HAPPY CHRISTMAS LESSONS

wp-1577100682177.jpgChristmas can be truly happy if lessons learnt are applied to make it easy on all members of the family for the sake of Christ Jesus. Even enemies in combat at Christmas put down guns to celebrate Christmas together and exchange gifts. German soldiers joined British troops in frontline battle a 100 years ago to eat together at Christmas. Eve inter-sibling skirmish to reverting to your teenage self and scrapping over the TV remote on Christmas Day, the annual festivities can put family relationships on edge. So, when weather outside is frightful, how do you keep home life delightful to stop Christmas celebration turning sour?

1. Ease Christmas crushGrandfather and kids open presents

Going home for Christmas is great – but when you get there, will you be sleeping in your old teenage bedroom – maybe along with your partner and kids? “Even if we’re busy at work or at home, we have time alone don’t we?” says Relate counsellor Dee Holmes. But at Christmas people are often “forced too much into each other’s space. If you’ve got houseful of relatives, there’s always something to be done or someone who wants to talk to you.

Two young women looking cross

Christmas Eve inter-sibling skirmish to reverting “Children are used to having time when their parents ignore them, in front of the telly… and: ‘Aunty Freda’s here, let’s play a game…'” So appreciate that your nearest and dearest may need some space and having a happy family Christmas doesn’t mean you all want to be together 24/7. Instead of expecting everyone to join in every moment of Christmas Day, maybe agree some key times, like opening presents and Christmas lunch, but otherwise be flexible, she suggests.

2. Don’t be kitchen freakYoung women eating near sink

Let’s face it, Christmas catering is really hard work. And even if you prepare as much as you can in advance, timing a roast to perfection is a fine art – and if it goes wrong, can result in overcooked veg, cold turkey – and a large helping of stress. So if you’re the designated cook, don’t be afraid to ask for help, says Dee.

“Make sure there’s a bit of a rota about people all helping and everyone mucking in.” It’s important everyone has some downtime – including the cook, she says. And if cooking at home is just too much of a stress point, Kim Moore, a mental-health expert at Birmingham City University, advocates considering going out to eat.

3. Whose Christmas Is It?Baby in front of Christmas lights

“There’s the child-centred Christmas and there’s the adult-centred Christmas -and sometimes, in family environment, they clash,” says Dee. The danger points abound where different generations are forced into close proximity, she warns – from sleepy teens woken before it gets light by their over-excited younger cousins or people without children annoyed if they have to open all the presents before breakfast, to the adults who are drunk before it gets dark and argue heatedly about politics.

“Another big thing is how people revert to their traditional roles in the family when they all get back together,” Dee says. “So you know you live the rest of the year being a successful professional person or you’re doing your own thing and as soon as you get home, you’re the youngest one or the naughty one.” This sort of stereotyping is a big cause of Christmas rows, says Dee, who urges family members to cultivate tolerance, empathy and “a bit of sensitivity to other people’s expectations”.

4. A Christmas truce

Agreeing ground rules on subjects to avoid over Christmas can be a really good idea, says senior mental-health nursing lecturer Kim. In addition it’s wise to try to resolve in advance any outstanding issues between family members which could lead to rows on the day, she advises. “Try just to be respectful of the other people,” adds Dee. “And if you want to have argument with someone, is today really the day? “If someone said something that annoys you, maybe you say, ‘I’m just going to ignore that for now.'”

5. Remote & technologyClose-up remote control

Remember the days when there was one TV in the corner of the sitting room and rows over channel choice? The good news is that those days are long gone and everyone with a phone can potentially choose when and how to watch whatever they like. So traditional arguments over who controls remote less problematical, says Dee. She warns adults who want to recapture possibly  past family Christmases, everyone sat down to watch Doctor Who together, are unlikely to succeed. And then there’s the problem of prising teens away from their phones. “If you spend all year with your teenagers in their bedrooms… don’t have unrealistic expectations of family life being suddenly different because you wake up and it’s Christmas morning,” warns Dee. “Don’t expect a miracle.”

6. Christmas karaoke?Family playing a game

Music is one of great way of bringing families together and making everyone feel better, says Kim. Karaoke or just pass the parcel to Christmas songs can be “a great way to engage all family members from young to old” create some fantastic memories, she says. Alternatively, you might prefer charades or board games – but beware the Christmas scrabble row. Some families choose to go for walks on Christmas or Boxing Day but Dee says a relaxed family Christmas often depends on not expecting everyone to join in with everything. “Just because you have a ritual and you’ve always gone on a walk after the Queen’s speech doesn’t mean you always have to keep doing it.”

7. The spending trap

The urge to overspend at Christmas can be enormous, with families targeted by massive marketing campaigns months ahead. January is a tough month, too often made worse by credit card bills and overdrafts, so managing spending and expectation in the run-up to Christmas is key, says Dee. “I think it’s important to talk about what the limitations are, what the budgets are.” More and more families are choosing to discuss Christmas gift budgets with their children, she says, even when they’re quite young. “It’s not about saying we can’t afford it… or making them scared that you’ve no money, or anything like that, but being realistic.” And try to make gifts “fair”, she says. “Children will soon pick up if they feel there’s an unfairness.”

8. Stay safe

Christmas is meant to be a fun time so it is particularly tough when it goes wrong, throwing family problems into stark focus. People contact Relate for relationship counselling most in the weeks after Christmas than at any other time of year, says Dee. If disagreements spill into violence, Kim says not to be afraid to ask for help, even if this means calling the police. And if you fear for your safety, organisations such as Women’s Aid andMen’s Advice Line also offer advice.

