FourRivers(l).jpgExact location of the Biblical Garden of Eden’s four rivers reveals a magnificent creation of God in the book of Genesis 2:10-14. The LORD God planted the garden eastward in Eden; and there HE put the man HE formed. The Garden of Eden is not a small horticultural flora and fauna but is grand across countries. From Eden flows river Gihon: The name of second river Gihon compasses whole land of Ethiopia in Genesis 2:13. Ancient texts refers to Ethiopia as Cush or Punt, Abyssinia in old Bible text passages and old maps of Africa. Ethiopian Eunuch, a treasury official of “Candace Queen of Ethiopia on his return trip to Jerusalem met Philip an Evangelist so Angel of the LORD told Philip, go south to road from Jerusalem to Gaza nearby desert…so he got baptised in Acts 8:27. Queen Sheba visited King Solomon from well known kingdom, Ethiopia in East Africa. In 1 Kings 10:2 she came to Jerusalem with great retinue, camels bearing spices, gold and precious stones asked Solomon questions on her mind. 2 Chronicles 9:9 says, Queen Sheba gave 120 talents of gold, precious stones, rare spices to Israel’s King Solomon. Ezekiel 27:22 says traders of Sheba and Raamah trade with Israel to exchange wares of best of all kinds of spices, precious stones, gold from Ethiopia. Valley of Eden between River Pison and Gihon Ethiopian Gulf of Aden in Hebrew is Eden delight or pleasure. Adin is the biblical exile who returns to Israel from Babylon or Aliyah Operation Moses of Ethiopians or black Jews after 2,000 years desolation’s exile are restored to Jewish homeland. Isaiah 11:11-12 says the LORD AGAIN recovers Second TIME with HIS HANDS remnant of HIS people from Assyria, Egypt, Cush, Pathos, Elam, Shinar, Hamath, islands of the sea. HE will lift up standard for the nation’s and assemble banished ones of Israel to gather dispersed of Judah from four corners of the world. Astounding prophecies about restoration of voice of joy (sason) and gladness (simchah) will be heard again after pain in ”Jeremiah 33:10–11. For centuries, the Beta Israel of Gonda and Beta Abraham of Addis Ababa, and the Gefat of Woliso and Hosanna endured persecution for their felasha “foreigner” status among Ethiopians. Many believe they are from the tribe of Dan. And thousands rescued from poverty brought to Israel during the massive airlifts of 1984, 1985, and 1991. Aliyah return of the African Jews to homeland Israel continues. Ethiopia was never colonised by Europe though Italy tried and was defeated. This is significant because resistance means their history was redacted yet exploited by foreign powers for their wealth. cush.jpg15524023705401616656549.jpgwp-1551529099592..jpgwp-1551527574396..jpgToday here is H.I.M Empress Shebah Sai’Ra Queen Shebah lll Nubia-Sheba Nation’s Imperial Matriarch and Federation of Kingdoms and Thrones of African Continent Kingdoms Federation in 2008 in Ivory Coast. In ancient times Queen Sheba or Saba Bilqis ruled from Marib in Yemen town located about a hundred miles east of Sanʿa, on the edge of the desert. For centuries before the Common Era, Maʾrib was the capital of the trading kingdom of Sabaa or Sheba. The Maʾrib dam nearby’s monumental remains and vast river irrigation system still in evidence. Ethiopians in the living history written Bible shows these four rivers originated from three rivers into four in Eden waters in other Garden parts to become four heads. The first river Pison and the Euphrates from Babylon now Iraq Abraham’s home country into Saudi Arabia and Kuwait flows to encompass the whole land of Havilah in Africa and Egypt through Sudan. Egypt was once called Havilah where there is gold in ancient maps. The land named Havilah  mentioned in Genesis 25:17-18 defines territory inhabited by Ishmaelites from Havilah to Shur near Egypt. In 1 Samuel 15:7-8, king Saul smote Amalekites but spared king Agag. Haviland gold of the lands is very good including liquid gold oil, bdellium and onyx stone. First river Gihon and second Pison encompassed whole lands of Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia called Abyssinia, Cush in East Africa through other countries. Ancient Bible describes Ethiopia land as Cush or Kush Abyssinia from Abyss lowest point of on earth gorge in Ethiopia. Khufu built the Great Pyramid of Geeza in 2250 BC and diverted water from Nile so ships could sail and carry the heavy tons of  stones cut from quary to build it. He built the artificial waterways to carry the white limestone casing stones, granite moved by vast transport network with harbour to tranport tools, copper imports, wood from Lebanon, white stone for pyramid infrastructure projects to Giza plateau. The Nilometer was used to measure the flood situation so this gave king control over the land and the people. The king’s success and strength is tied to Nile with power over the workforce. The natural goods, materials needed to build Sphinx created a new sophisticated city. Khufu (Khum-Khuf, Chnum, Chueful, Cheops in Greek) created waterway systems by diverting Nile so could affect Pison and Gihon too. Rivers in the world diverted for dams, industries, Cotton production in Austrialia or Scotland cause of empty stream canals andold riverbeds lying dormant all over the world. In 1279 BC Rameses II built pyramids, diverted Nile Delta which used to be 7 heads 2 left for waterways, cities, streets, buildings and temples, palaces plus workers quarters at Qantid. Magnetic Gradiometer sound devices for scanning show the contour of ancient riverbeds used as traffick for transporting ships, granites, dredged to keep in check changing courseways of silted canals. Nile created new courses diverted for irrigation canals.  Ethiopian gold mines made Egypt rich in the 15th century BC as gold was common as dust. The son of Pharaoh, Prince of Kush, Amenhotep IV (1370 BC), the religious reformer, built second greatest temple columns dominating landscales of the Sudan to subdue black Pharaohs, only one existent in Nubia. Ethiopian Kush and Nubia wealth built Egypt. 

