HAPPY MOTHER HAPPY BABY

The Duchess of Cambridge at Stockwell Gardens Nursery and Pre-SchoolThe duchess appeared on the podcast after visiting children at a nursery in south London

The Duchess of Cambridge has said her parenting inspiration is her “amazing granny” who involved her as a child in arts and crafts, gardening and cooking. In her first podcast interview, she said she wants to replicate experiences with Prince George, Princess Charlotte and Prince Louis. The episode of Five Big Questions On The Under Fives is survey launched by Catherine starts debate on early childhood has 200,000 responses so far. Speaking on Happy Mum, Happy Baby podcast, Catherine told author and host Giovanna Fletcher the survey aims to ask people “what is it that matters for them in raising their children today.” I had amazing granny who devoted a lot of time to us, playing with us, doing arts and crafts and going to the greenhouse to do gardening, and cooking with us,” she said. I incorporate lot of experiences she gave us at the time into experiences I give my children now.” The duchess said her priorities include providing her children with a “happy home” and “safe environment” she enjoyed as a child. So she is “passionate” about the children spending a lot of time outside is “great for physical and mental wellbeing to lay foundations for a healthy development. The Duchess of Cambridge and Giovanna FletcherIt is the first timeIt’s a great environment to spend time in, building quality relationship without distraction of ‘I’ve got to cook’ or ‘I’ve got to do this’. And actually, it’s so simple,” she said. A generational change starts from seeds sown in early years throughout family. Even if not ‘highly educated,’ one can invest time and resources in simple way to help children to be happy. Its possible to help children to progress beyond the parents by preparing them in the early years. Choices and priorities of focus to include learning materials from nature found free outdoors on walks to create opportunities for children. So it is the responsibility of the parents to help the children early not to depend entirely on schools for all learning experiences in life. A month-long online poll conducted by Ipsos Mori on behalf of Catherine’s Royal Foundation is to “spark a national conversation” on early childhood as the Kensington Palace has said. Launched in January, it is thought to be the biggest survey of its kind and the results are intended to guide duchess’ future workIMG-20200307-WA0002Its the first time duchess is interviewed on a podcast. “It takes family a long time for generational change but hopefully is a first small step: to start a conversation around importance of early childhood development,” Catherine said. “It’s not just about happy, healthy children. This has lifelong consequences of outcomes.” Ms Fletcher, married to Tom Fletcher from McFly has said Kate is “passionate” about the subject. Its ‘beyond wonderful to sit and talk further about the survey, and her work for she has so much real knowledge, and her own experiences of being a mother.” “It doesn’t matter who you are, what you have, or where you come from we’re all try to do our best with our children while continuously learning from decisions and wondering if we get it right. Talking helps unite us all,” she said on the ‘five big questions.’The Duchess of Cambridge at Stockwell Gardens Nursery and Pre-School1. What do you believe is most important for children growing up in UK today to live a happy adult life? Rank from most important to least important:

  • Good physical and mental health
  • Good friendships & relationships
  • Access to opportunities
  • Access to a good education

2. Which of these statements is closest to your opinion?

  • It is primarily the responsibility of parents to give children aged 0-5 best chance of health & happiness
  • Primarily responsibility of others in society to give children aged 0-5 best chance of health & happiness
  • Shared responsibility of parents or others in society to give children aged 0-5 best chance of health and happiness
  • Don’t know

3. How much do you agree or disagree with this statement? Mental health or wellbeing of parents, carers has a great impact on development of child(ren).

  • Strongly agree
  • Tend to agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Tend to disagree
  • Strongly disagree

4. Which of the following is closest to your opinion of what influences how children develop from the start of pregnancy to age five?

  • Traits child is born with (nature)
  • Experiences of a child in the early years (i.e. nurture)
  • Both nature and nurture equally
  • Don’t know

5. Which period of a child and young person’s life do you think is the most important for health and happiness in adulthood?

  • Start of pregnancy to five years
  • 5-11 years (primary school)
  • 11-16 years (secondary school)
  • 16-18 years (further education)
  • 18-24 years (young adulthood)
  • Don’t know
  • All equally important

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More on this story

  • Kate launches childhood survey to help under-fives
    22 January 2020
  • Duchess of Cambridge tours farm on Northern Ireland visit
    12 February 2020
  • Duchess of Cambridge’s teachers delighted at royal reunion
    6 February 2020 

Duchess of Cambridge says ‘amazing granny’ inspires her parenting

UK

PEOPLE TACKLING POVERTY

Malachi's ProjectMalachi’s tooth fairy cash helps create a £5m homeless centre now opened in east London. He gave £5 donation when 5 years old to the Salvation Army with a note and prayer to “use it to buy a house for homeless” people. Now at ten-years-old Malachi’s donated tooth fairy money to Salvation Army was topped up by the Redbridge Council and Salvation Army to create Malachi’s Place on the freeland donated. The building’s 42 flats helps  homeless people get a home in Ilford in new housing for tenants. This shows no gifts are too small to help tackle poverty or homelessness in the world.