9. Dry January: start earlyChristmas drink

If you’re worried about fuelling family rows over the festive season, why wait until January to go teetotal?

“The use and overuse of alcohol can be a major trigger of family discontent over Christmas,” Kim warns. Dee adds that the best-laid plans and intentions can all too easily be forgotten when you’ve had a few – tolerance and sensitivity can go out of the window and it’s all too easy to say the wrong thing, with minor disagreements becoming full-blown family bust-ups.

“I have certainly heard some horror stories,” she says. Dee says it’s really important to make sure drinkers have plenty to eat – and rather than banning booze altogether, she suggests spritzing wine and making bucks fizz with your champagne or prosecco, with plenty of suggestions available online for non-alcoholic festive drinks to lightly enhance feelings of goodwill to all – even your siblings.

Nine lessons for a happy family Christmas

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JESUS KING OF Kings/Princes

20190901_215455.jpgJesus is KING OF Kings and Princes Who return to rule in Israel. Revelation 20:4+ says resurrected saints rule and reign with Christ. Jesus and saints return with a heavenly army in Jude 1:14 as Enoch the seventh from Adam prophesied. The Lord comes with ten thousands of His saints and many passages in the old and new testament confirm saints will rule. Isaiah 32:1 says the righteous reign with Messiah and princes rule with justice. Daniel and John says saints rule after the beast destroyed in Revelation 19:20 in Second Coming of Christ, reign of saints not yet come. Four kings arise out of earth but saints of Most High God will receive to possess kingdoms forever in Daniel 7:17-18. The Ancient of Days will come to judge but favour saints of Most High in Daniel 7:21-22. God’s Kingdom,  dominion, greatness of kingdoms under the whole heaven given saints. Kingdom is everlasting, dominions will serve and obey Jesus in Daniel 7:27. Jesus given an authority over cities Luke 19:17-19. Not as James and John want position on left and right of Jesus share rule in Mathew 20:20, Mark 10:37. Revelation 3:21 says Jesus tells overcomers to sit with Him on His throne as He sits on His father’s throne: God’s gives high authority to the believers with Jesus on David’s throne in Matthew 25:31 as kings on this earth. This kings and priests of God’s kingdom iRevelation 5:10 reign in the FUTURE as kings and priests to God. Joint heirs with Jesus as believers in God’s Word by royal priesthood. New new creations as His special people, Body of Christ, heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ Jesus. KINGS AND PRIEST.jpgAs Jesus Rules and Reigns all in Christ will rule and reign as kings, queens and royal priests on earth. Jesus is ONLY KING’S KINGDOM citizens made Kings and Queens. People in other kingdoms are NOT ALL Kings as UNIQUE Kingdom of God. People must know because some are going around saying they kings and queens. In Deuteronomy 17:14–15, God said, “ In land the LORD your God gives you say, ‘set king over us like all nations be sure to appoint a king LORD chooses. God promised Jacob, Nations will come from you and kings among descendants in Genesis 35:11, Genesis 36:31; 49:10; Numbers 24:7–9; Deuteronomy 28:36. In Bible, Jezebel the woman she – devil in 1 Kings 16:31; 18:4-19; 19:1, 2; 21:5-25; 2 Kings 9 manipulates King Ahab to control nation. Its a misnomer to encourage the people to think all are kings and queens all at the same time. One reigning king and queen and subordinate kings and queen living in harmony. Hierarchy structure of kingship is birthright seniority from God but exceptions happen on special occasions. Hierarchy structure includes set formal positions with authority of each king. A paramount King is bowed to by lesser king during durbars. During procession event lesser king got out of his palaquin to walk on foot by a Senior King’s palace as a sign of respect and honour. Repeats again on return after procession to sit in palaquin after passing the King’s palace. Each king holds their strategic positions in battle knows which location to be in to cover the Senior King permanently associated with each kingdom. These kings meet together at international and local level to help celebrate community and to keep in touch with the citizens. thought-1.jpgDisputes or differences settled amicably but warring faction may disagree on the issues they do not see eye to eye. This is a traditional kingship which treats their king as God’s representative on earth. A lesser king brings specific gifts, tributes, to the Senior Kings. During the hunting season parts of the game veal belonging to Senior King given to them. A public  sitting, arrival, processions are all based on preset protocol of Kingdom structure for thousands of years. Highly followed protocol based on hierarchy of an office and position of a king is established by the traditions. They are not based on the favouritism or popularity of the King or opinions of the people. Those close to a kings family are trained from birth to be aware of these traditions. People not familiar with a kingdom rule may find a standard protocol strange but it has the very role to establish