During 15th century BC of Thutmose’s coronation Nubia rebels against Egypt’s rule. In tomb autobiography of Ahmose son of Ebana, Thutmose traveled up the Nile and fought in battle killing Nubian king’s body hung from prow of his ship, before return to Thebes. He led second expedition against Nubia in third year dredged new canal of the first cataract built under Sesostris III of 12th Dynasty to travel upstream from Egypt to Nubia. Integrates Nubia into Egyptian empire in two inscriptions by king’s son Thure. Year 3, first month of third season, day 22, under majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Aakheperre his given Majesty commands to dig canal after he found it stopped with stones so no ship sailed upon it sailed this canal in victory and in power of his return overthrows the wretched Kush. In second year of Thutmose’s reign, the king cut a stele at Tombos, which records he built fortress near third cataract permanently extend Egyptian military presence previously stopped at Buhen at second cataract. As he already fought campaign in Syria at the beginning of his second regnal year. This second campaign was the farthest north an Egyptian ruler campaigned he apparently set up stele when he crossed the Euphrates River. The Syrian princes declared allegiance to Thutmose after he returned they discontinued tribute so fortified against future incursions. Thutmose celebrated his victories with elephant hunt in area of Niy by Apamea in Syria returned to Egypt with strange tales of Euphrates, “inverted water” flowing upstream when it ought to be flowing downstream. Euphrates was the first major river Egyptians ever encountered which flows from north, downstream on the Nile, to the south, upstream on Nile the river known in Egypt as “inverted water.” Thutmose faced military threat rebellion by Nubia in fourth year. His influence expanded farther south, as inscription dated to his reign as far south as Kurgus south of the fourth cataract. During his reign, built projects effectively and ended Nubian independence for the next 500 years. Aksum Ethiopia Empire crushes reign, burnt Nubia establish 3 churches. Lazer scanning technology sattellite devices of archaeologists image photos reveals old river beds under sandunes and ancient pyramids. Old riverbeds Gihon, Pison can affected by the Aswan Dam passing through Nile regions to disrupt ancient topology. The third river Tigris joined Euphrates with tributaries forms major river systems in Eastern Asia river links Turkey, Syria, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia from sources originating in Iraq to Armenian area in the past called (Tigris) Hiddekel goes toward the east of Assyria. In Genesis 2:14 this third river Hiddekel flows in front of Assyria. In Daniel 20:4, Daniel stood by the rivers of Babylon. This fourth river Euphrates from Kuwait into Iraq to Saudi Arabia joins Gihon into North Eastern African countries. The Semitic influence entered Abyssinia in 7th or 8th century BC. as Kings of Axum descend from Menelek, Son of Solomon. Axum in 1st century AD is a rich ancient capital sacred great from that period to 19th century, kings of Abyssinia travel and crowned. Trade routes by land and sea between Africa and middle East incense frankincense, myrrh exchanged for gold, spices and slaves for centuries before Europeans arrived in Africa. And in recent decades researchers conclusively show western imperialists and white i historians who dismissed Africa as only vast wasteland awaiting “civilisation” by Europeans. In Europe scholars explored riches, power and sophistication of cities, civilisations of Great Zimbabwe, and empire of Mali, kingdom of Benin and others. Research reveals African continent part of global systems of commercial and intellectual exchange for centuries before arrival of Europeans who took African artefacts to European museums. In 1868, 13,000 British troops stormed fortress of Ethiopian emperor Tewodros II. The loot included crowns, a throne, imperial seal, a golden chalice, processional crosses, altar tabots known as Maqdala Treasure and a large number of early Christian manuscripts from Abyssinia. They brought the King’s son to Britain, Alemayehu aged seven. He was sent to Windsor Castle and lived as ward of Queen Victoria but died eleven years later short of nineteenth birthday. And 350 of the books from initial haul in British Library’s collection acquired by Sir Richard Holmes, member British Museum’s manuscripts department. The loot taken by soldiers loaded onto 15 elephants and 200 mules from Maqdala some in the British Museum’s collection British Library in 1973. After securing golden artefacts destroyed fortress and took hundreds of precious items. Anna Codrea-Rado of New York Times said selection of artifacts looted during the Battle of Maqdala, as conflict is known, on display at a new exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The director of museum indicated the institution is open to returning artifacts to Ethiopia on long-term loan, 150 years after taken from the country. Maqdala 1868,” as exhibition is titled, showcases a number of artifacts from these former Abyssinian Empire that once flourished in the areas of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. The items on display are golden chalice, ornate, three-tiered crown and dress belonging to Queen Terunesh.1552863434381-1603719057.jpgIMG_20190317_120309.jpg1552823160533434421470.jpg15528233108401871564864.jpg155295104527171588911.jpgThe Egyptian and Ethiopian first contact dates back nearly seven thousand years when ancient Egyptians recorded their expedition to land of Punt under Sahure Fifth Dynasty. Punt gold dates to earlier times from rule of King Khufu’s Fourth Dynasty. Ancient Egyptians called this place Ta-neter or Gods’ Land viewed as a land of great fortune. They regularly trade with partners in Punt to acquire gold, incense, ebony, ivory, their exotic animals, skins, slaves. And Piye at Jebel Barkal, “Amun of Napata ruler of every foreign country in Thebes ruler of the Black Land. Kendall includes the Lower Egypt Nubia. Piye’s successor, Shabaqo, defeated Saite kings of northern Egypt 711-710 BC installed king in Memphis establish ties with Sargon II.  Piye’s son Taharqa attempts to regain an Egyptian influence in Near East and aided King Hezekiah from attack by Sennacherib and Assyrians in 2 Kings 19:9; Isaiah 37:9. Disease among besieging Assyrian army caused failure to take Jerusalem setback. Hezekiah built aquaeduct over river Gihon cuts off Sennacherib army but king Hezekiah shows off wealth to Babylonians wrongly in 2 Kings 20:13 (chapters 17 – 20) and Isaiah (36 – 39) so angered God Assyrian records Hezekiah was forced to pay tribute. The Assyrian King Sennacherib defeats the Ethiopian Taharqa drove out Kush, Nubia rulers from Egypt region went back to Sinai to rule Egypt.