20200321_134948Wolverhampton Wanderers donated thousands of pieces of some protective equipment to health teams in response to the coronavirus epidemic. The club and owners Fosun donated 2,300 items. Medical coveralls and 1,000 N95 masks were among items distributed to Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust and public health teams. Executive chairman Jeff Shi said the club would do “all it can” to support doctors or community workers. Landlords of pub forced to close set up a service delivering fruit and vegetables to NHS and healthcare workers. Bradley Richards and Trina Lake set up a stall by their pub in Costessey, near Norwich, on Wednesday after deciding to sell the groceries. Ms Lake said they then struck on the idea of delivering food to health workers after spotting a nurse’s plea. A  fair trade coffee roaster pays fair prices to poor lower income farmers featured in Equator set up from the home garage. Grew to unique excellent tasting coffee talked about where their coffee comes from offers kind of level of service big guys don’t. Customers responded to that so simply trying to be the local versions of big company this unique selling point helps or would be unable to compete.Bags of Equator coffeeFans of coffee include top US chefs and  Equator is unusual in coffee shop sector all staff have access to health insurance. “It’s expensive but health insurance is a right of all Americans,” says Helen. “Any CEO who has a private plane and people working for them uninsured is running their business wrong turned their focus to opening retail cafe to close a revenue gap created by losing La Boulange,” says Helen. In first year of business we didn’t show sales growth but added a million dollars new business that year.A young Brooke McDonnell roasting beans in the couple's garageThe first roasted coffee beans in garage but increased so Equator grown to 155 employees across eight retail stores in the San Francisco Bay Area, with three new branches opening. This shows if a door closes another opens by hardwork if willing to start all over using the skills acquired. Some retrain to improve new abilities yo adapt to current changes.Paths to SuccessThis story from a new mini-series called Paths to Success of Coffee expert Willem Boot, founder of Boot Coffee, a company trains people to work in the industry. He says Equator stands against competitors because of the quality of staff. ” People working for them are coffee dedicated, socially minded, kind human beings. It is these qualities that define the essence of the Equator coffee experience.”Dan PriceDan Price boss’ card payment company in Seattle introduced $70,000 minimum salary for all of his 120 staff – and took a pay cut of $1m. Five years later he’s still on the minimum salary, and says the gamble has paid off. Dan Price was hiking with his friend Valerie in the Cascade mountains looms majestically over Seattle as he had an uncomfortable revelation. As they walked, she told him that her life was in chaos her landlord had put her monthly rent up by $200 and she was struggling to pay her bills. It made Price angry. Valerie, who he had once dated, had served for 11 years in the military, doing two tours in Iraq, and was now working 50 hours a week in two jobs to make ends meet. “She is somebody for whom service, honour and hard work just defines who she is as a person,” he says. Though she was earning around $40,000 a year in Seattle t wasn’t enough to afford a decent home. He was angry that the world had become such an unequal place. And suddenly it struck him that he was part of the problem. At 31, Price was millionaire. His company, Gravity Payments, set up as a teen had about 2,000 customers and an estimated worth of millions of dollars. Though he earned $1.1m a year Valerie brought home to him lots of his staff must be struggling – and he decided to change that. Raised in deeply Christian, rural Idaho, Dan Price is upbeat and positive, generous in his praise of others and impeccably polite has become crusader against inequality in the US. “People are starving or being laid off or being taken advantage of, so that somebody can have a penthouse at the top of a tower in New York with gold chairs. “We’re glorifying greed all the time as a society, in our culture. And, you know, the Forbes list is the worst example – ‘Bill Gates has passed Jeff Bezos as the richest man.’ Who cares!?”Dan PriceBefore 1995 poorest half of population of the United States earned a greater share of national wealth than richest 1%, he points out. That year the tables turned so top 1% earned more than the bottom 50%. And the gap is continuing to widen. In 1965, CEOs in US earned 20 times more than average worker but by 2015 it had risen to 300 times (in the UK, the bosses of FTSE 100 companies now earn 117 times salary of their average worker). Breathing in crisp mountain air as he hiked with Valerie, Price had an idea. He read a study by Nobel prize-winner economist Daniel Kahneman and Angus Deaton, looked at how much money an American needs to be happy. Promised Valerie he would significantly raise minimum salary at Gravity. After crunching the numbers, he arrived at the figure of $70,000. He realised that he would not have to slash his salary, but mortgage his two houses or give up his stocks and savings. He gathered his staff together and gave them the news. He’d expected scenes of celebration, but at first announcement floated in the room  was an anti-climax, Price says. He had to repeat himself before the enormity of what was happening landed. Five years later, Dan laughs about the fact that he missed a key point in the Princeton professors’ research. The amount they people need to be happy was $75,000. A third of workers at company’s salaries doubled Gravity transforms Headcount doubled and value of payment company processes rose $3.8bn a year to $10.2bn. Other metrics Price is more proud of is “before $70,000 minimum wage, having between zero and two babies born per year amongst team,” he says. “Since the announcement and it’s been only about four-and-a-half years we’ve had more than 40 babies.”Dan Price with his motherDan Price with his mother. More than 10% of the company have been able to buy their own home, in one of the US’s most expensive cities for renters. Before the figure was less than 1%. “There was a bit of concern amongst pontificators out there that people would squander any gains that they would have. And we’ve really seen the opposite,” Price says. The amount of money employees are voluntarily putting into their own pension funds has more than doubled and 70% of employees say they’ve paid off debt. Price did get a lot of flak. Along with hundreds of letters of support, and magazine cover labelled him “America’s best boss” many of Gravity’s customers wrote handwritten letters objected its a political statement. At the time, Seattle was debating increase to the minimum wage to $15, making it highest in the US at the time. Small business owners were fighting it, claiming they would go out of business. A right-wing radio pundit, Rush Limbaugh, Price listened to daily in childhood, called him a communist. “I hope this company is a case study in MBA programmes on how socialism does not work because it’s going to fail,” he said. Two senior Gravity employees resigned in protest. They weren’t happy salaries of junior staff jump overnight, argued it will make them lazy, company uncompetitive but it hasn’t happened.Rosita BarlowRosita Barlow, director of sales, Gravity, says since salaries were raised junior colleagues pull more weight. “When money is not at the forefront of your mind when you’re doing your job, it allows you to be more passionate about what motivates you,” she says. Senior staff found their workload reduced. They’re under less pressure and can do things like take all of the holiday leave to which they are entitled. Price tells the story about one staff member who works in Gravity’s call centre. “He was commuting over an hour and a half a day,” he says. “He was worried that during his commute he was going to blow out a tyre and not have enough money to fix that tyre. He was stressing about it every day.” When his salary was raised to $70,000 this man moved closer to the office, now he spends more money on his health, he exercises every day and eats more healthily. “We had another gentleman on a similar team and he literally lost more than 50lb (22kg),” he says. Others report spending more time with their families or helping their parents pay off debt. “We saw, everyday, effects of giving somebody freedom,” Price says. He thinks it is why Gravity is making more money than ever. Raising salaries didn’t change people’s motivation staff were already motivated to work hard it increased what he calls their capability. “You’re not thinking I go to work because I have to make money,” Rosita Barlow agrees. “Now it’s become focused on ‘How do I do good work?'” Barlow has been with Gravity since the early days and knows Price wasn’t always so generous. And he acknowledges himself a time in the wake of 2008 financial crisis when he was obsessed with saving money. The downturn in the US economy decimated Gravity’s customer base and its income fell by 20%. Business logic would have dictated letting go about 12 of the company’s 35 staff, but instead Price focused on cutting costs. After five tense months, the company started turning a profit again, but Price was profoundly spooked, and kept salaries low. At this time Rosita Barlow was experiencing her own financial problems, secretly working at McDonald’s outside work hours. When McDonald’s offered her a promotion, she left a training manual on her desk at Gravity, and someone spotted it. Her bosses called her in for a meeting. “They sat me down and my immediate reaction was to cry,” Barlow says. She thought she is fired. Instead they told her to figure out how much money she’d need to stay on at the company and they raised her salary to $40,000. “I was impressed and proud of her and mad at myself,” Price says. It took him a few more years to grasp the scale of problem among his staff. “Most were too intimidated to come to me and tell me how a lack of pay was hurting them,” he says. Before 2015, he already begun giving employees 20% annual pay rises. But it was his conversation with Valerie that convinced him to go further. Price hopes Gravity’s example leads to far-reaching global changes in US business. He’s deeply disappointed and sad this hasn’t happened. Some did like PharmaLogics in Boston raised the minimum salary to $50,000, Rented.com in Atlanta raised theirs too. He believes by means of online lobbying influenced Amazon’s decisions to raise minimum wage. He hopes a widespread structural change takes place all over the world. It blesses the company to bring increases.  And it’s changed my perspective on things because I believed through the actions that I did and that other people could do, that we could turn the tide on income inequality.” The change has had profound effect on Price’s lifestyle. And  before taking a pay cut, Price was cliché of a young white tech millionaire, lived in beautiful house overlooking Seattle’s Puget Sound and he drank champagne in expensive restaurants. Afterwards, he rented his house out on Airbnb to help stay afloat. A group of employees became sick of watching him turn up at work in a 12-year-old Audi and secretly clubbed together to buy him a new car.Dan Price with Alyssa O'Neal, accepting his TeslaA film posted on YouTube follows one of the group, Alyssa O’Neal’s schemes with her colleagues to surprise him with the car. “I feel like this is the ultimate way to say thank you for all the sacrifices he’s made and any of the negative stuff he’s had to deal with,” she says. Price walks out of the office into the car park, sees the car, starts crying. Five years later Price still on Gravity’s minimum salary, says he’s more fulfilled than he ever was when he was earning millions though it’s not all easy. “There’s tests every day,” he says. “I’m the same age as Mark Zuckerberg and in dark moments I think, ‘I want to be just as rich as Mark Zuckerberg and I want to compete with him to be on the Forbes list. I want to be on cover of Time magazine, making lots of money.’ All these greedy things are tempting.” “It’s not so easy to turn down lavish lifestyle but much happier.”Dr RonxThis doctor sees patients in chicken shops. GP appointments of doctor seeing patients in chicken shops in BBC Three shows The Unshockable Dr. Ronx, a doctor who takes appointments out of surgery in search of people who would n’t normally see a GP. “I don’t go to GP anymore, it took so long to be believed now I feel like they are listening.” And when Bethany was 13 was diagnosed with Ankylosing Spondylitis – a type of inflammatory arthritis. She says it took years for her GP to recognise its serious symptoms. “I think they assumed I was a young teenager so I couldn’t really be having severe joint difficulties.” Despite describing some of her symptoms, like chest pain, as “very scary” Bethany says she feels too embarrassed to go back to see a GP. In the UK, 16 to 30-year-olds are the most likely age group to miss a doctor’s appointment (along with over 90s). That’s according to analysis of GP Patient Survey, suggested 16 to 24-year-olds less positive about experiences at a GP’s, compared with the older patients.  Some of the young people featured in BBC Three’s new show The Unshockable Dr. Ronx say things like embarrassment, a lack of time, using internet instead are some of the reasons that have stopped them from seeking professional medical care in the past. Dr Ronx, an A&E doctor from Hackney in London, wants young people to take their health seriously so she takes GP pop up shop to them. Ratan Tata: An unlikely friendship between a magnate and a millennial.Shantanu Naidu and Ratan TataMr Naidu and Mr Tata watch movies together. Its not everyday octogenarian goes viral on Instagram. It’s so unusual if octogenarian billionaire businessman with a carefully cultivated reputation as a reclusive tycoon. Perhaps its the most unusual particular story of a friendship led to Ratan Tata’s India’s newest social media star. With the help of Shantanu Naidu, the 27-year-old who introduced him to social media platform and taught him about hashtag trends in the world discovered “man crush.” And Mr Naidu hopes the mix of old family pictures, snapshots of dogs and photographs of mogul’s younger days one from five decades of more than half million hits  gave people glimpse of the man behind the tycoon. The man who led the salt-to-software conglomerate Tata Group for 21 years classes of closest friends. The two of them do everything together by getting haircuts to watching films. Their “intergenerational friendship” is quite unusual, but, Mr Naidu says, it is pretty special. “He’s been a hard boss, a core mentor understanding friend,” he told the BBC. This doe-eyed and curly-haired millennial became a business assistant as best friends to India’s internationally recognised business leaders?Shantanu NaiduMr Naidu’s non-profit provide stray dog glow-in-dark collars. Mr Naidu is a fifth generation Tata employee and although family has a strong connection to Tata brand never thought he would end up working closely with man responsible for it. Mutual love of dogs brought the two together while younger man works  for one of Mr Tata’s companies in city of Pune, west India. And Mr Naidu ‘s social initiative Motopaws glow-in-dark collar for stray dog’s work highlighted in the company newsletter prompted Mr Tata to write letter inviting him to Mumbai. “Shantanu and I first met because of our common concern and affection for stray dogs,” Mr Tata in email said BBC. He led team of young college students to adopt dogs and give them affection, food, find homes for them for sense of belonging.” The meeting proved to be their first of Motopaw’s scaling up so became closer. Work emails slowly turned into asking questions about one another,” Mr Naidu said. Soon after friendship took off, Mr Naidu left India for university in US. “I was sad, I felt I just discovered a friend in Mr Tata.” The connection between the two strengthened. Mr Naidu was at Mr Tata’s alma mater Cornell University, and started work on the businessman’s dream project, building a veterinary hospital in Mumbai. The construction for this hospital is set to begin this year. Mr Tata attended his graduation. “I had mentioned it to him in passing and he said yes,” Mr Naidu recalls. “Cut to the actual day and there he was!”Ratan Tata and Shantanu NaiduMr Naidu graduated from Mr Tata’s alma mater, Cornell University. On his return to India, Mr Naidu took up a job as Mr Tata’s business assistant. Things changed in a single minute. I had never imagined my life to pan out this way. Mr Tata told BBC “I enjoy seeing Shantanu’s freshness, concern never seen in a ‘dog eat dog’ world we live in.'” What does a typical day look like? Business assistant to Mr Tata meets, takes copious notes, keeps records for future discussions. Mr Tata briefs him on happenings of day or plan and start attacking them. He’s very focused, non-stop no break,” Mr Naidu explained. The Tata Group patriarch has invested in more than 73 Indian start up ride-hailing service, Ola. Mr Tata uses Instagram profile Mr Naidu set up to connect with the youth and has shared “recipe” for successful start-up pitches. The 82-year-old shares pictures of him in his 20s a popular hashtag Throwback Thursday to set the internet alight.

It isn’t just business so two remain fast friends. He added they both like action comedy films such as The Other Guys and Lone Ranger series of experiences in the Israel Defence Force called Fauda is Mr Tata’s favourite Netflix binge, Mr Naidu said. Last year a radio interview with BBC met Mr Tata and Mr Naidu. It was easy to sense warm bond between the two a great degree of camaraderie and mutual respect. Mr Tata spoke of retirement plans and love for dogs. Mr Naidu continues to work on ths project that brought Mr Tata and him together. Motopaws expanded over the years and now operating in four countries it isn’t just non-profit evolving. “If something bothers me or makes me happy he is the first person I call. The foundation is the constantly blossoming tree. Mr Tata has always been there for me I do the same for him,” Mr Naidu said with a smile.

Micah Lammie sitting in carPhoto exhibition showcases the people tackling the impact of poverty in 21st Century Britain. The focus of the new exhibition showcases those trying to help their struggling neighbours. And four people making a difference in their communities explain how they became involved. ‘I want to be a spark in the plug’ as Micah Lammie learned from everyone in his community. And Battersea and Brixton helped to shape Micah Lammie into the man he is today, so now he is repaying the debt. “Life was difficult as a kid from a one-parent family,” the 30-year-old said. ” defiant in trouble at school. It takes whole village to raise a child I learn from my parents, I learned from everyone in community. “These things I want to continue raising our next generation.” He worked in call centres at a funeral Brixton Soup met Kitchen founder Solomon Smith who gave him his true calling.Micah Lammie close upAs “I’ve known Solomon from back in the day,” Micah said. “I got involved and I’ve never looked back.”He is the centre manager of service offers food and legal advice to rough sleepers or community. “It’s a safe haven for misunderstood people. Everything starts somewhere, there’s been ups and downs but we’re helping people. I want to be a spark in the plug, I won’t change the world but I’ll invest in a person who will.”Micah Lammie at workMicah is now its centre manager ‘I knew hunger.’ After experiencing a financial struggles Mary Brennan’s neighbours in Cross Green, Leeds, faced difficulties. “I knew hunger and poverty,” the 68-year-old said.Mary Brennan

Mary Brennan started a community group in LeedsPresentational white space

“It used to be just families round here, then landlords started bedding seven people in four-bedroom terraced houses. I noticed they were hungry.”Cross GreenImage copyrightJILLIAN EDELSTEIN

Image captionShe settled in Cross Green, where she witnessed the struggles of her neighbours

So she helped set up Community Unity, a neighbourhood group that runs a lunch club at St Hilda’s Church and created a garden on a disused railway bridge where the community can pick their own food.”We don’t have many facilities round here, no shop where you can buy fresh food and [there’s] terrible problems with transport,” she added.

‘If you’re poor, you can’t afford ideas’Steve Arnott

Steve Arnott says hip-hop has always been his love

Poverty can be a barrier to creativity because people can’t afford either the money or time to do it, according to Steve Arnott. The 44-year-old from Hull said hip-hop helped him through a tough childhood and he saw how it could do the same for others. “Hip-hop has always been my love,” he said. “There were local workshops which weren’t getting many kids because families couldn’t afford the fares into town. “I had idea of taking it to them.”Beats BusThe workshops were aimed at helping children in the community. In 2017, his hometown was the UK City of Culture, so he launched the Beats Bus – a mobile recording studio which he takes into the communities to attract youngsters eager to learn more about hip-hop, DJing, break-dancing and graffiti art. “If you’re poor, you can’t afford the time to create ideas,” Steve said. “The Beats Bus is trying to change that, bringing free studio time to talented kids.”Close up showing tattoo of microphone on Steve's lower armSteve has a tattoo of a microphone on his forearm.

