academy. She sat for several well-known artists: John Millais, Joanna Boyce, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Frederick Sandys. Rosetti praised Eaton’s beauty in a time narrow beauty standards and racial prejudice ensured black women no prominent place in Western art. An increasing interest in Eaton led to an appreciation of her place in art history.

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Evelyn Dove performed in 1930 as an

internationally known singer, actress and star of 1920’s cabaret scene. The daughter of a Sierra Leonean Barrister and his English wife, Dove studied at the Royal Academy of Music where she performed with some of the world’s top black entertainers. She was regarded as close to jazz star Josephine Baker. There were many challenges for black female performer in Evelyn’s day. Once hugely celebrated, her reputation as a singer faded and she died alone in obscurity. Recent interest in her extraordinary life to introduce her to a new generation.

Sue Lawley's castaway is cultural theorist Professor Stuart Hall

Hall during an appearance on BBC in 2000 is “godfather of multiculturalism.” Britain’s leading intellectuals, political campaigners. Hall arrived from Jamaica in 1951 after winning a scholarship to study at Oxford University. In 1960, he helped found the influential academic journal, New Left Review. He pioneered academic study of low highbrow culture the media, identity, sexuality and race a means to understand and interpret the society and politics. He co-founded the first cultural studies course in Britain at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at University of Birmingham. So African Caribbean black American hero war stories about Britain incorporating blacks must be taught on schools. Teach with photographs, songs, diary entries of African, Caribbean, American slaves. Black presence in history reinforces the facts in living history on Britain. Black history in schools, websites, publishers must update black history materials. To build up more complete history as part of priority to educate people. A cultural identity creates stronger more inclusive material to enrich the history of society. Inclusive history is the complete picture of the whole human race on earth. This is important and necessary to bring this awareness to people lacking knowledge in ancient black history in Britain. This will enhance people’s understanding to educate all on there is only one human race created by God since Eden Garden. 

Courtesy & Image Credits:

BBC News/Black History On Wall Street

British Slave Castles in Ghana & Africa

BBC Glasgow University Black Slave History, 20 million Compensation plan

Glasgow Slave Master Street Names

Moors Built Europe: North Africa ruled 800 years in 11th and 17th centuries.

Slave Castles in Africa

Jesus Castle in Kenya

Onyeka, Moors, Black Tudors, African Presence in Britain,

Incomparable World by by SI Martin (Quartet, 1996)

Reconstructing The Black Past by Norma Myers (Frank Cass, 1996)

London Calling: How Black and Asian Writers Imagined A City by Sukhdev Sandhu (HarperCollins, 2003)

Imtiaz Habib’s Black Lives in English Archives 1500–1677 Imprints Invisible  (Ashgate, 2008),

Fanny Eaton: Black muse  time forgot

BBC Culture: Challenging racism is art history

Onyeka’s Blackamoores: Africans in Tudor England, Their Presence, Status and Origins.(Narrative Eye, 2013) Miranda Kaufmann’s Oxford DPhil thesis Africans in Britain, 1500–1640 Black Tudors: Untold Story Oneworld, (2017)

The letters of the late Ignatius Sancho, Volume I, Letter XXXV

Yeboah, Staying Power History of Blacks in Britain

BBC, Hidden stories of Black History

1500s and early 1600s around 35,000 European Christian slaves in Barbary Coast in Tripoli, Tunis, Moroccan towns Algiers. Barbary corsairs took British ships 466 in 1609, 1616, 27 by Plymouth, Baltimore in Ireland, in 1625. In 1682′ of 160 British ships by Algerians from 1677 to 1680. Sailors on taken ship 7,000 to 9,000, fishermen and coastal villagers to Africa, Spain, Italy. Thousands taken by slave raiders from coasts of Valencia, Andalusia, Calabria, Sicily till none left to capture. White slaves in Barbary men and women Christians of impoverished families. 8,500 slaves needed annually to replenish about 850,000 captives over the century from 1580 to 1680. For 250 years from 1530 to 1780, 1,250,000 over a tenth of Africans taken in slavery.