Pyramids of Nuri, built between reigns of Taharqa and Nastasen. The power of the 25th Dynasty reached climax under Taharqa. Nile valley empire Kingdom revived Egyptian culture religion, arts, and architecture restored to a glorious Old, Middle, and New Kingdom forms. Nubian pharaohs rebuilt temples and monuments throughout the Nile valley, including Memphis, Karnak, Kawa, and Jebel Barkal. During 25th dynasty Nile valley first construction of pyramids in Sudan since Middle Kingdom. Kushites developed own script Meroitic alphabet, influenced by Egyptian writing systems circa 700–600 BC in royal court and the major temples. Taharqa defeats Assyria in 674 BC in 671 BC helped by Put and Lubim in Numbers 3:9. Tahaqa ruled in Egypt from 640 – 664 BC 25 Dynasty till 1200 BC in Numbers 12:1 Ethiopia helps saved Hebrew’s Jerusalem from enemy destruction in Isaiah 37:10-11, in 680 BC defeats Assyrian king Esarhaddon took Memphis. Ethiopian Taharqo retreats to south but his heir taken family Assyrian prisoners. Native Egyptian vassal ruler Esarhaddon a puppet unable to retain full control so Taharqa regained control of Memphis. Esarhaddon 669 BC attacks Taharqa but died on way to Egypt. So its Ashurbanipal who defeats Taharqa who died later. Tantamani attempts to regain Egypt, successfully defeats Necho, takes Thebes in the process. Assyrian military presence in north sent large army south in 663 BC. Tantamani routed by Assyria army ransacks Thebes it never recovers. Tantamani was chased back to Nubia so never threatened the Assyrian Empire again. A native Egyptian ruler, Psamtik I put on throne vassal of Ashurbanipal. The last links between Kush and Upper Egypt ends hostilities with Saite kings in 590s BC. Meroitic kingdom known as Aethiopia Kush capital at Meroe last 4th century AD, captured burnt to ground by Kingdom of Aksum Ethiopia. Nubia establish three, Christianized, kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria, Alodia. The Church carved out of rock in Christian Kingdom of Axum in Ethiopia formerly Abyssinia since the 4th century, under leadership of Axumite rulers, Ethiopia continued to flourish Christian kingdom over 660 years. Christian Ethiopia has other main centres of Christianity like Alexandria in North Egypt, Latin Church in Europe and Byzantine Empire. The Axumite kingdom conquered in 960AD by female leader Gudit (Judith) defeated king Hasani, and attempts to wipe out royal family. Gudit’s reign writers suggest she was from native Ethiopian Jewish tribe population, who trace ancestry back to the time before the biblical Scribe Ezra  in 460BC, or a south Ethiopia. Gudit was very anti Christian and destroyed many churches & Christian monuments. Gudit and her successors ruled Ethiopia from 960AD until late 10th / early 11th century Mara Takla Haymanot of Agaw tribes claims Ethiopian throne founded Zagwe dynasty of emperors. The most famous king or emperor of the Zagwe dynasty is undoubtedly Emperor Gebre Mesqel Lalibela (Servant of the Cross), Saint Lalibela Reign 1181-1221 AD was born in Roha the capital city of Zagwe kings, later renamed Lalibela in honour of him and rock hewn churches he built there was emperor of Ethiopia though not the heir to the throne. Not popular with members of royal family, and the king Lalibela’s uncles sent him into exile. As a young man, Lalibela received divine instruction to build 10 churches from the Archangel Michael.15474064247451824446760.jpgEden is mentioned in Ezekiel 31:8-9 as a root was by great waters.8 The cedars in Garden of God could not hide HIM the fir trees were not like HIS boughs and chesnut trees were unlike HIS branches; nor any tree in the Garden of God like unto HIM in HIS beauty. 9 I made him fair by the multitude of his branches: so all the trees of Eden in Garden of God, envied him.” The Bible says Assyria was in Lebanon and “trees” refer to men and leaders. Cedar trees in Bible references to Lebanon in Judges 9:15, Psalms 29:5 & 104:16, Song of Solomon 5:15, Isaiah 2:13, Jeremiah 22:23 among othersThe trees with “Eden” in the Garden of God.” Lebanon was a part of the Biblical lands ruled by Kings of Israel in the past. The Garden flows through the source rivers from Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq, into Kuwait. The Garden goes through to the land of Lebanon. Gihon in Jerusalem is a river flowing by the Red Sea basin and southeast into Africa at Afar Triangle is a river that “compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia in Genesis 2:13. The whole land of Havilah from Egypt to the Nubia Sudan into Kush Aksum Ethiopia are all part of geology. Ethiopia was once part of before tectonic drifts of continents as Yemen onyx shows the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone” as part of River Pison to south of Yemen, Bible text and geology paths by red lines on map part of four-rivers of Garden of Eden flow into Sudan, Egypt and Ethiopia. Rock Art between the Nile Valley and Red Sea is carvings in desert showing ships travelled from Babylon, Iraq by sea into Yemen and to Ethiopia then to Egypt, recorded by David Rohl, Egyptologist in his book of History of an Ancient Egypt in his documentary on the Yesterday TV.155295406138271588911.jpg Herodotus described in 450 BC the boat that survived well-preserved in the Nile silts. Acacia planks held it together by a long tenon-ribs some almost 2m long and fastened with pegs, creating lines of ‘internal ribs’ in the hull. It was steered using an axial rudder with two circular openings for the steering oar and a step for a mast towards centre of the vessel. Robinson said: “Where planks joined together form the hull, they are usually joined by mortice and tenon joints that fastens one plank to next. Is completely unique form construction not seen anywhere else. And Alexander Belov, in a book on the wreck, Ship 17: a Baris from Thonis-Heracleion published says the wreck’s nautical architecture is unique. Also dhows or trading vessels primarily carry heavy items, fruit, fresh water other heavy merchandise, along the coasts of Eastern Arabia states of the Persian Gulf into East Africa, Yemen silk and coastal South Asia, India and China silk road. Caravan trade routes by land through the desert or by sea. The larger dhows have crews of thirty, small ones around twelve plus cargo. The dhow in history between 600 BC to 600 AD and on rivers and sea transportations. The dhows exist but ship carry people, their containers and goods in modern times. Saudi Arabia and Yemen fits East Africa rift putting the fourth river rightly into the basin of Great Rift system, flowing east to Afar Triangle. In Bible geologic event after Noah’s Flood divided Earth in Genesis 10:25 & 1 Chronicles 1:19. It was in the Rift valley in Abraham’s days in Genesis 19:28The Dead Sea river bed Jordan River land surface at the bottom covered by Red sea and Nile rivers that people travelled or traded for centuries.fourriverslHavilah found in Genesis 2:11-12 flows around the whole land near Egypt. And Havilah is in 10:7 as sons of Cush, Kush, Seba, Sabtah Joktan. Havilah in Genesis 10:29 part of Ophir son of Ham. Genesis 11:29 son of Shem. Genesis 25:18 they lived in desert of Havilah to Shur, again in 1 Samuel 15:7 Saul killed Amalekites, from Havilah to Shur. 1 Chronicles 1:23 Ophir, Havilah, Jobab son of Joktan are descendants of Shem in Babylonia rule. Most natives rename resident localities after places of origin to connect to their past. Like Memphis in Egypt and USA or York from New York or the Birmingham of Alabama is Birmingham in UK so is Chelsea in America, Orleans as the New Orleans or Hollywood and New Zealand. People relocated name the new places after old city or town. And Kunta called the Napolis river Cambybolongo to trace his roots to the Gambia in West Africa Horst so places