‘There’s no shame in being poor through no fault of your own’

The issues blighting the Sholes area of Wigan are being tackled by Barbara Nettleton. She previously spearheaded a residents’ association to reduce anti-social behaviour and improve services, before taking over the running of the Sunshine House community centre. The site opened in 2005, runs art groups and youth projects with a view to helping people find work. It also operates three shops in the area offering necessities including second-hand clothes and prams, toys and baby clothes.Barbara Nettleton covers her faceBarbara Nettleton was a bit shy about being photographed. “When the mines, steelworks and mills closed years ago, it took the apprenticeships away, broke families and industrial areas like ours,” Barbara said. There is no shame in being poor when you work hard all your life and end up poor. God judges a nation by how it treats the poor in the society. Jesus said, in Matthew 25:40-46 whoever cares for the poor by feeding them, gives them water to drink or had provided shelter for the “least of these” receives JESUS. The poor are priceless in God’s sight because HE created them in HIS OWN IMAGE AND LIKENESS. Bible says value of material possessions is not true measure of quality of human life in God’s sight as mankind thinks. Its loving care and fair share of all the resources provided by God as Marslow hierarchy shows God counts towards eternal life.Greg and MarieThis homeless couple moved in with a millionaire in America. The homeless couple moved in with the millionaire after living on California’s streets for 20 years Greg and Marie invited to stay in the home of the millionaire. The local businessman asked if they wanted to share his $4m home. A year later other rich neighbours complain so call police tells us about homelessness crisis in the Western countries. Luke 16 says a rich man enjoyed all great wealth on earth but ended in hell for abuse of the poor Lazarus who went into heaven and is comforted by Abraham. So God judges mankind by how HIS RESOURCES are shared on this earth. Gospel of Matthew 25, 34-46 34 says, KING of Kings “Jesus will say to those on His right, ‘Come in, you who are blessed by my Father God because you the fed poor and you clothe them by your kindness, you did it to me so enter heaven. You didn’t do it to show off to get praise of people but you did it genuinely from kibdness of your heart to help others. George Medal for saving Princess Anne sells for £50k.George MedalThe medal sold at auction for £50,000 is a medal awarded to a boxer who helped save Princess Royal from an attempted armed kidnap has sold at auction for £50,000. Former heavyweight Ronnie Russell, 72, punched Ian Ball in the head tried to abduct princess at gunpoint in London in 1974. Mr Russell said he sold the George Medal as he had been “very unwell for quite some time.” “I want to know that I’ve done enough to pay for my own funeral,” he said. After auction, Mr Russell, who lives in Bristol, said: “For something I thought I would never sell, I never believed it will sell for this amount, I am absolutely blown away.”Ronnie Russell with his medalRonnie Russell was awarded the George Medal for bravery by the Queen. He said he had one request for UK buyer, who asked to remain anonymous which was for them to meet in person to tell the story of what happened.Princess AnnePrincess Anne’s car had been blocked and Ian Ball had fired shots, wounding four people Mr Russell, heading home to his wife and children in Strood, Kent, when he thwarted late-night ambush on 20 March 1974. Ball blocked princess’s car on Mall in central London and fired shots, wounding four people. Mr Russell said Ball was trying to drag Princess Anne from her car while her husband, Captain Mark Phillips, was pulling her back. “She was very, together, telling him: ‘Just go away and don’t be such a silly man’,” he said. “He stood there glaring at me with the gun and I hit him. I hit him as hard as I could and he was flat on the floor face down. “I said to Princess Anne: ‘We’re going to walk away and he’s going to have to go through me to get you’.”Princess Anne's car on The Mall 1974Ian Ball attempted to kidnap Princess Anne who telegrams RONNIE RUSSELLTelegram from Princess AnnePrincess Anne sent Mr Russell telegram when he received medal Ball was later sent to a psychiatric hospital by an Old Bailey judge. Mr Russell was awarded George Medal for bravery by the Queen, who told him: “The medal from Queen, I want to thank you as Anne’s mother.” It was sold with a letter from 10 Downing Street informing Mr Russell of award and telegram from Princess Anne. 

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Produced by Hannah Long-Higgins, Chelsea Bailey and Cody Godwin; edited by Hannah Long-Higgins.

The film is part of the BBC’s Crossing Divides season and a collaboration with the San Francisco Chronicle. Read Otis Taylor Jr’s column on Greg and Marie.

Picture Britain: Our People, Our Poverty was commissioned by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and created by photographer Jillian Edelstein and investigative journalist Stephen Armstrong. It will be at Borough Market, London, from 20 February to 8 March.

More on this story

  • Disabled people ‘pulled into poverty’ as benefits fall short
    6 February 2020
  • Joseph Rowntree Foundation urges ‘new deal’ on poverty
    6 September 2016
  • Poverty costs UK £78bn a year, Joseph Rowntree Foundation says
    1 August 2016 

Photo exhibition showcases people tackling poverty

Related Internet links

  • The Joseph Rowntree Foundation
  • Picture Britain: Our People, Our Poverty

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England

HAPPY CHRISTMAS LESSONS

wp-1577100682177.jpgChristmas can be truly happy if lessons learnt are applied to make it easy on all members of the family for the sake of Christ Jesus. Even enemies in combat at Christmas put down guns to celebrate Christmas together and exchange gifts. German soldiers joined British troops in frontline battle a 100 years ago to eat together at Christmas. Eve inter-sibling skirmish to reverting to your teenage self and scrapping over the TV remote on Christmas Day, the annual festivities can put family relationships on edge. So, when weather outside is frightful, how do you keep home life delightful to stop Christmas celebration turning sour?

1. Ease Christmas crushGrandfather and kids open presents

Going home for Christmas is great – but when you get there, will you be sleeping in your old teenage bedroom – maybe along with your partner and kids? “Even if we’re busy at work or at home, we have time alone don’t we?” says Relate counsellor Dee Holmes. But at Christmas people are often “forced too much into each other’s space. If you’ve got houseful of relatives, there’s always something to be done or someone who wants to talk to you.

Two young women looking cross

Christmas Eve inter-sibling skirmish to reverting “Children are used to having time when their parents ignore them, in front of the telly… and: ‘Aunty Freda’s here, let’s play a game…'” So appreciate that your nearest and dearest may need some space and having a happy family Christmas doesn’t mean you all want to be together 24/7. Instead of expecting everyone to join in every moment of Christmas Day, maybe agree some key times, like opening presents and Christmas lunch, but otherwise be flexible, she suggests.

2. Don’t be kitchen freakYoung women eating near sink

Let’s face it, Christmas catering is really hard work. And even if you prepare as much as you can in advance, timing a roast to perfection is a fine art – and if it goes wrong, can result in overcooked veg, cold turkey – and a large helping of stress. So if you’re the designated cook, don’t be afraid to ask for help, says Dee.

“Make sure there’s a bit of a rota about people all helping and everyone mucking in.” It’s important everyone has some downtime – including the cook, she says. And if cooking at home is just too much of a stress point, Kim Moore, a mental-health expert at Birmingham City University, advocates considering going out to eat.

3. Whose Christmas Is It?Baby in front of Christmas lights

“There’s the child-centred Christmas and there’s the adult-centred Christmas -and sometimes, in family environment, they clash,” says Dee. The danger points abound where different generations are forced into close proximity, she warns – from sleepy teens woken before it gets light by their over-excited younger cousins or people without children annoyed if they have to open all the presents before breakfast, to the adults who are drunk before it gets dark and argue heatedly about politics.

“Another big thing is how people revert to their traditional roles in the family when they all get back together,” Dee says. “So you know you live the rest of the year being a successful professional person or you’re doing your own thing and as soon as you get home, you’re the youngest one or the naughty one.” This sort of stereotyping is a big cause of Christmas rows, says Dee, who urges family members to cultivate tolerance, empathy and “a bit of sensitivity to other people’s expectations”.

4. A Christmas truce

Agreeing ground rules on subjects to avoid over Christmas can be a really good idea, says senior mental-health nursing lecturer Kim. In addition it’s wise to try to resolve in advance any outstanding issues between family members which could lead to rows on the day, she advises. “Try just to be respectful of the other people,” adds Dee. “And if you want to have argument with someone, is today really the day? “If someone said something that annoys you, maybe you say, ‘I’m just going to ignore that for now.'”

5. Remote & technologyClose-up remote control

Remember the days when there was one TV in the corner of the sitting room and rows over channel choice? The good news is that those days are long gone and everyone with a phone can potentially choose when and how to watch whatever they like. So traditional arguments over who controls remote less problematical, says Dee. She warns adults who want to recapture possibly  past family Christmases, everyone sat down to watch Doctor Who together, are unlikely to succeed. And then there’s the problem of prising teens away from their phones. “If you spend all year with your teenagers in their bedrooms… don’t have unrealistic expectations of family life being suddenly different because you wake up and it’s Christmas morning,” warns Dee. “Don’t expect a miracle.”

6. Christmas karaoke?Family playing a game

Music is one of great way of bringing families together and making everyone feel better, says Kim. Karaoke or just pass the parcel to Christmas songs can be “a great way to engage all family members from young to old” create some fantastic memories, she says. Alternatively, you might prefer charades or board games – but beware the Christmas scrabble row. Some families choose to go for walks on Christmas or Boxing Day but Dee says a relaxed family Christmas often depends on not expecting everyone to join in with everything. “Just because you have a ritual and you’ve always gone on a walk after the Queen’s speech doesn’t mean you always have to keep doing it.”

7. The spending trap

The urge to overspend at Christmas can be enormous, with families targeted by massive marketing campaigns months ahead. January is a tough month, too often made worse by credit card bills and overdrafts, so managing spending and expectation in the run-up to Christmas is key, says Dee. “I think it’s important to talk about what the limitations are, what the budgets are.” More and more families are choosing to discuss Christmas gift budgets with their children, she says, even when they’re quite young. “It’s not about saying we can’t afford it… or making them scared that you’ve no money, or anything like that, but being realistic.” And try to make gifts “fair”, she says. “Children will soon pick up if they feel there’s an unfairness.”

8. Stay safe

Christmas is meant to be a fun time so it is particularly tough when it goes wrong, throwing family problems into stark focus. People contact Relate for relationship counselling most in the weeks after Christmas than at any other time of year, says Dee. If disagreements spill into violence, Kim says not to be afraid to ask for help, even if this means calling the police. And if you fear for your safety, organisations such as Women’s Aid andMen’s Advice Line also offer advice.

9. Dry January: start earlyChristmas drink

If you’re worried about fuelling family rows over the festive season, why wait until January to go teetotal?

“The use and overuse of alcohol can be a major trigger of family discontent over Christmas,” Kim warns. Dee adds that the best-laid plans and intentions can all too easily be forgotten when you’ve had a few – tolerance and sensitivity can go out of the window and it’s all too easy to say the wrong thing, with minor disagreements becoming full-blown family bust-ups.