 

SLAVE DANCE MUSIC ITEMS

Slave+drum+from+1645,+found+on+a+VA+plantation.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0001.jpgat783176122225883477906321000011840561155310077420182n1.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0003.jpgslavedance.jpgwp-1572269263498.jpgwp-1572269200706.jpgUncle-Toms-Cabin-2.jpgcard07.jpgA0057_image0001.jpgthe-bamboula-granger.jpgwp-1571952504645.jpgtap_12.gifdancing-the-slaves-1024x617.jpg6drmr.jpg7D955E00-D477-4299-89D9-73C96B138393.jpgdownloadfile-39.jpg2008268WH0417-1024x683.jpgbenin.jpg3d9dfa5e820988bc198023a09700f9f5bffaae75_00.jpgdownloadfile-48.jpgAtem-Bangwa-carver-sculptor-artist-Cameroon.jpgTamTam.jpg20191028_145811.jpgLunda 1972 - portage d'un tambour.jpgslide_4-1.jpgRaineri_Musical-instruments-belonging-to-negro-slaves.jpgslide_6.jpgdownloadfile-37.jpgdownloadfile-40.jpg611f8a5f-c350-4068-9063-99c447c064f1.jpgAfrica-Unplugged.jpegweb1_CubanBarbershop.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0004.jpghqdefault.jpg46517066_196782661230954_2434980490982195200_o.jpg19367118_1919652318316036_5681263008345489408_n.jpgTraditional music of African continent is passed down orally and is not written. Sub-Saharan African music tradition is based on many percussion instruments  including xylophones, drums, and tone-producing instruments such as mbira or “thumb piano.” The music and dance of African diaspora is from these various regions of diaspora origins. The degree of influence of African musical tradition includes American music or Caribbean genres like soca, calypso and zouk. And Latin American music genres: rumba, conga, bomba, cumbia or samba music of the music of enslaved Africans. These in turn influence African global music.ee69f5393c8ce402bdf85148553c983b.jpgReplica of a Akan West African chief’s drum used for dance music events. The artist is high ranking West African well slave community. Drum denotes a wood carving specialist but drums prohibited because white colonists feared its used to communicate for revolt. So Virginia preserved African Cultures from 1700 – 1800, drums made of animal material and Wood. Drums are oldest African-American objects collected early 1700s in Colony of Virginia in America. Drum was made in the Akan region in Ghana West Africa is played during ceremonies or social occasions. The music is fusion of sounds from Ghana, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Gambia, Uganda, Morocco, Belgium, Scotland, England, Denmark, and France. instruments include Kora, Ngoni, Gimbre, Krakab, Axatse, sticks, Gakogui, Seprewa, Sogo, Apentema, Kpanlogo, Atumpani, Fontonfrom, Dondo, Endingidi, Goje, Bolong, Atenteben Flute, the orchestral Flute and Egoe Calabash Gourd.

The drum travelled across Atlantic on a slave ship used to exercise slaves to keep healthy. Music legacy of drumming on plantations by over 12 million Africans transported to America between 1501-1800s. Provided labour for mines, plantations of sugar, rice, tobacco and cotton. Drumming, African musical tradition in colonies of different music, shouts, hollars, work songs, fife, drum and spirituals. Ghana drum opens news broadcast with ‘Ghana muntie’ ie Ghana listen.   

Music of 12 million Africans into Brazil, Caribbean, America by Europeans from West Africa. Europe used war captive as slaves to farm plantations and domestic slaves. Chained below deck, did not see outside travelling on deck to breathe air or dance. Shackled, densely packed like sardines got sick some died, killed from their societies at sea. Sloane’s collected the material culture of Drum objects in African-American slave trade era. These middle passage forced Africans to dance to exercise for slave labour. Akan drum reached Virginia as musical instrument coerced circulate as cultural resources is used in African international music.

Sloane recorded slave music in Jamaica of African drum, guitar. African-Americans play guitar or drums identity of community. Planters didn’t tolerate performances of slave societies. Sloane notes instrument bans didn’t make drums ddisappear. Sloane collected slave artefacts in C18th tools, clothing, whips, nooses, weapons or anatomical remains. Objects, were gifts from correspondents or collectors, judged Sloane on Caribbean’s natural history slavery. The Akan drum donor Reverend Clerk to Sloane identified it “as Indian drum,” but its African. True identity of African objects survived and circulated by slave traders, recreated by slaves for music to dance to. downloadfile-33.jpgAccording to RootsKunta Kinte was born circa 1750 in Mandinka village of Juffure, in Gambia. He was raised in a Muslim family. In 1767, Kunta while he searched for wood to make a drum for his younger brother, four men chased him and took him captive. Haley traced record of ship The Lord Ligonier to Maryland where Kunta arrived in chain in America. Kunta Kinte kept name of his village and native name of Gambia River origin from Portuguese cambio for exchange or trade. Kunta Kinte’s life in village is similar to Masaka Africana.