order and security or safety. Some misunderstand protocol demand to be treated as they like do not respect a traditional setting structure. Some declare they are kings wear huge gold chains, gold teeth, distorts true reality of kingship. Lack humility and mislead people by delusion of grandeur megalomaniac impostor syndrome of a royal paranoia always feeling superior to others. Do not submit to authority or understand that kings are not arrogant pompous tyrants who order the people around. Its King makers who choose a humble considerate and pliable person they feel will cope well with position. They are trained and taught kingship is duty for life not self aggrandisement for negative attention seeking behaviour to outshine others and to show off to the world. It is essential to educate modern generations about social structure to understand role of subjects and citizens. Lack of modern education makes social media want to dictate structures they do not fully understand. Security reasons require discreet communication silence, using trained eyes, blink, wink, handle position of teacup, bags, subtle language in the presence of dignitaries. One cannot be blunt, raw or outspoken all the time for personal safety. Revelation 8:1 says when the Lamb opens seventh seal is silence in heaven for about half an hour. There is a time to speak and a time to be silent we must know when to talk and when to say nothing as Bible says in Ecclesiastes 3:17. Jesus SUBMITS to God yet He is the ONLY KING of Kings SEATED AT GOD’S RIGHT HAND. Good to know wealth or fame is not reason to become king. Some think being rich in powerful positions automatically makes them king. So make unrealistic demand on others to fulfil their fantasy so if they are rebuffed get so angry and irrational. They live in a utopia fantasy world with blindspots not realising life is tough and challenging so must adapt and grow up.  Must put other people first because life is not exclusively only all about them. IMG-20191029-WA0004.jpgThere is ONLY ONE KING OF Kings Jesus Head of all Children of God. Jesus warns in the last days highminded people who feel above their station have minds on physical things not real things of God. God is not retained in their thoughts in Psalm 10:4, Romans 1, despise authority do their own thing for they think they are superior to God and Jesus. They are presumptuous, self-willed, impose their strong will on others by their way or no way behaviour, act out of dictates of their own hearts to influence public opinion than following God with humility and trusting HIM to bring HIS WILL to pass. 2 Peter 3 says: 1 Know in the last days perilous times will come 2 people will be lovers of themselves lovers of money, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, 3 unloving, unforgiving, slanderers, without self-control, brutal, despisers of good, 4 traitors, headstrong, haughty, lovers of pleasure than lovers of God 5 having form of godliness but deny God’s power. From such turn away 6 For this sort creep in houses and make captives of silly women load down with sins, led away by lusts 7 always learning and never able to come to knowledge of truth. 8 As Jannes and Jambres resisted Moses, resist truth, men of corrupt minds disapproved of by faith 9 will not progress their folly manifests to all they misled. Man of God using Word of God must 10 follow doctrine, lead Godly life, faith, longsuffering, love, perseverance 11 face challenges like Antioch, Iconium endured as the LORD delivered. 12 All who live Godly in Christ go through life challenges 13 as the evil men impostors grow worse deceive so deceived.KINGS AND PRIESTS.jpg2 Peter 3 says 14 You continue in things learnt in childhood 15 known Holy Scriptures to make you wise for salvation by faith in Christ. 16 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God is profitable for doctrine, reproof, correction instruction, righteousness 17 man of God to be complete equipped for good works. ONLY JESUS MILLENNIAL REIGN believers made kings so don’t be deceived or think too highly of yourself not submit to God. Daniel 2:21 says God changes times seasons HE makes  kings,  removes kings, promote kings. HE gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to the humble. A TV show put only kings in a house without servants so did chores, cooked, cleaned. SOVEREIGN LORD gave Jesus all POWER of authority in heaven and earth in Matthew 28:18-19. To teach all nations, baptizing them in Name of Father God, Son, Holy Spirit. Jesus in John 14:12–14 gives power as crucified risen Christ. But satan tries to be like Most High God in Ezekiel, Isaiah 14 cast out of heaven. So Most High God is KING could not have another king in heaven. Kings and queens in kingdoms so no two kings or queens at same time. After satan cast out of heaven to earth the world became his kingdom as ruler of world in John 12:31. Kingdom of God has One KING, Jesus Christ ruling KING in 1 Corinthians 15:28. Jesus refused the offer of satan to make him king after He fasted 40 days and nights in wilderness. In future all overcomer saints rule with Jesus as sons and daughters of God. The Kingdom of God gives leadership power of dominion to saints. Jesus is Absolute KING OF Kings and Lord of lords.