“I have certainly heard some horror stories,” she says. Dee says it’s really important to make sure drinkers have plenty to eat – and rather than banning booze altogether, she suggests spritzing wine and making bucks fizz with your champagne or prosecco, with plenty of suggestions available online for non-alcoholic festive drinks to lightly enhance feelings of goodwill to all – even your siblings.

Nine lessons for a happy family Christmas

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JESUS KING OF Kings/Princes

20190901_215455.jpgJesus is KING OF Kings and Princes Who return to rule in Israel. Revelation 20:4+ says resurrected saints rule and reign with Christ. Jesus and saints return with a heavenly army in Jude 1:14 as Enoch the seventh from Adam prophesied. The Lord comes with ten thousands of His saints and many passages in the old and new testament confirm saints will rule. Isaiah 32:1 says the righteous reign with Messiah and princes rule with justice. Daniel and John says saints rule after the beast destroyed in Revelation 19:20 in Second Coming of Christ, reign of saints not yet come. Four kings arise out of earth but saints of Most High God will receive to possess kingdoms forever in Daniel 7:17-18. The Ancient of Days will come to judge but favour saints of Most High in Daniel 7:21-22. God’s Kingdom,  dominion, greatness of kingdoms under the whole heaven given saints. Kingdom is everlasting, dominions will serve and obey Jesus in Daniel 7:27. Jesus given an authority over cities Luke 19:17-19. Not as James and John want position on left and right of Jesus share rule in Mathew 20:20, Mark 10:37. Revelation 3:21 says Jesus tells overcomers to sit with Him on His throne as He sits on His father’s throne: God’s gives high authority to the believers with Jesus on David’s throne in Matthew 25:31 as kings on this earth. This kings and priests of God’s kingdom iRevelation 5:10 reign in the FUTURE as kings and priests to God. Joint heirs with Jesus as believers in God’s Word by royal priesthood. New new creations as His special people, Body of Christ, heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ Jesus. KINGS AND PRIEST.jpgAs Jesus Rules and Reigns all in Christ will rule and reign as kings, queens and royal priests on earth. Jesus is ONLY KING’S KINGDOM citizens made Kings and Queens. People in other kingdoms are NOT ALL Kings as UNIQUE Kingdom of God. People must know because some are going around saying they kings and queens. In Deuteronomy 17:14–15, God said, “ In land the LORD your God gives you say, ‘set king over us like all nations be sure to appoint a king LORD chooses. God promised Jacob, Nations will come from you and kings among descendants in Genesis 35:11, Genesis 36:31; 49:10; Numbers 24:7–9; Deuteronomy 28:36. In Bible, Jezebel the woman she – devil in 1 Kings 16:31; 18:4-19; 19:1, 2; 21:5-25; 2 Kings 9 manipulates King Ahab to control nation. Its a misnomer to encourage the people to think all are kings and queens all at the same time. One reigning king and queen and subordinate kings and queen living in harmony. Hierarchy structure of kingship is birthright seniority from God but exceptions happen on special occasions. Hierarchy structure includes set formal positions with authority of each king. A paramount King is bowed to by lesser king during durbars. During procession event lesser king got out of his palaquin to walk on foot by a Senior King’s palace as a sign of respect and honour. Repeats again on return after procession to sit in palaquin after passing the King’s palace. Each king holds their strategic positions in battle knows which location to be in to cover the Senior King permanently associated with each kingdom. These kings meet together at international and local level to help celebrate community and to keep in touch with the citizens. thought-1.jpgDisputes or differences settled amicably but warring faction may disagree on the issues they do not see eye to eye. This is a traditional kingship which treats their king as God’s representative on earth. A lesser king brings specific gifts, tributes, to the Senior Kings. During the hunting season parts of the game veal belonging to Senior King given to them. A public  sitting, arrival, processions are all based on preset protocol of Kingdom structure for thousands of years. Highly followed protocol based on hierarchy of an office and position of a king is established by the traditions. They are not based on the favouritism or popularity of the King or opinions of the people. Those close to a kings family are trained from birth to be aware of these traditions. People not familiar with a kingdom rule may find a standard protocol strange but it has the very role to establish order and security or safety. Some misunderstand protocol demand to be treated as they like do not respect a traditional setting structure. Some declare they are kings wear huge gold chains, gold teeth, distorts true reality of kingship. Lack humility and mislead people by delusion of grandeur megalomaniac impostor syndrome of a royal paranoia always feeling superior to others. Do not submit to authority or understand that kings are not arrogant pompous tyrants who order the people around. Its King makers who choose a humble considerate and pliable person they feel will cope well with position. They are trained and taught kingship is duty for life not self aggrandisement for negative attention seeking behaviour to outshine others and to show off to the world. It is essential to educate modern generations about social structure to understand role of subjects and citizens. Lack of modern education makes social media want to dictate structures they do not fully understand. Security reasons require discreet communication silence, using trained eyes, blink, wink, handle position of teacup, bags, subtle language in the presence of dignitaries. One cannot be blunt, raw or outspoken all the time for personal safety. Revelation 8:1 says when the Lamb opens seventh seal is silence in heaven for about half an hour. There is a time to speak and a time to be silent we must know when to talk and when to say nothing as Bible says in Ecclesiastes 3:17. Jesus SUBMITS to God yet He is the ONLY KING of Kings SEATED AT GOD’S RIGHT HAND. Good to know wealth or fame is not reason to become king. Some think being rich in powerful positions automatically makes them king. So make unrealistic demand on others to fulfil their fantasy so if they are rebuffed get so angry and irrational. They live in a utopia fantasy world with blindspots not realising life is tough and challenging so must adapt and grow up.  Must put other people first because life is not exclusively only all about them. IMG-20191029-WA0004.jpgThere is ONLY ONE KING OF Kings Jesus Head of all Children of God. Jesus warns in the last days highminded people who feel above their station have minds on physical things not real things of God. God is not retained in their thoughts in Psalm 10:4, Romans 1, despise authority do their own thing for they think they are superior to God and Jesus. They are presumptuous, self-willed, impose their strong will on others by their way or no way behaviour, act out of dictates of their own hearts to influence public opinion than following God with humility and trusting HIM to bring HIS WILL to pass. 2 Peter 3 says: 1 Know in the last days perilous times will come 2 people will be lovers of themselves lovers of money, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, 3 unloving, unforgiving, slanderers, without self-control, brutal, despisers of good, 4 traitors, headstrong, haughty, lovers of pleasure than lovers of God 5 having form of godliness but deny God’s power. From such turn away 6 For this sort creep in houses and make captives of silly women load down with sins, led away by lusts 7 always learning and never able to come to knowledge of truth. 8 As Jannes and Jambres resisted Moses, resist truth, men of corrupt minds disapproved of by faith 9 will not progress their folly manifests to all they misled. Man of God using Word of God must 10 follow doctrine, lead Godly life, faith, longsuffering, love, perseverance 11 face challenges like Antioch, Iconium endured as the LORD delivered. 12 All who live Godly in Christ go through life challenges 13 as the evil men impostors grow worse deceive so deceived.KINGS AND PRIESTS.jpg2 Peter 3 says 14 You continue in things learnt in childhood 15 known Holy Scriptures to make you wise for salvation by faith in Christ. 16 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God is profitable for doctrine, reproof, correction instruction, righteousness 17 man of God to be complete equipped for good works. ONLY JESUS MILLENNIAL REIGN believers made kings so don’t be deceived or think too highly of yourself not submit to God. Daniel 2:21 says God changes times seasons HE makes  kings,  removes kings, promote kings. HE gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to the humble. A TV show put only kings in a house without servants so did chores, cooked, cleaned. SOVEREIGN LORD gave Jesus all POWER of authority in heaven and earth in Matthew 28:18-19. To teach all nations, baptizing them in Name of Father God, Son, Holy Spirit. Jesus in John 14:12–14 gives power as crucified risen Christ. But satan tries to be like Most High God in Ezekiel, Isaiah 14 cast out of heaven. So Most High God is KING could not have another king in heaven. Kings and queens in kingdoms so no two kings or queens at same time. After satan cast out of heaven to earth the world became his kingdom as ruler of world in John 12:31. Kingdom of God has One KING, Jesus Christ ruling KING in 1 Corinthians 15:28. Jesus refused the offer of satan to make him king after He fasted 40 days and nights in wilderness. In future all overcomer saints rule with Jesus as sons and daughters of God. The Kingdom of God gives leadership power of dominion to saints. Jesus is Absolute KING OF Kings and Lord of lords.

 

JESUS UNITES ALL IN ISRAEL

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Galatians 3:26-28 says not a Jew, Gentile, Greek, SLAVE, free, MALE, FEMALE ALL ARE ONE IN CHRIST JESUS. In the Bible Jesus Christ of Nazareth came to SAVE to redeem ALL FAMILIES in Christ. God created all black and white people equal in God’s Kingdom, no rank, class, status. SOVEREIGN GOD JEHOVAH and CHRIST JESUS are Ultimate Authority all submit to in ETERNAL LIFE. So Matthew 22:30 says after resurrection people DO NOT MARRY so no virgins to marry. Glorified body is like angels in heaven in eternal life so no need to marry, to give birth to replenish earth in future. All restored to youthful bodies, healed, live perfectly healthy lives eternally. Love is directed totally first to God and to Jesus Christ flowing through all people. There is no need to seek fulfilment through a human being because all are fulfilled in Christ Jesus. The supernatural love God fills mankind with is superior to human love. All LOVE comes from God through Jesus the Bridegroom, enriched deeply in Christ Jesus Alone in eternal life. So human romance pales in comparison to GOD’S DEEPEST LOVE BEYOND human understanding in terms of earthly love. Earthly love is full of disappointment, pain, hurt and grief. A Heavenly LOVE yet fully experienced on earth glimpses of true love found here, there on earth.4bdde64e26478018c275ab2ae84328d6.jpgPERFECT LOVE after GLORIOUS BODY IS FOUND IN CHRIST so no human can provide angelic love for glorified body higher being in Christ Jesus. ETERNAL LIFE IN GOD’S PRESENCE is NO HATRED VENGEANCE, Bitterness or vendetta for only the PURE IN HEART FULL OF LOVE ENTER GOD’S PRESENCE. GOD IS LOVE in heaven no evil on earth exists after judgement BY JEHOVAH. Only the sheep enter heaven and goats are thrown out into hellfire burning forever. A banquet by KING MASTER JESUS for all no slaves IN HEAVEN. Emancipate yourself from the arrogant mental slavery justifying abuse of people in THE NAME of God. Vengeance belongs to Jehovah to meet out so stop misleading the people with twisted lies misquoting Bible to deceive naive vulnerable people. Only Jesus is able to Comfort us and restore PERFECT PEACE we crave because human love is limited. Be content, so grateful, thankful for families you feel not good for you. It is God who puts people in families for a reason. Trust God with your family and AVOID ANYONE WHO DIVIDES FAMILY! 29131.jpgJesus the Messiah is surrounded by His mother, father siblings in His Ministry on earth and in heaven with Jesus. Any Church that divides family is a cult for manipulation naive members to control them by CUTTING OFF from loved ones who SEE THROUGH FAKE PASTORS. The fake pastor deceives people for control weakens them without back up support challenging controlling behaviour. They fear families standing up to stop abuse so anyone who knows the Bible well or confronts them is blackmailed and also vilified to subdue members. They make examples of people to humiliate them to put fear in them to become ZOMBIES or robots they control. Beware of anyone twisting BIBLE to CONTROL your life because who the SON JESUS SETS FREE IS FREE INDEED!!! God is LOVE and by love people know you are the children of God.  Jesus LOVE YOUR ENEMIES do good to those who hate you and do not inherit enmity and hatred from a bitter miserable people preaching evil hatred.  God’s promise to Abraham the land of Israel is a BLESSING to ALL NATIONS.Galatians_3-28.jpgIn Genesis 12:2; 18:18; 22:17–18; 26:3–4 God fulfilled promise to Abraham, first in the nation of Israel then all nations. Israel’s technological, agricultural, and medical innovations, advances help all people in the world. God’s greatest meaningful fulfillment of covenant promise is Word of God Jewish people gave all world. God faithfully protects and brought Israel’s eternal salvation through faith in Jesus the Messiah. So Father God in Lord Jesus Messiah by His great mercy Christians born agains are raised the Messiah from dead. To live in future is a great expectation of priceless inheritance in heaven, pure, undefiled, beyond death and decay. Through faith, God protects by HIS power to endure to end, receive crown of life 1 Peter 1:3–5.  God’s destiny for Abraham to become the father of MULTITUDE of NATIONS includes Gentile nations fulfilled in Jesus, a direct descendant of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob Israel in Matthew 1:2–17.  God LOVES people of all tribes, tongues, nationalities, languages in Jesus as heirs of Abraham and joint heir with Christ.