Cambio is Kamby Bolongo native trade route like Naplis is Minneapolis. By 1600s large agricultural or commercial estates in Brazil needed more slaves. Portuguese slave traders of Gambia kidnapped Kunte. He traced his roots back to the Gambia. Kunte Family was: Omoro (father) and Binta (mother); Belle (wife); Kizzy (daughter); Chicken George (grandson). Kunte was born in c. 1750 in Juffure, The Gambia and died: c. 1822 (aged c.71–77); in the Spotsylvania County, Virginia. Despite attempt by the slave master to erode his name, Kunta Kinte held onto his memories passed on to his descendants written about in his life history book, Roots made into films. 

Courtesy & Credit Images

Professor Kwesi Ampene, CU West African High Life & World Music International Team

Adam Holden, Obroni Dance Music

Anthony Appiah, Princeton University,

Alex Haley, Roots, Kunta Kinte, Virginia

James Delbourgo, Associate Professor of History, Rutgers University, USA

Patton, S.F. (1998) African-American art. Oxford, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.Hans Sloane’s collection?

TOBACCO’S BLACK HISTORY

downloadfile-34.jpgTobacco black history plantation shows  slave masters on horseback and slaves working in fields. The slave-labourers forced to work without rest whipped to carry on working without work.345060382.jpg IMG-20191028-WA0000.jpgSlaves working with tobacco in Virginia, by an unknown artist, 1670..jpgvinales_d9ca.jpeg5217827538_0f360909da_c-720x400.jpgTobacco-Control.jpgSlaves denied their freedom, peace, rest were exploited by the masters to enrich themselves at the slave’s toil expenses. The affluent blatantly exploited slaves from tropical countries working fields51sCNoa+zTL._SX355_.jpg Severely punished for the slightest thing on the plantation without any prospects of freedom or guaranteed happy life. So families separated sold off to anywhere.IMG-20191027-WA0008.jpgSold from parts of West Africa to world to work as slaves in United States, Brazil or South Africa. Slavery life sentence is out of their power under controls of the masters as possession provide tobacco.downloadfile-28.jpgTobacco is imported from the plantation in Cuba, Caribbean to America, Britain and G7 countries. Exchanged by journey of goods destined to places to economies to build wealth since 14th-19th century. harvest-pic-1.jpgStill ongoing in some countries, brought transformation to the G7 countries and their economies from these plantations. Increased value meant poor treatments  of slaves to produce more to cover cost.c6149634806538966eb4075d8f46821f_XL.jpgThe slave master’s conomies prospered by slave labour but do not acknowledge their source of wealth, apologise or pay compensation to them from economies.Two-companies-to-lose-their-license..jpgSlave trade tobacco industry still largely influence colonialism and racism today as consequences of such treatments. So economies grew rich from exploitation.downloadfile-11.jpg1490735754008.jpgProfit driven companies of commercial cigarettes genetically modified enhance  supply but needlessly means inhaling a multitude of pesticide-grade chemicals and many other radioactive elements.99109089-leaves-of-tobacco-in-the-drying-plant.jpgTobacco_drying_in_Pinar_del_Río_(01).jpgTobacco brand American Spirit adverts says its “additive free” and “natural” but their tobacco brand is said treated with ammonia and urea to increase tobacco freebase nicotine content is being sued.50548794-classical-way-of-drying-tobacco-in-barn.jpg8485124146_d8af9c0291_b-2016_12_26-17_14_34-UTC.jpgIMG-20191027-WA0007.jpgPiliraniSemu_Banda150508HighRes.jpgThe whole leaf tobacco is said to be less expensive compared to the cost of pack of cigarettes containing 20 grams or less of actual tobacco. A whole leaf tobacco is sold cheaper sold in bulk is taxed less.20191028_110139.jpgFactory_lector (3).jpgdownloadfile-38.jpg6e1d6c993998bd4a82fe9928b3c04f64_XL.jpgCigarettes are processed by converting a 200kg tobacco leaves in cases to batches of cut rag made into cigarettes. Tobacco leaves from a green leaf threshing plant of a British American Tobacco-Vinataba factory in Dong Nai Province factory of 60,000 square meters. Is one of the most modern factories of British American Tobacco Group modern equipment with trademarks: Hauni Germany, Dickinson Legg of UK’s breakthrough technologies. KT2 cutter for stems, laminas of tobacco leaf, air-curing set, air convecter curing machine is the newest generation of the impurities-removing Tobacco Scan II.downloadfile-20.jpgProcessed tobacco leaves are delivered to factory, checked for quality, blended with other ingredients for brand recipe, flavours or expanded tobacco. Various types of tobacco ingredients of blending components is vital. Moisture content of tobacco leaf crumbles if too dry, spoiled in storage due to high moisture content. Blended tobacco is treated with a right amount of steam and water to make it supple, cut to form cigarettes. Moisture is removed, cut rag given final blending and quality check. Current capacity and operation technology is 4 tons of cut rag per hour or 17,000 tons a year. Cut rag from factory accounts for 1/3 of the total amount manufactured in Vietnam.20191027_180331.jpgOB-YJ180_0730JT_G_20130730075221.jpgCigarette-Tube-Making.jpgProcesssed because is often considered as an agriculture commodity in a whole leaf form. Tobacco and cigarette spread globally by Hollywood adverts and even doctors recommended smoking in past.pro_01.jpgIMG-20191027-WA0009.jpg20191027_164612.jpgcigarette_acceptedwaste.jpg20191027_164902.jpg20191027_164700.jpgCigarette waste is baled and stored at a warehouse until a high enough volume is reached and transferred to processor. Waste is recycled by shredding filters of cellulose acetate blended with the other recyclable plastics and pelletizing used in injection moulding prioritized hard plastic shipping pallet. Residual tobacco waste goes to non-food compost system.JTI-reveals-cigarette-waste-recycling-scheme.jpgCigRecycling03.jpgTobacco and cigarette affects health and the lungs in the latter years people now are advised by their doctors to cut down on quantity smoked or quit completely. Its replaced by e-cigarettes known to kill people due to contaminated chemicals used in refill supply chain. Its banned altogether in some states in America. So whatever reasons for smoking due to a peer pressure to fit in to look cool or its seen as grown up it costs countries food supply. Land is used to farm tobacco as people starve and slaves descendants wait for compensation over 500 years.