connect tribes in the Bible. Havilah spans from Babylon to Egypt where the Ishamaelite traders bought and kept Joseph to the Kush in Ethiopia. These nations were once ruled by Babylon and Ethiopia connected in a routes settlements by ancestry so this is reason why these original Havilah’s are associated with Cush and in Babylon. A Holden and Graben faulting at southern end of present Dead Sea ancient Gihon and Pison rivers. By Red Sea in Ethiopia through Rift basin south Afar Triangle in territory of descendants of Havilah’s Cush eat identical fish species from sea. African Rift valley river and lake system similar to those found in Jordan River system. These waters originated nearby Jerusalem in Israel as a Gihon spring by the sea of Tiberius. The river confluence originated and branched out southeast by Rift north and south. The Gardens of God are parallel to Abraham’s covenant lands from Euphrates to all Nile regions. The source of the Nile is Jinja in Eastern Uganda local river and Lake Victoria. Dr David Livingstone saw black male Jews had menorah tattooed, a wine cup, river flow at back of shoulder. They practiced Jewish culture, circumcision, sabbath as part of Israel’s covenant. Eden extends to Lebanon region location of the rivers. In Bible God considers the land of Israel HIS Holy land. In the mountain in “land of Moriah” in Genesis 22:2 Abraham was told to sacrifice son Isaac as a type of the LORD’S sacrifice of Jesus. In 2 Samuel 5 : 6-10 David captured Jerusalem from the Canaanite Jebusites in c.1004BC., made his capital Jerusalem lived in Fortress of Zion in City of David. The Jebusite wall is still in City of David today. David and his men in Jerusalem city in north-south ridge Ophel south of the Temple Mount. David’s men took by climbing through a narrow vertical shaft of a sloping water tunnel Gihon Spring outside city wall of fortified on top of Ophel Hill. So David renamed upper Milo Mount Zion. The
ancient underground water system of a Warren’s Shaft tunnel entered by spiral staircase top of Ophel Hill. Downhill is the Gihon Spring on the floor of Kidron Valley. Before and after David resided in Jerusalem, water from Gihon Spring led south via shallow trench covered with huge stones of pool near Tyropoean Valley and Kidron Valley. A lower pool  or Birket el-Hamra or King’s Pool trench connect with the Gihon Spring Siloam Channel. 300 years later, King Hezekiah of Judah fortified Jerusalem by building sloping tunnel by Gihon Spring hillside new Upper Pool protecting Jerusalem’s  water supply from seige. Siloam Upper and Lower Channels and Hezekiah’s Tunnel exist today. Solomon was made king by Gihon river and a build Temple at Jerusalem on Mount Moriah Israel in 2 Chronicles 3:1. Jerusalem is the place Lord Jesus was crucified; God sacrificed an animal to cover Adam and Eve with its skin in Genesis 3:21 like Lamb covers sin in Revelation 13:8. Adam and Eve in center of Garden of God geographically in Jerusalem and source of the 4 Rivers. In the days of Adam and Eve a “mist” went up and watered the face of Earth within the Garden in Genesis 2:6. And fountains of waters underground waters pressure gushing upwards source for the mist formed these four rivers. Modern-day geology and topography of Middle-East does not reveal exact locations of all these four Garden of Eden rivers. 1552861504825434421470.jpgThe Bible sources reveals the four rivers confirms present day Israel is a central location of Garden of Eden. These lands God promised Israel in Genesis 15:18 to Abraham, is “To your descendants I give the land from the river of Egypt to great river, the Euphrates.” God confirms this promise to Abraham’s son Isaac and to Isaac’s son Jacob whose name was later changed to Israel. When Israelites were about to reclaim the promised Land God reiterated land promised recorded in Joshua 1:4, “Your territory will extend from the desert to Lebanon, from the great river, the Euphrates all the Hittite country to the Great Sea on the west. According to Genesis 15:18 and Joshua 1:4, the land God gave to Israel includes the Euphrates and Tigris through Kuwait, Lebanon to everything from the Nile River in Egypt and everything from the Mediterranean Sea to rivers in east Africa. These lands God stated belongs to ALMIGHTY GOD entrusted to Israel as stewards. All these land modern Israel currently possesses, plus all lands of the West Bank, Gaza, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, plus some of Saudi Arabia and Iraq. Israel possesses only a fraction of the land God promised. The ancient history of Israel mentions these nations in the Bible. Due to exiles and captivities permitted by God these other nations settled on HIS PROMISED LAND for a season until HE DECIDES to take it all back. These nations in conflict over these territories continue to change the boundaries politically but God will take it back from all during Armageddon. It is when wrath of God is fully unleashed because on no compromise to live side by side in peace with each other. Since no deal is acceptable to either parties God takes it all back and HIS Son Jesus is put on the Throne of David in Israel. All Messianic Jews who accept Jesus as Lord and Saviour plus all other nations of God’s Children in the world join God’s Kingdom in the eternal Millineal REIGN of Jesus Christ from Jerusalem in Israel. Communities of “Lost Tribes of Israel” identified trace their ancient Silk Route of Ten Northern Tribes of Israel they followed as they were dispersed by the Assyrians in 722 B.C. The Jewish Voice ministers to Lost Tribes communities and various groups of Jewish people. IMG_20190307_131208.jpg15527242841261871564864.jpgIMG_20190316_201652.jpg1552767803349434421470.jpg1552837820475434421470.jpg1552838098823434421470.jpgIMG-20190317-WA0002.jpgJews from diaspora including Ethiopia Eunuch travel to Jerusalem three times in a year during the feasts in Israel. The Ethiopians are mentioned few times in current news of countries unlike Egypt, Libya, Syria or Iran but Bible talks of a past and future of Ethiopia. Ethiopia at one time had influential “king of the South,” mentioned in book of Daniel 11:42-43. Although strong but by relying on own strength is defeated. And Bible shows Ethiopia will play an important role in future world affairs. The present role and status of Ethiopia, should not be underestimated. Ethiopia is the second-most populous nation in Africa with over 85.2 million people. As Africa was divided by Europeans at the Berlin Conference, Ethiopia was one of two countries that retain independence. It was one of four African members of the League of Nations with brief period of Italian occupation. Ethiopia became a charter member of United Nations then African nations received independence after World War II so adopted colours of Ethiopia’s flag. Addis Ababa Ethiopia capital became location of international organizations of Africa. Ethiopia is also a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), G-77, Organisation of African Unity (OAU). Addis Ababa is the headquarters of African Union, the Nile Basin Commission, Pan-African Chamber  of Commerce (PACCI) and UNECA. The country is one most powerful militaries in Africa. Addis Ababa is headquarter of the continental African Standby Force (ASF). Ethiopia is top coffee and honey-producing country in Africa and home to largest livestock population in Africa. Ethiopia has historical ties to all three of the world’s major Abrahamic faiths. So is one of first Christian countries in the world officially adopted Christianity in 4th century has Christian majority third of population is Muslim. Gihon Spring in Jerusalem is sacred and selected for Solomon’s coronation in 1 Kings 1:38. A priest, Nathan the prophet, Benaiah son of Jehoiada to king David who said to them, “Take with you servants of your lord and put Solomon my son ride on my own mule and take him to Gihon. Let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him king over Israel; and blow the horn, and say, ‘Long live King Solomon!’ Then come up after him, and he shall sit on my throne, as king in my place. I appointed him as ruler over Israel and Judah.” Benaiah the son of Jehoiada answered the king and said, “Amen! May the Lord God of my lord the king say so. As the Lord has been with my lord the king, so may HE be with Solomon, and make his throne greater than the throne of my lord King David.” So Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet, Benaiah son of Jehoiada, the Cherethites and Pelethites had Solomon ride on King David’s mule and took him to Gihon. Zadok the priest took horn of oil from tabernacle to anoint Solomon. They blew the horn and all the people said, Long live King Solomon and went up after him; and the people played the flutes and rejoiced with great joy, so the earth shook with their sound. …Our lord king David made Solomon king and was anointed at Gihon; and they have gone up from there rejoicing, the city is in an uproar with noise you heard. Solomon sits on the throne of the kingdom. And moreover the king’s servants bless our lord King David, saying, ‘May God make the name of Solomon better than your name and make his throne greater than your throne.’ he king bowed himself on the bed. Also the king said thus, ‘Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, who has given one to sit on my throne this day my eyes see it. 2 Chronicles 33:14 says Hezekiah built aqueduct in Gihon to stop enemies invading city 2 Chronicles 32:30 Siloam Gihon spring in Jerusalem in Israel. So King David, Solomon, Hezekiah, Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet, Benaiah son of Jehoiada, Cherethites, Pelethites and all Israelites present at Solomon’s coronation know Gihon spring river’s existence as Moses identified. God trusts Moses with the 10 commandments. And Jesus said in John 5:39 – 47, ‘You search Scriptures because you think in them you have eternal life and if you believe in Moses you will believe in me for Moses wrote about me. If you believe not in his writings how can you believe in Me? A highly educated Prince Moses knows all about Geography and terrains to locate rivers Gihon and Pison in East Africa. 15492009418361050413306.jpgfourriversl1552861504825434421470.jpg1552818698634434421470.jpg1552767594614434421470.jpg1552886028966-213278997.jpgEthiopia is Africa’s biggest gold deposit and hydropower potential source over 85% of total Nile water flow containing rich soils. Ethiopia has the biggest economy in East Africa one of the fastest growing in the world. Its regional powerhouse in is Horn and east Africa. Ethiopia known as Abyssinia, descended from “Cush” in Bible Concordance “Cush” mean black. Descendants of Cush today in parts of the world. Ezekiel 38 and 39 addresses history and prophecy on Ethiopia. Cush son of Ham one of three sons of Noah in Genesis 10:6. Cush was father of Nimrod in Genesis 10:8-12. Cush in Genesis 10:7, was grandfather of Sheba’s father was Raamah. The famous queen of South is Queen of Sheba to visit King Solomon to test his intelligence and wisdom. Queen of Ethiopia is Bible in 1 Kings 10:1-13; 2 Chronicles 9:1-12; Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31). The Queen of Sheba is known in history records as the Queen Makeda, Empress of Axum. The Royal house of Ethiopia under King and Emperor Haile Selassi from 1892-1975 are descendants of the union between King Solomon and the Queen of the South. One of the royal titles of Haile Selassi is “king of Judah.” Three royal sons or princes and three royal daughters or princesses of the late emperor are still alive. Moses married a Ethiopian woman in Numbers 12:1. In a reign of King Solomon’s son, the king of Egypt attack Judah with help of Ethiopia because Judah so greatly sinned against God in 2 Chronicles 12:1-3. Zerah the Ethiopian and his great army attacked Judah under King Asa then a righteous king, but at that time, God helped Judah in 2 Chronicles 14:8-13; 16:8. Isaiah was given prophecy proclaiming a defeat of Egypt and Ethiopia through King Sargon of Assyria in Isaiah 20:1-6.fourriverslcush1.jpgJeremiah imprisoned and thrown into a dungeon because he proclaims message of impending defeat of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. Ebed-Melech, an Ethiopian eunuch, came to Jeremiah’s rescue and was rewarded by God in Jeremiah 38:6-13; 39:15-18. The Persian king Xerxes I in the book of Esther as king Ahasuerus who married Esther reign over Ethiopia in Esther 1:1; 8:9. In the New Testament that man of Ethiopia an eunuch of great authority under Candace the queen of Ethiopian in charge of all her treasury came to Jerusalem to worship in Acts 8:27. God sent Philip to baptize him and he returned to his country “rejoicing” in Acts 8:39. In Nahum 3:9 Ethiopia, Egypt and Put (Libya), are modern Nineveh’s helpers of modern Babylonian Assyrian, German leadership prior to destruction of modern Nineveh. Ethiopia will help modern Nineveh fight against Israel and Judah during the time of the “day of the LORD” and time prior to Christ’s return. Ethiopians are still described as “mighty men” of war in Bible, Jeremiah 46:9-10. Alliances change in wars as a modern king of Babylon will attack and conquer Egypt and Ethiopia in Ezekiel 30:1-9; 29:10; Isaiah 18:1-6. In Zephaniah 2:12, “Ethiopians are slain by the sword.” In Daniel 11:42-43 the modern king of Assyria of Babylonia will rule over the Ethiopians. In Isaiah 11:11 at the time of Christ’s return, survivor descendants of houses of Israel and Judah enslaved in countries of Assyria (Germany), Egypt, Pathros (upper Egypt), Cush (Ethiopia), Elam (Iran), Shinar (parts of Babylon) in Genesis 10:10, Hamath and islands of the sea. Hamath descendants of Ham’s son Canaan a brother of Cush in Genesis 10:18. In Syria a city of Hama is 200 km north of Damascus. Syria descendants of Noah’s son Shem in Genesis 10:21-23; 22:20-21 not Noah’s son Ham grandson of Canaan. Survivors of Israel and Judah become captives in Ethiopia or in other countries mentioned. If Ethiopia fights Assyria against Israel or Assyria fights against Ethiopia transfers settles some Israelite captives there.1552386125188142866407.jpgEthiopia will be part of the army led by Russia to invade God’s Promised Lands. Then Christ returns to rule and Reign on earth in Ezekiel 38:5, and God will Supernaturally destroy the hostile army. In Millennium surviving Ethiopians will turn to God. So God asks a question in Jeremiah 13:23: “Can an Ethiopian change his skin or leopard its spots?” Though answer to question is “No,” God sees to it Ethiopian change his mind. God is not respecter of person so loves Ethiopia as Israel in Amos 9:7. And God gives Ethiopians a new heart and a mind to understand, to respond. Isaiah 18:7 says Ethiopians: “That time present with the LORD of hosts from tall people of smooth of skin. From people from the beginning onward nation powerful and treading down land rivers divide. To the place of the name of the LORD of hosts to Mount Zion in Isaiah 2:1-4; Isaiah 45 : 14 merchandize of Cush Ethiopia will be Israel’s property. Ethiopians come “in chains” and worship God and recognize Him as their only true God. Ethiopia, in Psalm 68:31 says “Envoys will come out of Egypt and Ethiopia quickly stretches her hands to God after pain endured to a glorious time under Christ’s Reign. No matter a person’s colour, race, location all human beings trace Mitochondrial DNA to Eve in Africa and Adam. So the Garden of Eden extends from Africa to migrate all over the world due to the changes in the weather, desert, drought, wars and floods among other reasons.fourriverslcush1.jpg