imageGod’s joint heirs are kings and priests of God in Christ Jesus. There is neither Jew nor Greek, neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; you are ALL ONE IN MESSIAH YESHUA. In MESSIAH you are Abraham’s seed heirs according to promise in Galatians 3:2729. Today know Jesus better by READING BIBLE to STUDY LIKE BEREANS not just do what so called fake control freak cult pastors order you to do to manipulate your life. Messiah Jesus is coming to decide your reward based on if you are HIS SHEEP. Not what the fake prophet misquoted in Bible designed to lie to you because you lack knowledge. God says  MY PEOPLE are destroyed for lack of knowledge of Bible. God says Study to show yourself APPROVED TO GOD not show off Bible verses you memorized. But APPLY the Bible to each need you have, read the specific TEXT daily to meet your need.Galatians+3_26-28.jpgEach one faces God alone on judgement day so remember God will not ask about what the pastor told you. God demands account of your PERSONAL LIFE not the total social media number of followers, bank accounts, mansions, private jets, size of your family, your status, class, colour or race. Each person must share Gospel to DIRECT PEOPLE TO GOD IN CHRIST. The Church you attend or the denomination  is IRRELEVANT TO GOD. Letter to seven Churches in Bible warns Churches. Israel and Jewish people are ONE IN CHRIST JESUS to fulfill all God’s feasts, prophecies covenant promises.  Isaiah 27:6 says, God will cause them that come of Jacob to take root Israel shall blossom and bud to fill the face of the world with fruit. The people of Israel return from parts of the world  their ancestors dispersed take root. The land is blessed and people blessed in the world. Israel’s desert desolate is a major exporter of food to the world. The crops are major export by companies in Israel Isaiah predicted. Isaiah predicted in the Word of God over 2,600 years ago fruit of the land blessing Earth with physical food exported and fruits of God’s Word confirms by Holy Spirit in Christ Jesus. Matthew+1-22+To+Fulfill+What+Was+Spokne+By+The+Lord+Through+Prophets+red.jpg Zechariah says all nations on earth will come yearly to Israel to celebrate Feast of Tabernacles to worship LORD of Hosts. Zechariah 14:16. Isaiah points to road connecting Egypt to Assyria and through this area access road is being built called King’s Highway. Building a super highways links them with all the surrounding nations. These prophesies of Isaiah and Zechariah prepares way in advance in time for Messiah’s rule from His Throne in Israel. Jesus Rules whole Earth and all people will know God in the millennial kingdom in Israel after rapture and His second coming on earth after Armageddon. The land is prepared today to fulfil prophecy of Messiah Jesus as KING of Kings and Lord of lords. And above all countless multitudes of people of all nations, tribes, languages, colours, BELONGS TOGETHER IN HEAVEN AND LATER DWELL ON EARTH WITH GOD. God is not a respecter of persons to put any person above others by class, race, colour, wealth or status. Death is their leveller making all equal before God. No man is bigger or stronger than Jehovah God no matter how powerful they may feel in own eyes to inflate their ego.

COFFEE’S HISTORY & ORIGINS

20191014_110716.jpg15710468834321102168724083807666.jpg15710437345183676338762388191799.jpgCoffee global originated from Ethiopia as earliest evidence of coffee drinking and knowledge of the coffee tree spread from early 15th century. Africans grow coffee harvested, grounded and drank by families as tropical crops. Coffee spread as commodity for trade from Ethiopia Horn of Africa to Yemen Arabia Felix monks monasteries spreading into Mecca and Cairo. Goats were seen hyper stimulated inspired coffee concoction born long ago in the mountains of Ethiopia. Legend says that Kaldi saw his excited herd dancing after eating coffee cherry berry, 16th century reached rest of Middle East, South India (Karnataka), Persia, Turkey to rest of Horn of Africa and northern Africa. Coffee spread to Balkans, Italy, the rest of Europe, Southeast Asia and Americas despite ban imposed in the 15th century by religious leaders in Mecca and Cairo, and later by the Catholic Church.15710460124356859565088160134012.jpg15710436855935512932863149678515.jpg15710447815743466109153844499277.jpgCoffee spread from Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Kaffa Province name of coffee, the first to recognize energizing effects of native coffee plant. So the tribesmen consumed as hunters on days-long treks benefitting from coffee plant’s ability to quell hunger and provide more energy. Studies of genetic diversity of Coffea arabica varieties retained the residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica. Oral history direct evidence has indicated Africans coffee grow among other crops natives used as stimulant so known earlier spread into seventeenth century. Original domesticated coffee plant from Harar, native population use derived from Ethiopia distinct is found populations in Sudan and Kenya.1571043405765699259889766813539.jpg15710434270053024933810851534611.jpg15710436277878114956373217936851.jpg15710435846402047751185959458711.jpg15710434925723954462411793900624.jpgCoffee is native to tropical Africa but its Brazil that is the world’s largest coffee producing country. Vietnam, Colombia are second and third biggest producers. Coffee was traded through Middle East, Asia and Europe before its taken to the Americas by European colonizers. The crop’s success there depended on slave trade. The history of coffee recognizes racism and the role of colonialism. The history of coffee has a dark side of the exploitation of Western countries taking advantage of the African countries. And multibillion multinational corporations making so much profit but don’t invest in these countries of the supply chains. 15710433560353172288782735507670.jpg15710440983255412735373397344862.jpg15710445900461747951835999486447.jpg15710441400893604583404307719482.jpg15710439366083654047546056266942.jpg15710440294184227315937896153147.jpg15710444445985513000575336350508.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.1571044828283157220128130682346.jpgwp-1571137280306.jpgdownloadfile.pngwp-1571007286187.jpgIMG-20191014-WA0001.jpgwp-1571136784509.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.15710478444701786177490462436469.jpg15710456532011356605169476525987.jpg15710456143886626766098078755663.jpg15710455659128566144229800899532.jpg15710448803383604231430384290796.jpg15710449771794187086487037815745.jpg15710450656392204661356868672582.jpg15710451149853942328613469727459.jpgBarbados and Jamaica were some of the earliest British colonies as slave traders provided outposts with human labour from Africa to work on sugar and coffee plantations. Goods and people moved in a triangle between West Africa, colonies in Caribbean and Americas and Europe.wp-1571143326145.jpg15710465101715420187119285288633.jpg1571046665177784825754492463044.jpg15710465806261383212562540144503.jpgwp-1571143230605.jpgwp-1571143279802.jpg15710462101437150544227229786142.jpgSan Domingo in French-occupied Haiti was supplying half of the world’s coffee in 1788 as a direct result of slave labour. Living conditions was appalling, slaves underfed, overworked and housed in the windowless huts. The African slaves were beaten, tortured or killed by their white European rulers.15710466183022452900408860596017.jpgwp-1571142356971.jpgwp-1571138218332.jpgwp-1571142304784.jpg15710467716452899072847031383823.jpg15710449165545412649823065829850.jpg15710450356353051306629389501833.jpg1571046353063816915106442229309.jpg15710432352042400621271070553203.jpgNapoleon tried to regain Haiti in early 1800s led to decline in coffee production prompted the Dutch to fill the gap with coffee produced in their own colony of Java, Indonesia. But has rigid hierarchy between the native Javanese and their colonial overlords. Laziness and apathy of Dutch landowners forced Javanese natives to harvest coffee for a pittance, whole villages died of starvation.15710462360581092218315998157921.jpg15710463381055154496466313978760.jpgwp-1571136892649.jpg15710470158994600447489546368637.jpg15710433079216012543656666705158.jpgUK drinks 95 million cups of coffee day with 500,000 tonnes of waste coffee grounds a year. Some business’s small waste coffee grounds customers to take home as garden fertiliser or homemade exfoliant. Wet coffee grounds waste into landfill in UK tax £88.95/tonne to £94.15 from 1st April 2020 levy operators cost to collection fee. Waste management companies charge for contaminated dry mixed with recycling. 15712234953994380269245425115741.jpgLandfill harmful greenhouse gases such as methane 34 times more potent than carbon dioxide over a 100 year period causing climate change. The wet coffee grounds in an anaerobic digestion plant absent of oxygen microorganisms break down biodegradable material managing waste or producting fuel but grounds sink to bottom in ‘belly’ inhibit rate of biomethane production. Waste grounds incinerated energy generation, not best usel. Bio-bean utilise wet coffee grounds waste recycled bio-products by disposal recycling service generate savings for businesses saving emission as bio-fuel.15710432727097757498507419898001.jpgCoffee declined in the West Indies but it thrived in Latin America. So first coffee bush in Brazil was planted by Francisco de Melo Palheta in Pará in 1727. Brazil became a coffee superpower under the rule of the Portuguese and continued to after independence. By the 1830s, coffee became Brazil’s largest export is around 30% of world coffee production.15710461315717905217574155760681.jpg15710452158122014500876146091126.jpgBrazilian coffee plantations used black or indigenous slave labour. Indentured labourers worked and lived in horrific conditions. Plantation owners treated their labourers as dispensable imported new slaves as they died from overwork. Did not treat existing slaves with any compassion most slaves last seven years from initial bondage.wp-1571142201640.jpg15710455063321556057087774078740.jpgBrazil made slavery illegal in 1888, but four million slaves had been brought from Africa. In Latin America, coffee industry depended on the indigenous labour. Black people not used as slaves in Central American countries anymore, Mayans and other native peoples served as semi-slaves.15710451884962273506023802601097.jpg15710452671042518442429950312232.jpgThe Mayans occupied best fertile lands for growing coffee and so increasingly became disenfranchized by colonial governments. Violently evicted by the military as the demand for coffee grew, forced to work land for the oppressors. Revolts and rebellions common during that time government brutality and the oppression was response.15710454680217849189674356110640.jpg20191015_133547.jpgThe coffee industry in Latin America explaining why the world is dominated by their coffee production. Slave labour no longer but paved the way for today’s industry. Many regions of Brazil and Colombia are now traditional coffee-growing areas with farming as main resource. Legacies of colonialism affect coffee supply chain in Latin America racial divide between farm owners and labourers.15710464500078699002128982820492.jpgMillions of blacks in Latin America Asia, and Africa live in poverty producing the affordable coffee for Western markets. African coffee is the best in the world as Tropical Africa origin of coffee. But that continent not treated on same level of Latin America. Colonialism by former European colonies in Africa left without infrastructure or stable political system. Structural racism economic oppression exists in supply chain. Inequality in the coffee production, baristas, economics. Education, politics of coffee-producing regions of the community in producing countries must contribute to improving sustainability, working conditions, and quality of life for people globally.tree-goat-morocco.jpg15712272641128742041996406789531.jpgObviousTimelyAlligatorsnappingturtle-size_restricted.gifThe Argan coffee like Ethiopian Coffee, Nepal coffee grown on Himalayan climate is ideal for coffee growing. The aroma of brewed coffee fragrance, coffee’s global recognition beans, grown in Nuwakot, a scored 90 points on a scale of 50 to 100 in Coffee Review, California-based trade magazine. In first-ever blind assessment Nepali coffee in Lekali is “savoury sweet in structure with gentle acidity; crisp, satiny mouthfeel.” Concluded the coffee is worth seeking its confident savoury-sweet cup. In 2016, coffee produced by Greenland Organic Farm scored an 89 Specialty Coffee Association of America, California trade group Nepali coffee producers elevate quality of country’s beans to international standards.Workers sort cherries for processing at Lekali Coffee Estate’s farm in Nuwakot in central Nepal. Nepali coffee’s in 2014, Banjara became Nepal’s first Q-grader trained in Xining in China. The West are calling coffee aficionados value beans’ from exotic origin to local cafe. Coffee companies create market for vacuum packed cans of coffee grounds and jars of instant coffee kitchens in the world,  Nepal’s high-end market export coffee. Some claim goat eaten berry coffee also exist like Luwak kopi coffees. Coffee farm in Mauja district of Kaski, view to the Annapurna mountain range Nepal’s first national coffee cupping as Q-graders identify characteristics and flavour, quality of coffee beans. Eight of the world’s 10 highest peaks like Mount Everest Nepal ideal climate high-quality beans. Nepal’s Arabica variety Bourbon and Typica coffee grow on rolling, misty mountain slopes at altitudes from 800 meters to 1,600 meters. First introduced to the country by a monk in the middle of 20th century the crop supports 32,000 farmers in 40 of country’s 77 districts. It exports coffee but Coffee Review rating recognition gives them a much-needed boost in the international market.15712209071994545813192981911343.jpgThe world’s most expensive is Coffee alamid highly sought-after brew among coffee aficionados is “caviar” of coffee. Odour-free coffee alamid aroma, syrup texture, chocolate hint, coffee alamid’s clean aftertaste and flavour is processed by acid from stomach of animals eating coffee cherry berries. The coffee seeds remain intact undigested excreted as a faecal material collected, washed and is grounded as premier luxury coffee sells U$500 -U$1000 per pound. Kopi luwak one of most expensive coffees in world. Vietnamese weasel coffee collecting coffee beans eaten by wild civets in India. Luwak coffee kopi luwak of Java Indonesia is second best.  But traders of this type of coffee exploit animals by caging, feeding them solely on coffee beans instead on an enriched variety of diets in wild more suitable to thrive. The tourists travel to see caged animals in action oblivious to animal rights issues involved in most expensive coffee processs. A cup of coffee cost $80 per cup in the tourist epic centres.