 

JESUS UNITES ALL IN ISRAEL

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Galatians 3:26-28 says not a Jew, Gentile, Greek, SLAVE, free, MALE, FEMALE ALL ARE ONE IN CHRIST JESUS. In the Bible Jesus Christ of Nazareth came to SAVE to redeem ALL FAMILIES in Christ. God created all black and white people equal in God’s Kingdom, no rank, class, status. SOVEREIGN GOD JEHOVAH and CHRIST JESUS are Ultimate Authority all submit to in ETERNAL LIFE. So Matthew 22:30 says after resurrection people DO NOT MARRY so no virgins to marry. Glorified body is like angels in heaven in eternal life so no need to marry, to give birth to replenish earth in future. All restored to youthful bodies, healed, live perfectly healthy lives eternally. Love is directed totally first to God and to Jesus Christ flowing through all people. There is no need to seek fulfilment through a human being because all are fulfilled in Christ Jesus. The supernatural love God fills mankind with is superior to human love. All LOVE comes from God through Jesus the Bridegroom, enriched deeply in Christ Jesus Alone in eternal life. So human romance pales in comparison to GOD’S DEEPEST LOVE BEYOND human understanding in terms of earthly love. Earthly love is full of disappointment, pain, hurt and grief. A Heavenly LOVE yet fully experienced on earth glimpses of true love found here, there on earth.4bdde64e26478018c275ab2ae84328d6.jpgPERFECT LOVE after GLORIOUS BODY IS FOUND IN CHRIST so no human can provide angelic love for glorified body higher being in Christ Jesus. ETERNAL LIFE IN GOD’S PRESENCE is NO HATRED VENGEANCE, Bitterness or vendetta for only the PURE IN HEART FULL OF LOVE ENTER GOD’S PRESENCE. GOD IS LOVE in heaven no evil on earth exists after judgement BY JEHOVAH. Only the sheep enter heaven and goats are thrown out into hellfire burning forever. A banquet by KING MASTER JESUS for all no slaves IN HEAVEN. Emancipate yourself from the arrogant mental slavery justifying abuse of people in THE NAME of God. Vengeance belongs to Jehovah to meet out so stop misleading the people with twisted lies misquoting Bible to deceive naive vulnerable people. Only Jesus is able to Comfort us and restore PERFECT PEACE we crave because human love is limited. Be content, so grateful, thankful for families you feel not good for you. It is God who puts people in families for a reason. Trust God with your family and AVOID ANYONE WHO DIVIDES FAMILY! 29131.jpgJesus the Messiah is surrounded by His mother, father siblings in His Ministry on earth and in heaven with Jesus. Any Church that divides family is a cult for manipulation naive members to control them by CUTTING OFF from loved ones who SEE THROUGH FAKE PASTORS. The fake pastor deceives people for control weakens them without back up support challenging controlling behaviour. They fear families standing up to stop abuse so anyone who knows the Bible well or confronts them is blackmailed and also vilified to subdue members. They make examples of people to humiliate them to put fear in them to become ZOMBIES or robots they control. Beware of anyone twisting BIBLE to CONTROL your life because who the SON JESUS SETS FREE IS FREE INDEED!!! God is LOVE and by love people know you are the children of God.  Jesus LOVE YOUR ENEMIES do good to those who hate you and do not inherit enmity and hatred from a bitter miserable people preaching evil hatred.  God’s promise to Abraham the land of Israel is a BLESSING to ALL NATIONS.Galatians_3-28.jpgIn Genesis 12:2; 18:18; 22:17–18; 26:3–4 God fulfilled promise to Abraham, first in the nation of Israel then all nations. Israel’s technological, agricultural, and medical innovations, advances help all people in the world. God’s greatest meaningful fulfillment of covenant promise is Word of God Jewish people gave all world. God faithfully protects and brought Israel’s eternal salvation through faith in Jesus the Messiah. So Father God in Lord Jesus Messiah by His great mercy Christians born agains are raised the Messiah from dead. To live in future is a great expectation of priceless inheritance in heaven, pure, undefiled, beyond death and decay. Through faith, God protects by HIS power to endure to end, receive crown of life 1 Peter 1:3–5.  God’s destiny for Abraham to become the father of MULTITUDE of NATIONS includes Gentile nations fulfilled in Jesus, a direct descendant of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob Israel in Matthew 1:2–17.  God LOVES people of all tribes, tongues, nationalities, languages in Jesus as heirs of Abraham and joint heir with Christ.

imageGod’s joint heirs are kings and priests of God in Christ Jesus. There is neither Jew nor Greek, neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; you are ALL ONE IN MESSIAH YESHUA. In MESSIAH you are Abraham’s seed heirs according to promise in Galatians 3:2729. Today know Jesus better by READING BIBLE to STUDY LIKE BEREANS not just do what so called fake control freak cult pastors order you to do to manipulate your life. Messiah Jesus is coming to decide your reward based on if you are HIS SHEEP. Not what the fake prophet misquoted in Bible designed to lie to you because you lack knowledge. God says  MY PEOPLE are destroyed for lack of knowledge of Bible. God says Study to show yourself APPROVED TO GOD not show off Bible verses you memorized. But APPLY the Bible to each need you have, read the specific TEXT daily to meet your need.Galatians+3_26-28.jpgEach one faces God alone on judgement day so remember God will not ask about what the pastor told you. God demands account of your PERSONAL LIFE not the total social media number of followers, bank accounts, mansions, private jets, size of your family, your status, class, colour or race. Each person must share Gospel to DIRECT PEOPLE TO GOD IN CHRIST. The Church you attend or the denomination  is IRRELEVANT TO GOD. Letter to seven Churches in Bible warns Churches. Israel and Jewish people are ONE IN CHRIST JESUS to fulfill all God’s feasts, prophecies covenant promises.  Isaiah 27:6 says, God will cause them that come of Jacob to take root Israel shall blossom and bud to fill the face of the world with fruit. The people of Israel return from parts of the world  their ancestors dispersed take root. The land is blessed and people blessed in the world. Israel’s desert desolate is a major exporter of food to the world. The crops are major export by companies in Israel Isaiah predicted. Isaiah predicted in the Word of God over 2,600 years ago fruit of the land blessing Earth with physical food exported and fruits of God’s Word confirms by Holy Spirit in Christ Jesus. Matthew+1-22+To+Fulfill+What+Was+Spokne+By+The+Lord+Through+Prophets+red.jpg Zechariah says all nations on earth will come yearly to Israel to celebrate Feast of Tabernacles to worship LORD of Hosts. Zechariah 14:16. Isaiah points to road connecting Egypt to Assyria and through this area access road is being built called King’s Highway. Building a super highways links them with all the surrounding nations. These prophesies of Isaiah and Zechariah prepares way in advance in time for Messiah’s rule from His Throne in Israel. Jesus Rules whole Earth and all people will know God in the millennial kingdom in Israel after rapture and His second coming on earth after Armageddon. The land is prepared today to fulfil prophecy of Messiah Jesus as KING of Kings and Lord of lords. And above all countless multitudes of people of all nations, tribes, languages, colours, BELONGS TOGETHER IN HEAVEN AND LATER DWELL ON EARTH WITH GOD. God is not a respecter of persons to put any person above others by class, race, colour, wealth or status. Death is their leveller making all equal before God. No man is bigger or stronger than Jehovah God no matter how powerful they may feel in own eyes to inflate their ego.