Genesis 2:13

The name of the second river Gihon and third Pison encompasseth whole land of Ethiopia.

Kings-2 19:9

Heard Tirhakah king of Ethiopia came to fight against him so sent messengers again to Hezekiah.

Esther 1:1

In the days of Ahasuerus he reigned from India to Ethiopia, over a hundred and seven and twenty provinces.

Esther 8:9

The king’s scribes called in third month, of month Sivan on the twenty third day was written all Mordecai commanded to the Jews, the lieutenants, deputies, rulers of the provinces from India to Ethiopia, a hundred twenty and seven provinces, to every province according to the writing to all people in their languages and to the Jews according to the writing according to their language.

Job 28:19

The topaz of Ethiopia was not equal to it so was valued like pure gold.

Psalms 68:31

Princes will come out of Egypt, Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands to God.

Psalms 87:4

I make mention of Rahab and Babylon to them that know me: behold Philistia, and Tyre with Ethiopians born there.

Isaiah 18:1

Woe to the land shadowing with wings beyond the rivers of Ethiopia.

Isaiah 20:3

The LORD said that MY servant Isaiah walked naked and barefoot three years as a sign and wonder in Egypt and in Ethiopia.

Isaiah 20:5

They will be afraid and ashamed of Ethiopia their expectation and of Egypt their glory.

Isaiah 37:9

He heard Tirhakah king of Ethiopia has come to make war with him. Then he sent messengers to Hezekiah.

Isaiah 43:3

I AM the LORD your God, the Holy One of Israel your Saviour: I gave Egypt for your ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for you.

Isaiah 45:14

Thus saith the LORD the labour of Egypt and merchandise of Ethiopia, Sabeans, men of stature shall come to you and be your: they shall come in chains and fall down to you to make supplication that “Surely God is in you and there is no other God.”

Ezekiel 29:10

I AM against you and your rivers. I will make the land of Egypt utterly waste so desolate from the tower of Syene to the border of Ethiopia.

Ezekiel 30:4

The sword shall come upon Egypt and a great pain in Ethiopia when the slain fall in Egypt. They shall take away her multitude and her foundations shall be broken down.

Ezekiel 30:5

Ethiopia, Libya, Lydia, and all mingled people, Chub and the men of the land in league shall fall with them by sword.

Ezekiel 38:5

Persia, Ethiopia and Libya, with all of them with shield and helmet.

Nahum 3:9

Ethiopia, Egypt’s infinite strength, Put and Lubim were your helpers.

Zephania 3:10

Beyond the rivers of Ethiopia suppliants and the daughter of my dispersed shall bring mine offering.

Acts 8:27

He rose and went and saw an Ethiopian eunuch a man of great authority under Candace queen of Ethiopians in charge of all her treasure came Jerusalem to worship God.

Courtesy & Images: Reblogged Updated
Professor Tudor Parfitt, ‘Secrets of Bible’ Lost Tribes of Israel, Ethiopia, African black Jews Lemba, from Sena Yemen by sea to South Africa and Zimbabwe
Edith Bruder, Black Jews of Africa Amazon book,
Jewish Voice of Jews&Gentile Christians

Papua New Guinea Gogodala black Jews Henry Louis Gates Jr, PBS, Africa’s Great Civilisations Exploration, Nubia, Cushite gold, Ivory Cuneiform Hieroglyphics 

Black Jews, The Roots of The Olive Tree 

The Yibir Black Jews of Somaliland

Black Jews of Ghana and Igbo of Nigeria, Toronto Jewish Film Festival.

Spielberg Jewish Film Archive – Jewish journeys : South Africa: Blacks …
Jewish journeys: South Africa: Blacks, Jews & Whites Year: 1986 
Blacks and Jews | POV | PBS
Black Jews: The Roots of the Olive Tree – Film Society of Lincoln Center
Laurence Gavron’s Film, Black Judaism African community of Cameroon.
Revised Kings James Bible Version
Lead Writer: Norbert Link
The Living History of Ancient Israel
Ancient Israel in Jewish Palestine Maps
Old King James Version Bible Texts

Excerpt text © 2016, Gaines R. Johnson, Bible,Genesis,Geology Ministry
Smithsonian magazine for only $12!
Ethiopian@SmithsonianMag on Twitter Thutmoses on the ” Inverted Euphrates” Steindorff George & Seele Keith1942p.36