Mark Pendergrast: Uncommon Grounds, History of Coffee & How It Transformed Our World.

Sprudge.com, The Question of Racism

CHOCOLATE COCOA HISTORY

4c5fac28b63b8d018ddf1f40a5193a8fChocolate’s cocoa history dates to 5000 years as cocoa-based confectionery the archeological finds says Ecuador people from ancient Mayo-Chinchipe culture ingested a cacao-based in 3,300 BC. The Maya civilisation peak from 250 to 850 CE is first evidence human’s consumed chocolate as hot drink. Aztecs made it so popular and dyed it red achiote seeds. It is “Food from God” nobility, kings, chiefs drank so is scientific name for chocolate is theobroma cacao. In mid-1700s Carl Linnaeus Swedish made classification of animal and plants species. Britain’s first shipment of chocolate was mistaken for sheep poo when a Spanish shipment of cocoa beans was off course, seized at a coast of Britain in 16th century assumed contents sheep droppings and burned it. Cacao fruit in an Ecuadorean rainforest is cacao-based substance first ingested. The Pope stopped the priests arguing in 17th century as two orders of Catholic monks ask if chocolate was a drink to be consumed if fasting. Pope Alexander VII decreed chocolate beverage drinks monks allowed if fasting.20191012_224622.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0004.jpg1570957965885497972497589516589.jpgPeople receive heart-shaped chocolates on Valentine’s Day since 1935. Chocolate was associated with rebellion. In France and Spain chocolate drink reserved for privileged and in England consumed by intellectual, political thinkers. In 1660s Charles II threatened to close down the chocolate and coffee shops rebels where radicals congregated. In the 1930s, a box of chocolates cost 10 weeks’ rent. Solid chocolate invented in 1847 big brands industrialised chocolate fondant centres was popular. Sold in handmade boxes decorated with silk tassel, lace, Cadbury Fancy Box. By 1930s, ornate confections popular is expensive the Rowntree’s box priced at 100 shillings a rent 10 shillings a week. Popular chocolate bars are 100 years old. From the golden age of cocoa-based creativity in 1920s,1930s products like Cadbury’s Flake, Fruit and Nut, and Crunchy bars in 1920s Mars Bar in 1933, Milky Way and KitKat in 1935, Maltesers in 1936, Aero and Smarties in 1937. First fondant eggs in 1920s but the Creme Egg Fry’s product branded later Cadbury’s.15709140345921898763941735144302.jpg15709577132403422594441858102305.jpg1570959284218922480331549334500.jpg White chocolate was made medicine for children in Switzerland in 1930s doctors wanted to give the children in hospitals a vitamin-enriched milk to drink. The children thought milk was babyish and cocoa butter added as white chocolate. This nutritionally enhanced chocolate product was popular widely sold and is modern still available in Europe today. Unofficial KitKat’s dark chocolate mixed with Ryvita in WWII. Second World War Rowntree’s stopped producing KitKats or Chocolate Crisps made guns factory workers and families missed KitKats so tried hand-making unauthorised filled moulds with strips of Ryvita. Poured in dark chocolate for soldier’s ration. Only one chocolate bar made from the British grown cocoa beans as plants thrive in equator temperatures of 16°C+. In 1932, workers at Rowntree’s factory in York grew cacao plants in Britain produced a plant in a hothouse, to harvest one pod of cocoa beans. This made a single tiny chocolate bar for Queen Elizabeth II. In 450 BC Aztecs in Latin America used the fermented cocoa seeds into powder and drunk bitter. Seeds had so much value it was used as currency. Then Westerners joined them and tasted it bitter so added sugar to sweeten cocoa drinks and bars. 20191013_101929.jpg20191012_223843.jpg20191012_223613.jpgTetteh Quashie from Ghana brought the cocoa seeds to Gold Coast and thrived so became a global commodity exported. A tropical temperature suited cocoa best it flourishes in Ghana, Ivory Coast and in Nigeria exported into Western countries Belgium, Britain Cadbury World, Nestle of Switzerland among top 15 countries. 15709666448414663460037240615432.jpgIn 1591 the first transatlantic chocolate cocoa reached Spain turns into popular product as demand grew. The cocoa tree planted from seeds grown is harvested by difficult process by slaves used in its production. History of cocoa process of industrialization of chocolate used slave labour on plantations to supply world with cocoa beans to make chocolate. international_chocolate_organizations_bg.pngThe islands of São Tomé and Príncipe a then colony of Portugal and West Africa archipelago were first to cultivate cocoa among the world’s largest producers in the 20thcentury. The increasing demand from Europe cleared more acres of this plantations. Slaves from Angola of more settlers and more machinery increased supply chain of cocoa and chocolates.15709669144015420792004222029435.jpg

screen-shot-2015-03-12-at-7-45-58-pm.pngThe British Journalist Henry Nevinson documented plight of plantation slaves in articles, magazines and book Modern Slavery published in 1906 in a Harpers Monthly Magazine.“A long line of men and women at intervals of about a yard, were clearing plantation. ..To the back of every woman clung an infant’s head lay between her shoulders, bumped against her back as she struck hoe in the ground.15709668577338478487483041897377.jpgscreen-shot-2015-03-12-at-7-11-13-pm.pngFive or six yards behind them officers stood, white men, or three parts white, dressed in traditional planter style of big hat, white shirt, and loose trousers. Each carried an eight foot stick of hard wood, whitewood, pointed at ends” Nevinson’s work included numerous photographs, descriptions of the working conditions that fueled controversy in Great Britain.1570913992381271102547401987556.jpg15709576587538243842794166318413.jpg157095762463894220843834516828.jpgwp-1570973939028.jpgwp-1570975857142.jpg15709616753066208273275664093074.jpg1570957416522359261156549676512.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0001.jpg20191012_223727.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0006.jpgDespite attention to business practices of Cadbury company of Great Britain as biggest owner then of these plantations manufactured chocolates. It publicised situation, shows complicated network dodges blame. Public pressure results in government intervention investigations court case. Cadbury stopped purchasing from São Tomé and Príncipe tranferred the cocoa plantations into West Africa.15709589640531476278166812542906.jpgwp-1570974378415.jpgwp-1570974323215.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0008.jpg15709581362018921958481800225620.jpg15709601948667178737729845178804.jpg15709574448313460189514792968319.jpg15709580230053693676271048576345.jpg15709580965951627154621136725728.jpg15709580676498724700736445595630.jpg1570958672381763599102141026146.jpg20191012_223649.jpgDespite official abolition of slavery the slaves were transported another 400 years and ongoing in parts of the world. In 2001, slave ship MV Etireno carrying several hundred children from Benin were reported missing refused entry to Gabon and Cameroon rescued children. 15709609201355720542936295948445.jpgUNICEF becomes involved investigating reveals slave trafficking operation links West Africa in Ivory Coast. Ivory Coast is the world’s largest supplier of cocoa beans provide 43 % of world’s supply. IMG-20191013-WA0003.jpg15709610769421398615502886880121.jpg15709612150727871124352297305669.jpg15709610018138559175942143094065.jpg15709613775144636840332272573726.jpg15709616191443179012462901860512.jpgThe 600,000 cocoa farms in Ivory Coast account for one-third of nation’s entire economy half the world’s supply for chocolate trade. Most people who are trafficked tricked and lied to with fantastic job prospects with good pecks assured. Find themselves enslaved and victims abused by such traffickers.15709127031975255928808816704229.jpg15709122732244232830728597531413.jpgIMG-20191012-WA0007.jpg
15709125937671682014492957299521.jpg1570912315162438997010313738705.jpg15709152571901898279892588286755.jpg15709152270256971228287323585406.jpg15709151587383094067555383762175.jpg15709151843573151428979682105142.jpg15709143369542848624500990035780.jpgwp-1570979760414.jpg15709137549442769275504908743346.jpg15709150777064823325467641070824.jpg15709124520911926464681554713213.jpg1570912497702511151652750979082.jpg15709149649204204772370625945755.jpg15709149883824262627048778293816.jpgHuman trafficking and child slavery in cocoa and chocolate industry continues today. The Freedom Project investigated series by CNN broadcasted on chocolate industry and government of Ivory Coast address modern slavery in plantations.15709138939523342688749804279542.jpg1570991586829225328139591335123.jpg15709915420956794392330243494243.jpgcacao_photo_8-498x327.jpg15709917056801320040547398428411.jpg15709916241188296576054514775087.jpg15709940654191196607743158215198.jpg1570914640871285281432986836431.jpg15709963627551472745859322635130.jpg15709938622796684368964997672713.jpg15709940303113896639172690823035.jpg15709937734724174395920450358998.jpgwp-1570994671869.jpgwp-1571007286187.jpg15710070494287827044677125274229.jpg15709974957951724047021802272273.jpg15709941748594251023928542528722.jpg15709949682263479862376989604565.jpgwp-1570996871409.jpg15710077035061774160667874051637.jpgwp-1570996769232.jpgwp-1570997036473.jpgwp-1570997695826.jpgChildren at seven years old are working harvesting cocoa pods and beans for the sweet chocolate delicacies of Western people. Education is not compulsory in some countries and due to school fees so many cannot afford to pay. Therefore children work family business to gain skills even if illiterate become farmers.  15709145074994809227748061131838.jpg15709142467478737125626412808158.jpg15709139495294799173970323903708.jpg15709144649192665944281729331706.jpg15709146612125841173579566817033.jpg1570914213505158368728100696923.jpg15709147119983881069686190393130.jpg15709143857771503011103315736757.jpg15709147788696943767045855007937.jpgCNN report felt public must know about it to take action and to stop it, said Iowa Sen. Tom Harkin with Rep. Eliot Engel of New York in response: “How many people know the wonderful chocolates they eat are produced by child labour.15709123579155304010273066167215.jpg15709136806434425289464165586051.jpg15709135207818673941076417422835.jpg15709133791519192219027226466769.jpg15709132986567961157504701423115.jpgAgreed a voluntary protocol signed by heads of chocolate industry to stop child labour to certify the cocoa trade as child labour free. The working conditions in cocoa growing bring awareness of a fair trade by consumers. A researcher noted lack of evidence of ethical consumption among end-user improved situations of the child workers on West African cocoa farms. Consider questions on the rights of cocoa farmers and conditions faced by producers. Concerns of safety or well being ignored by its sold to government as sole buyer. Western countries ensure West African cocoa grown is harvested to Belgium and G7 countries but these workers are not afforded equal rights.