COFFEE’S HISTORY & ORIGINS

20191014_110716.jpg15710468834321102168724083807666.jpg15710437345183676338762388191799.jpgCoffee global originated from Ethiopia as earliest evidence of coffee drinking and knowledge of the coffee tree spread from early 15th century. Africans grow coffee harvested, grounded and drank by families as tropical crops. Coffee spread as commodity for trade from Ethiopia Horn of Africa to Yemen Arabia Felix monks monasteries spreading into Mecca and Cairo. Goats were seen hyper stimulated inspired coffee concoction born long ago in the mountains of Ethiopia. Legend says that Kaldi saw his excited herd dancing after eating coffee cherry berry, 16th century reached rest of Middle East, South India (Karnataka), Persia, Turkey to rest of Horn of Africa and northern Africa. Coffee spread to Balkans, Italy, the rest of Europe, Southeast Asia and Americas despite ban imposed in the 15th century by religious leaders in Mecca and Cairo, and later by the Catholic Church.15710460124356859565088160134012.jpg15710436855935512932863149678515.jpg15710447815743466109153844499277.jpgCoffee spread from Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Kaffa Province name of coffee, the first to recognize energizing effects of native coffee plant. So the tribesmen consumed as hunters on days-long treks benefitting from coffee plant’s ability to quell hunger and provide more energy. Studies of genetic diversity of Coffea arabica varieties retained the residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica. Oral history direct evidence has indicated Africans coffee grow among other crops natives used as stimulant so known earlier spread into seventeenth century. Original domesticated coffee plant from Harar, native population use derived from Ethiopia distinct is found populations in Sudan and Kenya.1571043405765699259889766813539.jpg15710434270053024933810851534611.jpg15710436277878114956373217936851.jpg15710435846402047751185959458711.jpg15710434925723954462411793900624.jpgCoffee is native to tropical Africa but its Brazil that is the world’s largest coffee producing country. Vietnam, Colombia are second and third biggest producers. Coffee was traded through Middle East, Asia and Europe before its taken to the Americas by European colonizers. The crop’s success there depended on slave trade. The history of coffee recognizes racism and the role of colonialism. The history of coffee has a dark side of the exploitation of Western countries taking advantage of the African countries. And multibillion multinational corporations making so much profit but don’t invest in these countries of the supply chains. 15710433560353172288782735507670.jpg15710440983255412735373397344862.jpg15710445900461747951835999486447.jpg15710441400893604583404307719482.jpg15710439366083654047546056266942.jpg15710440294184227315937896153147.jpg15710444445985513000575336350508.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.1571044828283157220128130682346.jpgwp-1571137280306.jpgdownloadfile.pngwp-1571007286187.jpgIMG-20191014-WA0001.jpgwp-1571136784509.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.15710478444701786177490462436469.jpg15710456532011356605169476525987.jpg15710456143886626766098078755663.jpg15710455659128566144229800899532.jpg15710448803383604231430384290796.jpg15710449771794187086487037815745.jpg15710450656392204661356868672582.jpg15710451149853942328613469727459.jpgBarbados and Jamaica were some of the earliest British colonies as slave traders provided outposts with human labour from Africa to work on sugar and coffee plantations. Goods and people moved in a triangle between West Africa, colonies in Caribbean and Americas and Europe.wp-1571143326145.jpg15710465101715420187119285288633.jpg1571046665177784825754492463044.jpg15710465806261383212562540144503.jpgwp-1571143230605.jpgwp-1571143279802.jpg15710462101437150544227229786142.jpgSan Domingo in French-occupied Haiti was supplying half of the world’s coffee in 1788 as a direct result of slave labour. Living conditions was appalling, slaves underfed, overworked and housed in the windowless huts. The African slaves were beaten, tortured or killed by their white European rulers.15710466183022452900408860596017.jpgwp-1571142356971.jpgwp-1571138218332.jpgwp-1571142304784.jpg15710467716452899072847031383823.jpg15710449165545412649823065829850.jpg15710450356353051306629389501833.jpg1571046353063816915106442229309.jpg15710432352042400621271070553203.jpgNapoleon tried to regain Haiti in early 1800s led to decline in coffee production prompted the Dutch to fill the gap with coffee produced in their own colony of Java, Indonesia. But has rigid hierarchy between the native Javanese and their colonial overlords. Laziness and apathy of Dutch landowners forced Javanese natives to harvest coffee for a pittance, whole villages died of starvation.15710462360581092218315998157921.jpg15710463381055154496466313978760.jpgwp-1571136892649.jpg15710470158994600447489546368637.jpg15710433079216012543656666705158.jpgUK drinks 95 million cups of coffee day with 500,000 tonnes of waste coffee grounds a year. Some business’s small waste coffee grounds customers to take home as garden fertiliser or homemade exfoliant. Wet coffee grounds waste into landfill in UK tax £88.95/tonne to £94.15 from 1st April 2020 levy operators cost to collection fee. Waste management companies charge for contaminated dry mixed with recycling. 