  1. I wish not to contradict the work of another believer of the Royal Priesthood lest I trample the excellent work of a servant of God. So may I add to this conversation that I also have enquired into the truths of the Garden of Eden, but more so I have sought an understanding about the foundations upon which the Book of Genesis sits. From these studies the event of God creating man (in God’s own image), “male and female created he them” [Gen 1:27] is a separate event to God “forming” (note different word entirely) Adam and in due course, Eve, and placing them in the Garden eastward of Eden.[Gen 2:7] These two events are mutually exclusive; Gen 1:27 being the creation and placing of Hominin Man upon the earth with specific instructions, and Gen 2:7 being the First Adam and with Eve they were given living souls. (Note Jesus our Lord was the Last Adam) At their appearance in the Garden both Adam and Eve were complete, ie Body, Soul and Spirit whereas Hominin Man lacked a “living” soul, ie he had no spirit. The time shift between the two events has not been satisfactorily established by Science but it is between 300,000 and 500,000 years.
    Hominin Man lacked many attributes of Modern Man, chiefly he had no articulate speech,had very poor intelligence and demonstrably had almost zero capacity toward technological advancements – even to improve his own living standard. This is evidenced by his lack of advancement from being a stone-age hunter gatherer for many hundreds of thousands of years.
    Adam on the other hand was everything that Hominin Man was not. He conversed with God directly, he had nomenclature skills, and was able to learn and comprehend; and to the surprise of many, Genesis Chapter One are the pros and poetry that he devised and handed down the ages by a system of memory retention through rote, ie song lines, and it is in these song lines today that we see Adam’s skills in information retention of the critical events that we enjoy reading about in our modern bibles. Note also the carpentry skills of Noah, the Metal Minerals Age and the Iron Ages (2) that came relatively on the heels of Adam’s arrival in the earth after his period within the Garden.
    But the essence of why Adam and Eve were the first of modern man is that they were able to comprehend that there was God and there was a heaven. Without this they could not have been deemed to have sinned against God’s word. This is why Hominin Man ultimately met his demise in extinction – he was incapable of any thoughts concerning a world made by God let alone any divine purpose of Christ our Lord to have a redemption plan for mankind in general.
    I would be pleased if these truths were applied to many of the above comments, which will put them all in a better contextual framework.

    • GLORY to God, Jesus and the Holy Spirit. In the beginning God said, “let Us make man in our OWN IMAGE.” To “MAKE” man is to create, form, mould, shape, put together, combine dust, clay, earthly materials to create Adam and put God’s Spirit Breath into him. Out of Adam’s rib, God created Eve, after God, the Greatest Surgeon, put Adam to sleep. God built Adam in HIS shape to bring him into existence. In Genesis 1:29 God said, “I have given you every plant yielding seed on the face of all the earth and every tree with seed in its fruit you shall have them for food.” Its clear “a garden” in Eden in Genesis 2:8 has a wider region with God’s garden area in it. The creation story in Genesis 2 and 3 focuses on a “garden” of Eden not on the wider area. This shows wider location and meaning of specific area within land of Eden’s physical geography associated with lands and the four tributaries of these rivers. The Garden of Eden extends from ancient Babylonia (Iraq) into Kuwait to Havilah in Egypt in Genesis 25:18 and Exodus 15:22, and in 1 Samuel 15:7 through Sudan to Ethiopia. The first river Pishon flows through the land of Havilah (Egypt), where pure gold, rare perfumes, and precious stones are found. The second river Gihon encompassed the whole land of Ethiopia (Cush or Abyssinia) in East Africa in the EAST. This second river Gihon mentioned in Genesis 2:13, is the reason why the Ethiopians identify Gihon with (Giyon) or the Abay River by ancient Gojjam. Rivers are named traditionally with local indigenous native names different to “official” names on maps. Moses grew up in Egypt (Kemet) in Africa the land of pyramids so knows about Ethiopia ruling Egypt. Moses is a well-educated royal who received from God, 10 commandments. He lived in the wilderness 40 years and knows the terrain so well he can tell directions of River Gihon and River Pison in East Africa. Moses married an Ethiopian woman in Numbers 12:1 in the Bible but displeased Aaron and Miriam struck down with leprosy for racism. Isaiah 37:10- 11 talks of Ethiopian Cushitic (Kush) empire from Ta Seti in Kemet (Egypt) to present day countries of Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Central Africa Republic, Chad etc. An Ethiopian King Taharqa ruled Egypt’s 25th dynasty from 690 -664 BC. Buhen Stela in Florence Museum shows reign of Sety 1 as ruler of these ancient regions called ‘Kas,’ ‘Kash,’ Kush in text. Royal Ontario Museum and University of Khartoum shows tool workshops from Dongola Sudan ancient axes. Ethiopian – Egyptian dynasty is one of the oldest civilisations. In the Kadruka cemetary and tombs at El Gaba, pottery arts are seen in modern Ethiopia. Sabu Rock paintings in Sudan depict Egyptian style boats. Jesus was raised in Egypt in His early years after escaping from evil threats of Herod. All humans descend from Adam and Eve regardless of size, shape, form or intelligence, dis/ability, language, colour, creed, background or challenges people are within categories of the framework of GOD’S IMAGE. The earth was once lush, full of natural resources nearby so people foraged, hunted animals, gathered fruits, fished in sea or rivers more readily. That does not mean they were less intelligent. Due to the changes in climate, weather, droughts, famines, fires, volcanoes, earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, tectonic Pangaea plate movements, people are compelled to farm and grow their own crops for survival. There are pockets of lush vegetation where people still forage rich natural flaura and fauna and live like the times of Adam and Eve. Still without clothes, just forage, gather and hunt in this 21st Century globally. But due to relentlessly intense over exploitation of natural resources mankind is being forced to create alternative resources to survive. This does not mean modern technology makes people “more human” in God’s IMAGE. Ancient generations were more in tune with their environment, using spatial knowledge to built the towers of Babel, pyramids, water tunnels, aqueducts for hanging gardens of Babylon among the seven wonders of the world. Moses was given the details and measurements for the Tabernacle in ancient times. Ezekiel saw wheel in wheels technology, predicted planes and flights for travel. They used sundials as basis for which chronological times is built to tell the time today. Ancient Empires built great cities and chariots, traded thousands of years. Great music, poetry, songs music, Psalms written by David who designed war tactics used today; lawyers study Biblical laws which form modern laws. Job saw Orion and Pleiades, seen at all times in the heavens, perpetually revolving around earth. Humans are intelligent for their time and needs. Education and Intelligence is only 20% of life so the rest 80% includes daily living needs, family interactions, time for relationships, faith requirements, each person caring for environment, Marslow’s hierarchy of needs. The Biblical earth from Adam’s time is only 6,000 years old from genealogy of family trees traced to Adam and Eve to date. Astronomers like the three magis kings followed comet star to Jerusalem. God’s timeless existence includes pre-human existence of the firmaments, elements on the earth. Intelligence is not only measure of good success in life. The most intelligent man with the highest IQ is still in need of support as we all do. Many highly intelligent people are stupid relying only on the mind limits performance to only 20% in life. The fact that God created or formed man in HIS OWN IMAGE meant people were expected to be PERFECT like HIM. God looked at everything HE Made and HE said, “everything is GOOD” “VERY GOOD” until sin caused imperfections in mankind. God in His Mercy provided redemption in Jesus Christ the Seed of the woman to save all mankind. God is restoring the earth to pristine Garden of Eden to live on earth God among men just as He came to visit Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden to fellowship with them in Genesis.3:8 and later clothe them in animal skin. The Second Adam Jesus will Reign and Rule Forever in Jerusalem and thank you for your comments.