BLACK EYE PEAS & COWPEAS

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GROUNDNUT & PEANUT/OILS

15707845127156653663316207345954.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0012.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0029.jpg15707893333604641602646104343632.jpg15707896148261001852730444443006.jpg15707893682718735345993973328976.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0010.jpg15707833934723802533458068315326.jpg15707832578189072966147542290648.jpg15707834239151848095670456445962.jpgwp-1570802098371.jpgwp-1570802035747.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0008.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0009.jpg15707834472307571853684531947568.jpg1570786851350875126761037075326.jpg15707954609231414742855137602773.jpgwp-1570803375931.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0025.jpg15707901880905044044258918245073.jpg15707896521495228368066690777655.jpg15707898431401260540910340766071.jpg15707824257912488918800919497494.jpg20191011_093013.jpg15707832203775243425012921934175.jpgwp-1570797906437.jpg15707916951867421611568665103796.jpg15707891823613489701966672795046.jpg15708085319268121818133374276907.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0022.jpg20191011_122801.jpg20191011_123114.jpg20191012_104224.jpg1570786970887877213663425578385.jpg15707945096213046886711061607208.jpgwp-1570799108967.jpg15707897063131288720652032018631.jpg15707903779064676578966512394624.jpg15707894111295276134005257790577.jpgwp-1570799638636.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0018.jpg15707956443157809948054158681191.jpgwp-1570800121779.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0028.jpg15707938539414257574867589042332.jpg15707938071606235172391918911728.jpg15707939369261663485003269948842.jpg1570794013493934164119149072580.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0021.jpg1570792032491391043010104295969.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0023.jpg15708169551153682810323296415724.jpg15708166402168148294109269088985.jpg15708167281037730136986375426020.jpg15708166865724722342520839818077.jpg15708165532348064204112588561454.jpgPeanut oil processed mixed with nitrous oxide in a truck massive diesel engine. V6 engine run on regular diesel fuel to reach 220-degree before switching over to peanut oil. Nitrous oxide plus plenty of air turns turbo charger supercharger forced air in cylinders. The engine gets a spray of alcohol for cooling purposes.15708165028113999895232126876639.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0030.jpg15708167512272893762172321424145.jpg15707941137685681028702372552463.jpgGroundnut, Peanut oil and vegetable oil wastes converted into biodiesel. Gallons of oil or grease from dining services are converted to 100% biodiesel used, sold to motor vehicles. Chemical additive is mixed into the biodiesel enhances their performance in cold winters. Biodiesel under various conditions was compared to traditional petroleum diesel analysed and modified to improve the production process. The by-product of the biodiesel production glycerin is valuable material used in soap-making.

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PALM OIL’S WORLD HISTORY

15706519201323376503804768971247.jpgThe palm kernel is the edible seed of the oil palm fruit. The fruit yields two distinct oils: palm oil derived from the outer parts of the fruit, and palm kernel oil derived from kernel. Four types of products from palm fruits are palm oil palm kennel oil, palm kernel husk or fibre, palm kernel sludge and palm kernel shell crushed used as a biofuel from palm kernel nuts. The production of fats and oils from vegetable sources is the process of extraction of vegetable oils, pulp oils produced close to location of oil fruit tree. Pre-treatment of a palm fruit is cooked and the fruit is separated from bunch stalk. The oil is extracted by pressing, stirring by hand centrifuged.15706522931853525998838418182285.jpg The extracted pressed oils can be used for cooking and dried and pulp used as combustible material. Red Palm Oil in a semi solid state at room temperature is turned liquid at a warm temperature of the body and reduces build up of artery clogging plaques. Substituting other fats and oils for Red Palm Oil reduces bad cholesterol. Only 2 tablespoons full of a Red Palm Oil a day needed to benefit from healthy positive effects. Too much greasy oil food causes bad cholesterol15706518941072910073924305563785.jpg15706523259017526720814455555611.jpgRed edible palm oil is a very nutritious cooking oil is used by West Africans for years. It is known for the high contents of Vitamin E with more distinctive anti-oxidant benefits for our health. Palm oil is the flag ship product for export since 1950’s for the West Africans in diaspora as niche product. The benefits of edible palm oil provides the energy needed for production of palm kernel oil process yields used edible fats, soaps candles.15706540375737277640299754569592.jpgPalm oil is used for cooking oil, soaps, candles, margarines, candy. A healthy conscious people concerned about an atherosclerosis stay away from foods rich in saturated fats. Palm is used in confectionery, pharmaceutical, perfume industries. The pulp left after oil from the kernel is formed into “palm kernel cake” fibre used as high-protein feed for dairy cattle or burned in their boilers to generate electricity for palm oil mills or surrounding villages. Palm oil is mixed with clay straw built castles in places.15706566006917909993720545286503.jpgPalm oil vegetable oil is grouped into a category broadly as follows.  Seed oils from palm oil germ fibre are used after extracting palm oil and palm kernel oils. Palm fruit oil and palm kennel oil both as the world’s most produced oil. Palm oil is forecast is world’s most produced and internationally traded edible oil.
Apart from being use as cooking oil, Palm Oil also found in an astonishing range of processed foods and cosmetics.15706535105222023988644772620506.jpgSupermarket products contains palm oil as part . Engineers targeting for the use of agro fuels in Europe, China or North America are making palm oil a hotter commodity. Palm Oil is used to produce biodiesel. Manual processing of palm oil for centuries takes place globally. Whole villages are known for palm plantation and palm oil production globally. Their community has abundant palm trees so palm products plays prominent roles. 15706534817468219236276730459932.jpg15706530089714150645542904436474.jpgThe palm fruit is sold in market used in  the traditional method palm oil is done by hand involving many people. It is a long process from harvest of palm fruit to finished products. Millions of people use traditional processing to make palm oil. Authentic original palm processing boils, pounds fruits separated from the kennel seeds and the fibre. The husk is compressed and used as fire enhancer or straws to build castles by the Whites.15706531091386308259624896540580.jpg15706531760656801411446369805901.jpg15706530414433115345172981072350.jpg15706531995623200291729606335389.jpgThe villagers work in teams together to ensure palm oil is processed on time to keep its excellent quality in a fresh good condition. Machines are introduced to combine with these manual processing of many small scale industries. A latest developed palm fruit processing gadget technology modified mechanical palm oil or kernel extraction process today. It involves separation of the digested fruit mash to palm oil and palm nut. Pressed separated pulp from palm oil extraction is used as mosquito repellent in villages smoke filled room.15706520386074640352914106555652.jpg1570652107303863022797526537226.jpg15706530796525622755470493684892.jpgIMG_20191009_33609157065240247048307681822970888.jpg15707214469164325242281493055369.jpg15706524548056509202359592381041.jpg15706536775917976862947626024117.jpg15706529199191633090186054712202.jpgIMG-20191009-WA0005.jpg15706541448975660841913415108193.jpg1570652805915565624425964344295.jpg15706527581207076161408861407956.jpg15706526981953949071761727145106.jpg15706527299768024498615894087837.jpg15706533668134575461850538961457.jpg15706534482774496658163521283835.jpg15706536318227273062163711658922.jpg15706532975257879326069220296981.jpg15707217991351440742699380060086.jpg15706529686738958575593995054697.jpg15706534197847985349839654719709.jpg15706526480467103743540190144892.jpgDried palm kennel nuts cracked open is processed into palm kennel oil. Kennel shell is used for firewood or charcoal by blacksmiths and for cooking in a hearth fireplace. Often some Palm trees grow for many years until it is so tall climbed by expert tree climbers for harvest. The palm fruit is also processed cold press or raw palm fruits used. Palm oil from a raw palm fruit is not as tasty as a boiled palmfruit. Adds special seasoning spices or herbs to enhance the aroma flavour of cooked palm oil. Then cooked dregs are filtered and eaten as a palm oil dip with yams, cassava cocoa, plantain. And the highly nutritious oil full of vitamins. The purified oil is sold to many people globally. Raw palm oil enhanced to taste by frying onions, spices to make stews. 15706538512988308734538781915767.jpg1570653819111760165957753334812.jpg15706546687118507060490957611929.jpg15707216018576220598925542783709.jpgPalm oil is used in many recipes and is popular globally. The kernel cake is also used in ovens to cook food. Palm kernel cake is produced by economical screw press, less than more expensive solvent extraction. It is processed by small scale industries or the home made equipment from scrap metal pressed, using stones to weight it down. The compact fibre is used under plants to protect from heat, drought to moisten soil. Oil palm is big business. Palm kernel cake high-fibre is medium grade protein feed by product of palm oil ruminants. Fodders of palm kernel cake is ranked little higher than cake and husk. Composed of 16% fiber, palm kernel cake has high phosphorus to calcium ratio and contains essential elements as magnesium, iron or zinc.  The typical ration formulated for the feeding of dairy cattle consists of palm kernel cake (50%), molasses (5%), grass hay (42%), limestone (1.5%), mineral premix (1%), and salt (0.5%), with trace element/vitamin premix.20191009_215250.jpgOil palm fibre is equivalent to coconut fiber at competitive price. Oil palm fiber non-hazardous biodegradable material extracted from oil palm’s empty fruit bunch (EFB) through uses decortation process. The fibers are clean and non-carcinogenic, free from pesticides and soft parenchyma cells. Palm fibres are versatile, stable processed into various dimensional grades to suit the specific applications such as mattress cushion production, erosion control and for soil stabilization / compaction, landscaping, horticulture, ceramic used in the brick manufacturing, thermoplastic filler, flat board manufacturing, paper production acoustics control, livestock care, and is a compost or fertilizer, animal feed, etc. IMG-20191009-WA0006.jpgSumptuous palm fruit soup recipes are major meals eaten with fufu, banku or gari, Kenkey. By product of Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) are used for Wood plastic Medium Density Fibre board (MDF), for Erosion control, landscaping. Leading producers of palm oil in world oil palm fiber abundantly resources. Oil palm fiber used in different areas common usage is in asphalt mixes. The Oil Palm Fiber is extracted from the palm oil vascular bundles in empty fruit bunch (EFB). In the manufacturing process of Palm Fiber, EFB shredded, separated, refined and dried. The manufacturing process does not involve any chemical reaction or exposure so material clean so non-toxic. Economic environmental benefits tapped from oil palm industry waste for Energy and Green Technology. Right innovative technology potential in generating electricity with the economic and environmental benefits from biogas and biomass. Palm Oil Mills earn money converting biomass EFB to higher-value renewable fuels chemicals, reducing greenhouse gas emissions.1570653699384258625274659884593.jpgPalm fruit bunches (FFB) are processed raw uncooked as soon as possible after cutting down from the trees to prevent rapid rise in free fatty acids (FFA) affect quality of crude palm oil (CPO). Palm oil mills located in the plantations facilitate timely transportation effective processing of FFB. Palm oil mills located in palm oil milling process of physical extraction of palm products crude palm oil, palm kernel from FFB. The process begins with sterilization of the FFB. The fruit bunches steamed in pressurized vessels and fatty acids prepared fruits for sub-processing. Bunches stripped of fruit in rotating drum thresher stripped bunches or empty fruit bunches (EFB) transported to plantation for mulching so fruits conveyed to press digesters.15706539370591606996776675537061.jpgPalm fruits heated using live steam and is stirred to loosen oil-bearing mesocarp from the nuts to break open the oil cells in the mesocarp. The mash is pressed to extract oil by means of screw presses so the pressed cake is conveyed to kernel plant and kernels are recovered. The oil from the press is diluted and pumped to vertical clarifier tanks. The clarified oil is fed to the purifiers to remove dirt and moisture dried in the vacuum drier. The clean dry oil is ready for storage and is despatched. The sludge from clarifier sediment is fed into a bowl centrifuged for further oil recovery. The recovered oil is recycled to clarifiers so the water / sludge Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is treated in effluent treatment plant (ETP) further. The press cake is conveyed to depericarper where the fiber and nuts are separated. Fiber is burned as fuel in boiler to generate steam as nuts cracked shell and kernel separated by winnower and hydro-cyclone. Then clean kernels are dried prior to storage for oil later.15706522666875080660915981808681.jpgPalm oil production in metric tons of oil by industries and small-scale processors contribute to 60% crude of the palm oil production. Most countries are not self-sufficient in fats and oils for industrial consumption. The palm oil produced by small-scale processors are utilized by the larger scale industries explored and causes identified the way to address the situation assessed. And the practices of small-scale oil palm fruit processors has shown storage of palm fruits for a long period before boiling. Then disposed of effluent into drains using spent tyres for boiling fruits clarification of oil. 54% of processors store palm fruits weeks by processing, fermentation, to increase extractability and reduce labour costs. Storage period of quality affect quantity of seasonal oil content of oil palm fruits. Innovation in small-scale oil palm fruit processing will improve quality of life.15706517110758696765975411672584.jpgThe history of palm oil production dates back thousands of years, with the oldest record of its use from 3,000 BC. In late 1800s archaeologists discovered palm oil in a tomb located in Abydos, Egypt. It is believed Arab traders brought the oil to Egypt. A fresh fruit bunch (FFB). The variety shown in this picture is called Tenera. Palm oil is extracted from each of the individual fruits contained on the bunch. In 3.000 BC the mass of several kilograms of palm oil found in a vessel enclosed in a tomb at Abydos. In Middle 15th Century written records of palm oil used as a local food source by European travelers to West Africa. By 16th & 17th Century red palm oil an important item in the developing trade network used in supplying caravans or ships of Atlantic slave trade. In the 18th Century British industrial revolution created a palm oil demand for candle-making or lubricant for machines supplied by exports from West Africa. In 19th Century European run plantations set up in Central Africa and Southeast Asia traded the palm oil.15706539056746807580998390183146.jpgIn 1902 Germans invested in Cameroon after the discovery of the Tenera breed of palm oil. This high-yielding breed is used today in large-scale plantations. In  1910 Palm oil introduced to Malaysia by a Scotsman named William Sime and an Englishman Henry Darby. Between 1940 and 1960 technological improvement in edible oil refining and transport driven use of unrefined unhydrogenated palm oil in western foods. 1970-1990 Malaysia emerged as the worlds largest palm oil producer. By 1990 global production of palm oil reached more than 11 million metric tonnes. Palm oil primary source of dietary fat for countless people has nutritional and healing properties.15707025711802215076446866121332.jpg 15707023867614656298759665449622.jpgIt is recognised for generations till modern medicine arrived. Red palm oil was the remedy of choice for nearly all illness in many parts of Africa. If someone is sick they drank a cup full of palm oil. Many people in villages rely on such age-old method of treatment. And Palm oil is regarded essential diet for pregnant and nursing women for assured good health of mother and child. Scientists recognise value of red palm oil in treatment or prevention of diseases. Scientific presentation International Conference Centre Birmingham Biomedical Science Congress, Dr. Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju, Department, Biomedical Sciences, said. Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University, Technology, Bellville Campus, South Africa further elucidated potential of red palm oil in moderation in the healing process body.1570653776803564907221306921431.jpg