15712234953994380269245425115741.jpgLandfill harmful greenhouse gases such as methane 34 times more potent than carbon dioxide over a 100 year period causing climate change. The wet coffee grounds in an anaerobic digestion plant absent of oxygen microorganisms break down biodegradable material managing waste or producting fuel but grounds sink to bottom in ‘belly’ inhibit rate of biomethane production. Waste grounds incinerated energy generation, not best usel. Bio-bean utilise wet coffee grounds waste recycled bio-products by disposal recycling service generate savings for businesses saving emission as bio-fuel.15710432727097757498507419898001.jpgCoffee declined in the West Indies but it thrived in Latin America. So first coffee bush in Brazil was planted by Francisco de Melo Palheta in Pará in 1727. Brazil became a coffee superpower under the rule of the Portuguese and continued to after independence. By the 1830s, coffee became Brazil’s largest export is around 30% of world coffee production.15710461315717905217574155760681.jpg15710452158122014500876146091126.jpgBrazilian coffee plantations used black or indigenous slave labour. Indentured labourers worked and lived in horrific conditions. Plantation owners treated their labourers as dispensable imported new slaves as they died from overwork. Did not treat existing slaves with any compassion most slaves last seven years from initial bondage.wp-1571142201640.jpg15710455063321556057087774078740.jpgBrazil made slavery illegal in 1888, but four million slaves had been brought from Africa. In Latin America, coffee industry depended on the indigenous labour. Black people not used as slaves in Central American countries anymore, Mayans and other native peoples served as semi-slaves.15710451884962273506023802601097.jpg15710452671042518442429950312232.jpgThe Mayans occupied best fertile lands for growing coffee and so increasingly became disenfranchized by colonial governments. Violently evicted by the military as the demand for coffee grew, forced to work land for the oppressors. Revolts and rebellions common during that time government brutality and the oppression was response.15710454680217849189674356110640.jpg20191015_133547.jpgThe coffee industry in Latin America explaining why the world is dominated by their coffee production. Slave labour no longer but paved the way for today’s industry. Many regions of Brazil and Colombia are now traditional coffee-growing areas with farming as main resource. Legacies of colonialism affect coffee supply chain in Latin America racial divide between farm owners and labourers.15710464500078699002128982820492.jpgMillions of blacks in Latin America Asia, and Africa live in poverty producing the affordable coffee for Western markets. African coffee is the best in the world as Tropical Africa origin of coffee. But that continent not treated on same level of Latin America. Colonialism by former European colonies in Africa left without infrastructure or stable political system. Structural racism economic oppression exists in supply chain. Inequality in the coffee production, baristas, economics. Education, politics of coffee-producing regions of the community in producing countries must contribute to improving sustainability, working conditions, and quality of life for people globally.tree-goat-morocco.jpg15712272641128742041996406789531.jpgObviousTimelyAlligatorsnappingturtle-size_restricted.gifThe Argan coffee like Ethiopian Coffee, Nepal coffee grown on Himalayan climate is ideal for coffee growing. The aroma of brewed coffee fragrance, coffee’s global recognition beans, grown in Nuwakot, a scored 90 points on a scale of 50 to 100 in Coffee Review, California-based trade magazine. In first-ever blind assessment Nepali coffee in Lekali is “savoury sweet in structure with gentle acidity; crisp, satiny mouthfeel.” Concluded the coffee is worth seeking its confident savoury-sweet cup. In 2016, coffee produced by Greenland Organic Farm scored an 89 Specialty Coffee Association of America, California trade group Nepali coffee producers elevate quality of country’s beans to international standards.Workers sort cherries for processing at Lekali Coffee Estate’s farm in Nuwakot in central Nepal. Nepali coffee’s in 2014, Banjara became Nepal’s first Q-grader trained in Xining in China. The West are calling coffee aficionados value beans’ from exotic origin to local cafe. Coffee companies create market for vacuum packed cans of coffee grounds and jars of instant coffee kitchens in the world,  Nepal’s high-end market export coffee. Some claim goat eaten berry coffee also exist like Luwak kopi coffees. Coffee farm in Mauja district of Kaski, view to the Annapurna mountain range Nepal’s first national coffee cupping as Q-graders identify characteristics and flavour, quality of coffee beans. Eight of the world’s 10 highest peaks like Mount Everest Nepal ideal climate high-quality beans. Nepal’s Arabica variety Bourbon and Typica coffee grow on rolling, misty mountain slopes at altitudes from 800 meters to 1,600 meters. First introduced to the country by a monk in the middle of 20th century the crop supports 32,000 farmers in 40 of country’s 77 districts. It exports coffee but Coffee Review rating recognition gives them a much-needed boost in the international market.15712209071994545813192981911343.jpgThe world’s most expensive is Coffee alamid highly sought-after brew among coffee aficionados is “caviar” of coffee. Odour-free coffee alamid aroma, syrup texture, chocolate hint, coffee alamid’s clean aftertaste and flavour is processed by acid from stomach of animals eating coffee cherry berries. The coffee seeds remain intact undigested excreted as a faecal material collected, washed and is grounded as premier luxury coffee sells U$500 -U$1000 per pound. Kopi luwak one of most expensive coffees in world. Vietnamese weasel coffee collecting coffee beans eaten by wild civets in India. Luwak coffee kopi luwak of Java Indonesia is second best.  But traders of this type of coffee exploit animals by caging, feeding them solely on coffee beans instead on an enriched variety of diets in wild more suitable to thrive. The tourists travel to see caged animals in action oblivious to animal rights issues involved in most expensive coffee processs. A cup of coffee cost $80 per cup in the tourist epic centres.