  2. The Garden of Eden starts from Iraq where Euphrates and Tigris extends through Saudi Arabia and Egypt into Ethiopia. The older versions of King James Bible makes it clearer. These four rivers are parallel to Abraham’s promised Covenant lands specified by God. But modern Bibles limit these four rivers to only the middle East so delete African connection due to lack of knowledge and understanding that black Jews are in Africa directly connected to Abraham. Just like mitochondrial Eve the West finds it hard to believe their direct origins from Africa. Modern Bibles reduce size of the garden of Eden to only the middle East but the whole garden of Eden contains all these four rivers in context.

  3. It is the pison river that waters the garden of eden not all four. this river is before the flood but still existing under water today, the purpose of this pison river is to water the garden of eden. this river encompasses the land of Havilah the son of Joktan who headed east from messah or middle east. not west. try to do more research especially latest discovery. thanks

    • 1So the heavens and the earth and everything else were created.

      The Seventh Day

      2   By the seventh day God had finished his work, and so he rested. 3God blessed the seventh day and made it special, because on that day he rested from his work.

      4That’s how God created the heavens and the earth.

      The Garden of Eden

      When the Lord God made the heavens and the earth, 5no grass or plants were growing anywhere. God had not yet sent any rain, and there was no one to work the land. 6But streams came up from the ground and watered the earth.

      7  The Lord God took some soil from the ground and made a man. God breathed life into the man, and the man started breathing. 8The Lord made a garden in a place called Eden, which was in the east, and he put the man there.

      9  The Lord God filled the garden with all kinds of beautiful trees and fruit trees. Two other trees were in the middle of the garden. One of these gave life—the other gave the wisdom to know the difference between right and wrong.

      Genesis 2:10 From Eden a river flowed out to water the garden, then it divided into four rivers. 11 The first one is the Pishon River that flows through the land of Havilah, 12 where pure gold, rare perfumes, and precious stones are found. 13 The second is the Gihon River that winds through Ethiopia. 14The Tigris River that flows east of Assyria is the third, and the fourth is the Euphrates River.

  4. Thank you for your great resources and insightful explanation about 4 rivers from Eden. Can I translate some phrases from your article and use it for my friends in Korea? And I want to share your maps. I don’t want to use it with commercial purpose at all. Thank you.


    Thank you for your comments. The Gospel of Jesus Christ is freely given and received because Jesus paid the price with His Life and His Blood to save all. As far as we are aware the maps are in public domain used for educational purposes to share the Gospel.

  5. I am blessed with your writing may God Help you

    Thank you so much, the Glory goes to God for blessing us with HIS WORDS. God bless and help more in Jesus Name. Thank you for your comments.

  6. Thank you for the info.. Please send me more. I read with the 12Tribes of Israel..….2678164482…please keep my with God. Shalom


    The Tribes of Israel traditional ancient Jewish people. Bible says 12 tribes of Israel descended from the sons Jewish forefather Jacob called “Israel” from Jacob’s name given to him by God. The 12 tribes are : Reuben, Simeon, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Benjamin, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Ephraim and Manasseh. The 12 twelve tribes of Jacob and his family went to Egypt as 70 family members brought in by Joseph. In Egypt the Israelites were fertile so multiplied and increased greatly so became Israelites. After death of Joseph viceroy of Egypt Pharoah oppressed the Israelites by placing upon them burdensome labour. God remembered covenant with Abraham, Isaac, Jacob so sent Moses and heard their cries in Egypt so rescued Israelites from Egypt. By this time the nation numbered “600,000 men on foot”as the military-aged men excluding women and children. At Mount Sinai, given laws, regulations Torah from God for 40 years in the desert under leadership of Moses, the 12 tribes enter land of Canaan with Joshua in command. After reconquering the land given to Abraham each tribe was allotted individual territory to settle. The Judges are elders among the tribes appointed on advise by Jethro various after crises forced tribes to cooperate against enemies. Shiloh was center for tribes, housing Ark of Covenant under priest Eli. The impact of military pressures caused Israelites, compelled to turn to Samuel to establish a monarchy, and Saul was crowned to rule over tribes of Israel.

    Toward end of period of Judges, beginnings of Monarchy traditions of 12 tribes as one nation from enslavement in Egypt changed. Names of tribes in ancient sites in Canaan, mountains of Naphtali, Ephraim, Judah, desert of Judah and Gilead, maps with 12 tribe settlements. Those who dwelt in these areas assumed their names as localities. The pattern of 12 Hebrew tribes is real living history so if one tribe withdrew from union or absorbed into another number twelve is preserved, splitting the remaining tribe into two or accept a new tribe into union. Tribe of Levi is considered among 12 tribes with Joseph tribes counted one. When Levi is not mentioned Joseph tribes are counted as Manasseh and Ephraim. Simeon is counted as a tribe absorbed into Judah and Manasseh after having split, two considered one. Confederation of the 12 twelve tribes is based upon belief in one “God of Israel” whom the tribes made covenant with and they worship God as “people of LORD Yahweh.” They met “at mountain of God,” Sinai or Horeb and at Kadesh-Barnea tribes remained some time the tribes conquered land of Canaan. As mentioned in Penuel, Jacob received name Israel, Beth-El, where Ark rested worship at Beer-Sheba, since patriarchal times. Jacob built altar at Shechem and the tribes gathered there “before the Lord” so made a covenant with Him in Joshua’s time. Shiloh was important as central site for tribes gathered under Joshua to divide up land by lot, and there that placed Tent of Meeting and Ark of Covenant. Eli’s family desended from Aaron, the high priest, served at Shiloh Israelites met for festivals and sacrifices. Sanctuary held Ark of the LORD revered, so central to 12 tribes.

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