Tobacco history Timeline and events.

  • 6,000 BC – Native Americans first start cultivating the tobacco plant.
  • Circa 1 BC – Indigenous American tribes start smoking tobacco in religious ceremonies and for medicinal purposes.
  • 1492 – Christopher Columbus first encounters dried tobacco leaves. They were given to him as a gift by the American Indians.
  • 1492 – Tobacco plant and smoking introduced to Europeans.
  • 1531 – Europeans start cultivation of the tobacco plant in Central America.
  • 1558 – First attempt at tobacco cultivation in Europe fail.
  • 1571 – European doctors start publishing works on healthy properties of the tobacco plant, claiming it can cure a myriad of diseases, from toothache to lockjaw and cancer.
  • 1600 – Tobacco used as cash-crop – a monetary standard that lasts twice as long as the gold standard.
  • 1602 – King James I condemns tobacco in his treatise A Counterblast to Tobacco.
  • 1614 – Tobacco shops open across Britain, selling the Virginia blend tobacco.
  • 1624 – Popes ban use of tobacco in holy places, considering sneezing (snuff) too close to sexual pleasures.
  • 1633 – Turkey introduces a death penalty for smoking but it doesn’t stay in effect for long and is lifted in 1647.
  • 1650 – Tobacco arrives in Africa – European settlers grow it and use it as a currency.
  • 1700 – African slaves are first forced to work on tobacco plantations, years before they become a workforce in the cotton fields.
  • 1730 – First American tobacco companies open their doors in Virginia.
  • 1753 – Tobacco genus named by a Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus – nicotiana rustica and nicotiana tabacum named for the first time.
  • 1791 – British doctors find that snuff leads to increased risk of nose cancer.
  • 1794 – First American tobacco tax.
  • 1826 – Nicotine isolated for the first time.
  • 1847 – Philip Morris opens their first shop in Great Britain, selling hand-rolled Turkish cigarettes.
  • 1961 – First American cigarette factory produces 20 million cigarettes.
  • 1880 – Bonsack develops the first cigarette-rolling machine.
  • 1890 – American Tobacco Company opens its doors.
  • 1990 – 4 billion cigarettes are sold this year and manufacture is on the rise.
  • 1902 – Philip Morris starts selling cigarettes in the US – one of the brands offered is Marlboro.
  • 1912 – First reported connection between smoking and lung cancer.
  • 1918 – An entire generation of young men returns from war addicted to cigarettes.
  • 1924 – Over 70 billion of cigarettes are sold in the US.
  • 1925 – Philip Morris starts marketing to women, tripling the number of female smokers in just 10 years.
  • 1947 – Lorillard chemist admits that there is enough evidence that smoking can cause cancer.
  • 1950 – 50% of a cigarette now consists of the cigarette filter tip.
  • 1967 – Surgeon General definitively links smoking to lung cancer and presents evidence that it is causing heart problems.
  • 1970 – Tobacco manufacturers legally obliged to print a warning on the labels that smoking is a health hazard.
  • 1970 – 1990 – Tobacco companies faced with a series of lawsuits. Courts limit their advertising and marketing.
  • 1992 – Nicotine patch is introduced – in the following years more cessation products will start being developed.
  • 1996 – Researchers find conclusive evidence that tobacco damages a cancer-suppressor gene.
  • 1997 – Liggett Tobacco Company issues a statement acknowledging that tobacco causes cancer and carries a considerable health risk.
  • 1997 – Tobacco companies slammed with major lawsuits – ordered to spend billions of dollar on anti-smoking campaigns over the next 25 years predominantly focused on educating the young on dangers of smoking.
  • 1997 – For the first time in history a tobacco company CEO admits on trial that cigarettes and related tobacco products cause cancer. His name was Bennett Lebow.
  • 1990 – 2000 – Bans on public smoking come into effect in most states in America, as well as in other countries in the world