Mark Pendergrast: Uncommon Grounds, History of Coffee & How It Transformed Our World.

Sprudge.com, The Question of Racism

CHOCOLATE COCOA HISTORY

1570957965885497972497589516589.jpgChocolate cocoa history dates to 450 BC. when the Aztecs in Latin America were seen fermenting cocoa seeds made into powder and drunk bitter. The seeds had so much value it was used as currency. Westerners observed them and tasted it but added sugar to sweeten cocoa drink. 20191013_101929.jpg20191012_223843.jpg20191012_223613.jpgTetteh Quashie from Ghana brought the cocoa seeds to Gold Coast and thrived so became a global commodity exported. A tropical temperature suited cocoa best it flourishes in Ghana, Ivory Coast and in Nigeria exported into Western countries Belgium, Britain Cadbury World, Nestle of Switzerland among top 15 countries. 15709666448414663460037240615432.jpgIn 1591 the first transatlantic chocolate cocoa reached Spain turns into popular product as demand grew. The cocoa tree planted from seeds grown is harvested by difficult process by slaves used in its production. History of cocoa process of industrialization of chocolate used slave labour on plantations to supply world with cocoa beans to make chocolate. international_chocolate_organizations_bg.pngThe islands of São Tomé and Príncipe a then colony of Portugal and West Africa archipelago were first to cultivate cocoa among the world’s largest producers in the 20thcentury. The increasing demand from Europe cleared more acres of this plantations. Slaves from Angola of more settlers and more machinery increased supply chain of cocoa and chocolates.15709669144015420792004222029435.jpgscreen-shot-2015-03-12-at-7-45-58-pm.pngThe British Journalist Henry Nevinson documented plight of plantation slaves in articles, magazines and book Modern Slavery published in 1906 in a Harpers Monthly Magazine.“A long line of men and women at intervals of about a yard, were clearing plantation. ..To the back of every woman clung an infant’s head lay between her shoulders, bumped against her back as she struck hoe in the ground.15709668577338478487483041897377.jpgscreen-shot-2015-03-12-at-7-11-13-pm.pngFive or six yards behind them officers stood, white men, or three parts white, dressed in traditional planter style of big hat, white shirt, and loose trousers. Each carried an eight foot stick of hard wood, whitewood, pointed at ends” Nevinson’s work included numerous photographs, descriptions of the working conditions that fueled controversy in Great Britain.1570959284218922480331549334500.jpg1570913992381271102547401987556.jpg15709140345921898763941735144302.jpg15709577132403422594441858102305.jpg15709576587538243842794166318413.jpg157095762463894220843834516828.jpgwp-1570973939028.jpgwp-1570975857142.jpg15709616753066208273275664093074.jpg1570957416522359261156549676512.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0001.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0004.jpg20191012_223727.jpg20191012_224622.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0006.jpgDespite attention to business practices of Cadbury company of Great Britain as biggest owner then of these plantations manufactured chocolates. It publicised situation, shows complicated network dodges blame. Public pressure results in government intervention investigations court case. Cadbury stopped purchasing from São Tomé and Príncipe tranferred the cocoa plantations into West Africa.15709589640531476278166812542906.jpgwp-1570974378415.jpgwp-1570974323215.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0008.jpg15709581362018921958481800225620.jpg15709601948667178737729845178804.jpg15709574448313460189514792968319.jpg15709580230053693676271048576345.jpg15709580965951627154621136725728.jpg15709580676498724700736445595630.jpg1570958672381763599102141026146.jpg20191012_223649.jpgDespite official abolition of slavery the slaves were transported another 400 years and ongoing in parts of the world. In 2001, slave ship MV Etireno carrying several hundred children from Benin were reported missing refused entry to Gabon and Cameroon rescued children. 15709609201355720542936295948445.jpgUNICEF becomes involved investigating reveals slave trafficking operation links West Africa in Ivory Coast. Ivory Coast is the world’s largest supplier of cocoa beans provide 43 % of world’s supply. IMG-20191013-WA0003.jpg15709610769421398615502886880121.jpg15709612150727871124352297305669.jpg15709610018138559175942143094065.jpg15709613775144636840332272573726.jpg15709616191443179012462901860512.jpgThe 600,000 cocoa farms in Ivory Coast account for one-third of nation’s entire economy half the world’s supply for chocolate trade. Most people who are trafficked tricked and lied to with fantastic job prospects with good pecks assured. Find themselves enslaved and victims abused by such traffickers.15709127031975255928808816704229.jpg15709122732244232830728597531413.jpgIMG-20191012-WA0007.jpg
15709125937671682014492957299521.jpg15709124083746362380166338486847.jpg1570912315162438997010313738705.jpg15709152571901898279892588286755.jpg15709152270256971228287323585406.jpg15709151587383094067555383762175.jpg15709151843573151428979682105142.jpg15709143369542848624500990035780.jpgwp-1570979760414.jpg15709137549442769275504908743346.jpg15709150777064823325467641070824.jpg15709124520911926464681554713213.jpg1570912497702511151652750979082.jpg15709149649204204772370625945755.jpg15709149883824262627048778293816.jpgHuman trafficking and child slavery in cocoa and chocolate industry continues today. The Freedom Project investigated series by CNN broadcasted on chocolate industry and government of Ivory Coast address modern slavery in plantations.15709138939523342688749804279542.jpg1570991586829225328139591335123.jpg15709915420956794392330243494243.jpgcacao_photo_8-498x327.jpg15709917056801320040547398428411.jpg15709916241188296576054514775087.jpg15709940654191196607743158215198.jpg1570914640871285281432986836431.jpg15709963627551472745859322635130.jpg15709938622796684368964997672713.jpg15709940303113896639172690823035.jpg15709937734724174395920450358998.jpgwp-1570994671869.jpgwp-1571007286187.jpg15710070494287827044677125274229.jpg15709974957951724047021802272273.jpg15709941748594251023928542528722.jpg15709949682263479862376989604565.jpgwp-1570996871409.jpg15710077035061774160667874051637.jpgwp-1570996769232.jpgwp-1570997036473.jpgwp-1570997695826.jpgChildren at seven years old are working harvesting cocoa pods and beans for the sweet chocolate delicacies of Western people. Education is not compulsory in some countries and due to school fees so many cannot afford to pay. Therefore children work family business to gain skills even if illiterate become farmers.  15709145074994809227748061131838.jpg15709142467478737125626412808158.jpg15709139495294799173970323903708.jpg15709144649192665944281729331706.jpg15709146612125841173579566817033.jpg1570914213505158368728100696923.jpg15709147119983881069686190393130.jpg15709143857771503011103315736757.jpg15709147788696943767045855007937.jpgCNN report felt public must know about it to take action and to stop it, said Iowa Sen. Tom Harkin with Rep. Eliot Engel of New York in response: “How many people know the wonderful chocolates they eat are produced by child labour.15709123579155304010273066167215.jpg15709136806434425289464165586051.jpgIMG-20191012-WA0008.jpgIMG-20191012-WA0010.jpg15709129827953101181712330669658.jpg15709135207818673941076417422835.jpg15709131505218483977154594437069.jpg15709133791519192219027226466769.jpg15709132986567961157504701423115.jpgAgreed a voluntary protocol signed by heads of chocolate industry to stop child labour to certify the cocoa trade as child labour free. The working conditions in cocoa growing bring awareness of a fair trade by consumers. A researcher noted lack of evidence of ethical consumption among end-user improved situations of the child workers on West African cocoa farms. All to consider and ask questions of origins of food and conditions food is produced in. This concerns of safety of well being of those who produce food in Western countries ensures West African cocoa growers and harvesters and other workers globally afforded same rights.