 

 

Courtesy & Image Credit
Fredrika Bremer, Homes of New World; impressions of American slavery
Freefromsmoking.com

SAUL’S 1ST BIBLE MARATHON

Bible-Marathon.jpgA man of the tribe Benjamin ran from a battle line to Shiloh same day with his clothes torn and dust on his head in 1 Samuel 4:12. The young King Saul in c. 1050 – 1012 BCE ran 42 km from Eben Ezra renamed Rosh Ha’ayin to Shiloh, to inform the high priest of 30,000 Jewish soldiers killed including the two sons of the High Priest and the Ark of Covenant taken. Forty-two kilometers is length of the Olympic marathon in 1908 London Olympic Games. The second Marathon was ran by Pheidippides to Athens of a victory his people over Persia, 490 BCE. This first Bible marathon in Bible by a Benjamin man running through hills of the Binyamin region in the West Bank is a great landmark event in the history of Israel after Exodus from Egypt. The land is named after each tribe confirms man from “tribe of Benjamin” region ancient map of Israel. Bible says wherever soles of our feet touch is for inheritance of a chosen people for God’s GLORY. Full 42 kilometers marathon run by Saul is the accomplishment of completing running like the race of salvation. Israel’s Bible Marathon is evidence of history of land recorded by people in the State of Israel.Untitled-2-copy.jpgGod told Samuel sons of the High Priest will perish treating God’s sacrifice with disdain for harassing women in Temple. Israel fought losing battle so Philistines  defeated them, every man fled to his tent in 1 Samuel 4:10. 30,000 Israelites were killed in battle including Hophni and Phinehas the two sons of Eli, high priest serving at Shiloh. Philistines captured the Ark of Covenant so the Saul young Benjaminite raced from the battlefield to Tabernacle to bring news of defeat to the prophet Samuel. “Then a man of Benjamin ran from battle line the same day, came to Shiloh with his clothes torn and dirt on his head” in 1 Samuel 4 : 12. The distance between the battlefield in Even Ezer to Shiloh is 42 kilometers and 26 miles official length of Olympic marathon. This is why the race reenacts the passage from 1 Samuel 4 hosting the this first Bible Marathon in Jerusalem. maxresdefault.jpgRunners take off to the sound of shofar, accompanied by musicians, dressed in white biblical clothing, togas, sandals and cloth head dresses. The finish line, looks over ancient city gate, a cheering squad greets with beat of goblet drums, shofar blasts, flutes or harps. The clay  medals of the top three winners in each race inscribed clay pitcher for a trophy. Finish line of ancient Shiloh Hakeduma is a site archaeologists searching Ark of Covenant. Shiloh was a religious capital of Israel for 369 years, after conquest of Canaan till King David made Jerusalem eternal capital of Jewish nation. Shiloh was the longest standing Jewish capital before City of Jerusalem. It is believed Ark once stood there in ancient history and so running Marathon is running through history. At the top of hill is the entire course of magnificent views seen of Israel’s paranomic beautiful horizon. The rocky hill is green with olive trees and vineyards like True Vine Messiah in bible prophecy who once walked on the streets of the Jewish homeland. It gives hope and assurance to people to run the race to keep going kilometers of eternal life to win the prize in Saul’s footsteps.BIBLE-LOGO.jpgSilence of cordoned off areas protect the runners but Jewish settlement of Eli or Ma’ale Levona families lined routes clap racers to Sinjil and Qaryut is quiet. Jesus on donkey to Jerusalem people lined the streets will return for the Armageddon battle in victory. Bible Marathon is an international recognition of land Israel God gave all nations beyond boundaries of State of Israel, partakers of Covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob fulfilled in Jesus. The Israel Marathon Association managing race for Benjamin Regional Council, preserves history of Saul’s race. The Bible Marathon though not listed in AIM’s race directory of Jerusalem, Dead Sea, Eilat, Tel Aviv, Sea of Galilee races is kept alive by efforts of the runners. In the last four years since inception keeps the Benjamin tribe history in focus. The Maccabiah games, Yosef Yekutieli, tried to launch Bible Marathon after Israel won 1967 Six Day War but was not safe. It faces challenges of communication so multiple runners can start early on time from starting line information to collect numbers needed to run. The 10k racers merge with a half marathoners around kilometer 15 to finish line. Like Saul ran in biblical footsteps many partakers are retracing living history of Israel. So clay prizes are appropriate claim to preserve land as a constant reminder for God to intervene for the Peace of Jerusalem.