BLACK EYE PEAS & COWPEAS

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GROUNDNUT & PEANUT/OILS

15707845127156653663316207345954.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0012.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0029.jpg15707893333604641602646104343632.jpg15707896148261001852730444443006.jpg15707893682718735345993973328976.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0010.jpg15707833934723802533458068315326.jpg15707832578189072966147542290648.jpg15707834239151848095670456445962.jpgwp-1570802098371.jpgwp-1570802035747.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0008.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0009.jpg15707834472307571853684531947568.jpg1570786851350875126761037075326.jpg15707954609231414742855137602773.jpgwp-1570803375931.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0025.jpg15707901880905044044258918245073.jpg15707896521495228368066690777655.jpg15707898431401260540910340766071.jpg15707824257912488918800919497494.jpg20191011_093013.jpg15707832203775243425012921934175.jpgwp-1570797906437.jpg15707916951867421611568665103796.jpg15707891823613489701966672795046.jpg15708085319268121818133374276907.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0022.jpg20191011_122801.jpg20191011_123114.jpg20191012_104224.jpg1570786970887877213663425578385.jpg15707945096213046886711061607208.jpgwp-1570799108967.jpg15707897063131288720652032018631.jpg15707903779064676578966512394624.jpg15707894111295276134005257790577.jpgwp-1570799638636.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0018.jpg15707956443157809948054158681191.jpgwp-1570800121779.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0028.jpg15707938539414257574867589042332.jpg15707938071606235172391918911728.jpg15707939369261663485003269948842.jpg1570794013493934164119149072580.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0021.jpg1570792032491391043010104295969.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0023.jpg15708169551153682810323296415724.jpg15708166402168148294109269088985.jpg15708167281037730136986375426020.jpg15708166865724722342520839818077.jpg15708165532348064204112588561454.jpgPeanut oil processed mixed with nitrous oxide in a truck massive diesel engine. V6 engine run on regular diesel fuel to reach 220-degree before switching over to peanut oil. Nitrous oxide plus plenty of air turns turbo charger supercharger forced air in cylinders. The engine gets a spray of alcohol for cooling purposes.15708165028113999895232126876639.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0030.jpg15708167512272893762172321424145.jpg15707941137685681028702372552463.jpgGroundnut, Peanut oil and vegetable oil wastes converted into biodiesel. Gallons of oil or grease from dining services are converted to 100% biodiesel used, sold to motor vehicles. Chemical additive is mixed into the biodiesel enhances their performance in cold winters. Biodiesel under various conditions was compared to traditional petroleum diesel analysed and modified to improve the production process. The by-product of the biodiesel production glycerin is valuable material used in soap-making.

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