SUGAR BLACKSLAVE HISTORY

15713054607238903501092629203849.jpgBlack History Month October celebrates abolition of slaves whose wealth enrich G7 Western Europe and America but deprived slaves of their dignity and long life so slaves became traumatized. 15713056029367773464045337576003.jpgTriangular trade from Europe on ships to Africa to Carribean to America back to Europe. G7 member nations enslaved Africans. Belgian King Leopold invited them jointly to divide and own Africa.15713055252467866924691785551731.jpg Almost a thousand years black slavery continued despite official abolition law. Slavery produced sugar, cocoa, coffee, cotton for “triangle merchants” of slave trade in Britain, Africa and West Indies. 15713054895557916154530721927074.jpgTriangle trips carried guns, goods from England to Africa for slaves from Africa to Caribbean. Sugar, coffee, cotton and rum to England for commercial slavery by supply and demand on plantations. 1571305574491870094090532857700.jpg15714076486934305525943298638509.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0021.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0011.jpgAtlantic crossing from Africa Middle Passage shows cruelties of plantations in the British Caribbean. Africans were herded on slave ships and branded with irons labels people property of owners.15713033917892027579692775521469.jpgPortuguese also built sugar plantations in 1550’s off the coast of their Brazilian settlement colony, located on the island Sao Vincente. Portuguese and Spanish colonial presence in Caribbean Iberian Peninsula wealth cultivated cash crops.15713030689847713844378615539055.jpgThe economic boom of these plantations began colonizing remaining American territories to capitalize on the lucrative cultivation and trade of native’s natural resources. Sugar is the most important crop in Caribbean but other crops such as coffee, indigo, wheat and rice grown. 15712992630563548705097506481294.jpgThe coastal sugae cane was best grown on the flat land near coastal waters as the soil was naturally yellow and fertile. The mountainous parts of islands were used for sugarcane cultivation industry. IMG-20191017-WA0010.jpgslavery-west-indies-granger.jpg15712987137944748591809211620677.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0004.jpg348s.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0020.jpgThe coastal placement of commercial ports gave imperial states a geographic advantage to ship the crop throughout the transatlantic world. Sugar Slavery  trading of the Africans highly profitable not paying slaves for enforced labour. downloadfile-1.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0014.jpgSlave-Ship-pic-4-Wikipedia.jpg15714064266664307134901227462768.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0015.jpg15713038953617219558390950064672.jpg15713037481496759185923572241666.jpg15713036678907107097446613800368.jpgSlaves lived in appalling conditions but masters indulged in excessive luxury by toils of slaves. Triangular trade profits  prospered the West but underdeveloped blacks made poor despite the hardwork. 15713035569197275545111601093952.jpgwp-1571322668408.jpgManufactured goods were traded to the West African coast for slaves, who were shipped to the sugar colonies by middle passage. Sugar, molasses, rum, shipped from these islands back into England.15713038363315671248783757607047.jpg15713038628448686754927140878564.jpg15713036996912748769302716101649.jpg15713036364091737502484623690543.jpgSugar was the main crop produced on  plantations throughout Caribbean in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Most of the islands were covered with sugar cane fields and mills for refining sugar. IMG-20191017-WA0003.jpgportraet_sklaverei_zucker_g.jpg15713001247174007076067301082629.jpg15713002203195667591899451618769.jpg15713001854538734211621372862312.jpg15713001504746913528570416798187.jpgwp-1571311816344.jpg15713002724015553289083152949101.jpgThe main source of labour was enslaved Africans. After the abolition of slavery, indentured labourers from IndiaChina, Java migrated to Caribbean to work on sugar plantations. Plantations produced 80 – 90% sugar used in Western Europe.15712995770488034116736118045599.jpg15712996195613941216406783616691.jpg15712997447027764109633942991300.jpg15712995281323834808765635583176.jpgSugar enabled slave labour for profits with tragic consequences in Caribbean. Imperial powers forced West Africans to cultivate sugar by slaves. Exploited labour, natural world created imperial conflicts in these Caribbean regions._108506961_gettyimages-1002312094.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0002.jpgIMG-20191031-WA0004.jpg15713029223757577184974282763473.jpg 157130286531419080874850560467.jpg15713027760246994249402391806889.jpg15713028101291278500655225486775.jpg15712977059634715966485674610399.jpgUse political and economic control they create to divide and rule people policy of animosity. Conflicts among English, Spanish, French and various indigenous people was used for territorial gain.15712964787331552835795446583723.jpg15712950696973492756233402938394.jpg15712972087976309023403494269657.jpg15712989701492300170279122619503.jpg 15712973826202918078063655814609.jpg15712954764466783854135368343091.jpgEuropean states exploited environment, resources so sugar production began to stagnate. Due loss of trees for timber in the sugar refinement process, European imperial powers competed and fought over Caribbean in middle 17th century.slave_dynasty_i1.jpg15712948461163990403389790355463.jpg15712948817835962190680372982605.jpg15712953753492679276778321664742.jpg15712961917284396878281626055702.jpg1571294941734562424695867162323.jpg15712950360621362782314632360478.jpgEuropean settlers’ entry into Caribbean world caused changes. The indigenous populations died due to influx of world diseases of colonists. Population losses from 8.4 – 112.5 millions of these native populations cleared way for plantation industry and less conflict for Europeans and all these indigenous peoples too15712965493371578408370674417736.jpg15712966476488592384520750409745.jpgColonial arrival of sugar cane culture impact societie’s economy in Caribbean. Increased ratio of slaves to freemen and increased the sizes of slave plantations. Sugar plantation use of slaves affected cash crop economies in cultivation. The large plantations with the slaves Africa  imported worked on plantations. 15712956357681865740619933022642.jpg15712955869055477780312402713803.jpgPrior to 1650 three-quarters of island’s population was of European descent. In 1680 plantation in Barbados increased to about 60 slaves. So sugar plantations expanded transatlantic trade prospers. In 1832, plantation in Jamaica had 150 slaves one in four lived with 250 slaves. 15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15712947049235987567928405600593.jpgAbout 100 years, Barbados was richest European colony in Caribbean region. Then sugar cane production expanded to larger colonies Saint-Domingue and Jamaica. Mass sugar industry sugarcane processed commodities: rummolasses, and falernumWest India Interest was formed in 1740s by British merchants to West Indian sugar planters. 15712969933543584698609408312672.jpg157129755509656600633346701060.jpg15712963455442945155011821550429.jpg15712962302017147386549329208022.jpgwp-1571322746426.jpgBritish and West Indies shared profits or costs. needs. This first sugar-trading company was powerful in Parliament. In 1740s Jamaica and Saint Domingue or Haiti world’s main sugar producers. IMG-20191017-WA0000.jpgIncreased production in St. Domingue used irrigation system French engineers built. Reservoirsdiverted dam levees  aqueducts and canals. Improved mills and varieties of cane and grasses helped increase profits. St. Domingue in 19th century Haiti and Cuba sugar plantation Caribbean did better than British island.1571297025702538564298899779586.jpgIn the 19th century, sugar dominated  MartiniqueGrenadaJamaicaSaint CroixBarbadosLeeward IslandsSaint DomingueCuba, and other island run by FrenchBritish, or Spanish owners. During late 19th and 20th centuries the sugar cane industry dominated Puerto Rico‘s economy by colonial rule of Spain and under United States. 1571294727684996436954631513550.jpgAfter slavery, sugar plantation labour was workers imported from colonial India, Southern China. In 20th century, large-scale sugar production using wage labour continued in many parts of the region. Sugar cane industry’s negative impact affected the environment as this industry grew in Caribbean countries. 15712951825801502632195092917389.jpgThese include the destruction of forests, water pollution, loss of fertility, erosion of soils. These problems on a different scale in Dominican Republic in the 16th century; Lesser Antilles in 17th century; Jamaica, Haiti in 18th century, Cuba and Puerto Rico in 19th century. The nations impacted by sugar on the environment.15712952542173744336540029352835.jpgThe deterioration natural environment, had socio-economic consequences. And took its toll on Africans an integral part to cultivation, production of sugarcane. Slaves toiled in fields, boiling houses to supply huge amounts of labour sugar required. Four million slaves survived  Caribbean sugar plantations. wp-1571330195777.jpgConditions were harsh, mortality rates high through all stages of slaves’ lives. Some sugar colonie’s slave population ten times less than the European slave uprisings ever-present fear of planters. Slave trading highly profitable triangle of trade of Atlantic manufactured goods traded to West African coast for slaves shipped to sugar colonies of the middle passage and sugar, molasses, and rum were shipped from islands to England.wp-1571330138914.jpgSlavery in England  deemed illegal since 1772. The slavery in sugar colonies was vigorously pursued in Parliament and publication throughout last quarter of eighteenth century to time of abolition of trade in 1807, emancipation in 1833.15712977450102090396760846491987.jpg wp-1571330017603.jpgwp-1571330075100.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0001.jpg15712970952265673717702786919787.jpg15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15713021011131294159836164367675.jpg15712969306591487070998245117838.jpgdownloadfile-2.jpg12355_2014_311_Fig1_HTML.jpgAbolitionists arguments against slavery was support in England and in America. Abolitionist movement boycotted slave-grown sugar by protests is celebrated as key component of abolition’s success.15712979796166770357711539697198.jpggettyimages-919491468-612x612.jpg15712985345335906738950765594570.jpg1571300771153191415282151247452.jpg15713004757394126936251265247884.jpg15713005171167919886088148258374.jpg15713007268423280865825419848256.jpgBoycott from writings to educate sugar is derived from blood, sweat and tears of slaves pollutes the body. The planters by prospect of abolition emancipation, attack on their financial interests, place in empire argued in favour of slavery.15713009777485298377118240667583.jpg20191024_104134.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0006.jpg15712980902104280568193144664796.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0005.jpg15713003436563749568168188652437.jpg15713014110543316473429243866261.jpg15713013089491042850157734430430.jpg15713011469935621723745379844781.jpgWilliam Beckford, large-scale Jamaican planter wrote about the island unable to inherited plantation debt. Plantations profit dwindled by later plantation era so planters were compensated for their loss of earnings. Slaves never received compensations, restitution or apology. 15712989421675147982996667160052.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0009.jpg15713018236223543718958756404016.jpg15713016238362599330973898756795.jpg20191018_194544.jpg15712991574789124671528049609976.jpg15713015641859068275661653780133.jpg1571301463714798903122388001392.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0008.jpg15713014963618985587415087318746.jpg1571301334033345284614607997855.jpgInstead suffer racism from the people who sent ships thousand of miles to drag them from their homeland into strange lands. Many slaves after the wars were sent from America to Liberia and Sierra Leone in western Africa.20191017_095342.jpgIt was a problem their roots could not be traced having been renamed by force despite protests of Kunta Kinte. Natives discriminated against them because they were not indigenous citizens. And residue from slavery and colonialism is institutional racism still directed black people today.20191017_095707.jpgInvincible chain of slavery, colonialism racism hatred propaganda promote the harassment of black people. Western countries built by slave labour, natural resources usurped controlled by West. African economies are still owned by Western nations exploiting resources. Yet conqueror parasites play the victim despite depending on African slavery and ccolonialism. Kings like Prempeh exiled to Sierra Leone and Seychelles for resisting slavery and colonialism. IMG-20191018-WA0005.jpgNelson Mandela was incarcerated many years others like Lumumba killed for fighting back. Kwame Nkrumah was toppled by coup detat directed by West replaced by stooges to control Africans. Africans enslaved and those colonised are both victims of the West exploiting them. African resources: diamond, gold, in Ghana, Guinea,  Mali, Songhai empire Mansa Musa Aldrisi supersized gold tied to horse taken by whites. Gold abundant it was dished out freely to loyal citizens. Gold taken over as diamonds. Africans did not gain from slavery to enrich the kings as people claim. But stripped of natural resources owned by Western countries. Africa never had economic independence is still controlled by the Western nations today. West markets all finished goods processed from natural resources from Africa back to Africans. Forced dependency on West sabotages Africa’s self-sufficiency stops revenues of multibillions of dollars for the West. Average person consumes 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar a year or 33.1 kilograms (73 lb) in Western developed countries, over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the 20th century,  a diet high in refined sugar damages human health. Excessive consumption causes obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, and tooth decay. The World Health Organization recommend adults and children reduce their intake of sugar to less than 10% encouraged to reduce to below 5%, total energy intake.