Scientifically palm oil Elaeis Guineensis is super abundantly used in West Africa. Archaeological evidence on the palm oil consumption was found in Egypt over 5000 years ago. Essentially contains rich naturally balanced mixture of saturated monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats providing high level of bioavaliable nutrients than other vegetable sources. Like coconut, olive oil, palm oil is rich in medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), that mobilise body fat stores,increasing the metabolic rate as great source of energy. Palm oil is a rich source of antioxidants, especially Vitamin E. Health benefits of Vitamin E are known but Vitamin E has a complex constituents broken into the two groups of: tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) and the tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). While alpha tocopherol form most commonly marketed as Vitamin E, full spectrum of tocoperols and tocotrienols are required for optimal assimilation. And the super-antioxidant tocotrienols are important for optimal health. Natural antioxidants free radical plays the protective role in cellular aging, atherosclerosis, cancer, arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease.15706537529773419511003640038535.jpgResearchers believe the tocopherols and tocotrienols together provide necessary constituents to help limit damage from heart attack. Red palm oil supplies fatty acids essential for proper growth and development packed with assortment of vitamins, antioxidants, phytonutrients important for good health. So red colour comes from carotenes or beta-carotene and lycopene nutrients in tomatoes and carrots, other fruits, vegetables rich red and orange colours. Carotene’s valuable nutrients and powerful antioxidants are important because body converts into Vitamin A essential nutrient. Vitamin A deficiency can cause blindness, weaken bones, lower immunity, affect learning ability and mental function. Vitamin A in animal foods expensive some vegans want ban or cruelty in animal habitats.15707025212438153787872091408675.jpg 15707023009553670867157174083217.jpg15707023485737659382483707018386.jpg15707176753381643729453294235136.jpgwp-1570741499587.jpgIMG-20191010-WA0005.jpgIMG-20191010-WA0003.jpg15707183188916186410944286321541.jpg20191010_152936.jpgIMG-20191010-WA0004.jpg15707178683191311551244837819910.jpg15707179328823524300200961852299.jpg15707182551946714893949256711393.jpgIMG-20191009-WA0004.jpg15707180654631981086166843417443.jpg15707211799281650153418785419437.jpg15707249146877329145770675166689.jpg15707250221878825410605637871063.jpg1570724333720225742802031718484.jpg20191010_171100.jpgwp-1570727828248.jpgwp-1570727791770.jpg15707239639317669594999625097790.jpg15707266362638432679305406668006.jpg15707268852772449390352852451927.jpg1570726148206947713565204450155.jpg15707270696093181152666151376351.jpgCarotenes in fruits and palm vegetables supply needed Vitamin A in adequate amount of the fat consumed. Carotenes fat converted into Vitamin A. People need healthy product palm fat in small doses. Around 90% of palm oil is used in food culinary purposes in the cosmetics, shampoos and soaps. Palm oil popular biofuel. Traditional African medicine uses these Elaeis guineensis as laxative stimulates production of urine, poison antidote, can cure gonorrhoea, treat skin infection. But not harmless as studies link palm oil to cardiovascular diseases. To produce palm oil the fruit is collected from trees, which live average of 28 to 30 year. If trees grow too high it is difficult to reach fruit so cut down to make room for new trees contributing to the deforestation of the rainforests.20191012_105325.jpgPalm nut fiber separator machine and the palm fiber polishing machine called palm nut fibre separator machine.The palm nut fibre separator machine is an inclined cylindrical revolving machine used for separating the palm nuts from fibers. These palm nut fibre separators machine have screens in various sizes from which fibers escape, leaving nuts behind. The separated nuts are collected in cylindrical screen and bottom. Work principle of palm nut fiber separator machine: The palm nut fiber separator machine inclined cylindrical revolving machine heaves all around suitable size screen from fibres but palm nuts do not escape. Travelling mixture from upper end to lower end of the machine fibres escape from cylindrical screen as palm nuts are collected from the lower end of the nut fibre separator.20191012_105224.jpgPalm nut fiber separator is produced by Henan Doing Company to sell to small scale industries. Larger and heavier duty industrial machines exist churning tons if palm fibre in the processing of pal oil.  Fibres are used in the boiler as fuel. Palm nuts are sold out to palm kernel oil mill where they crack palm nuts to get palm kernels extract so palm kernels used for palm kernel oil.20191012_105131.jpgPalm nuts are used in a palm kernel oil mill plant for extracting palm kernel oil. Palm kernel cracked, separated by machine cleaning crushing, cooking and pressing. Small scale palm oil mill plant palm nut fiber separator machine is dispensable. Those who want to get palm kernel oil expand production with enough budget can buy palm nut fiber separator machine. Palm kernel cracking and separating machine.20191012_105017.jpgPalm nut fibre separator machine is a next process palm kernel oil processing machine for palm kernel cracking and separating machine. This palm kernel cracking and separating machine is also specially and newly developed to be used for cracking and separating palm nuts. It consists of palm nuts cracking machine, palm nuts kernel separator machine. Palm nuts cracking machine is mainly applicable for dividing the palm kernels into the outer hard shell with high efficiency. The palm nuts kernel separating machine is for separating the palm nuts kernels from the cracked shells clearly and completely. Despite modern industrial developments of this technology majority of people still use ancient traditional harvesting of palm fruit and processing manually. Involves the whole family or a cooperative small scale industry in their communities. Yet some campaign to curb overuse of lands destroying habitats of over 200 species of animals. Professional palm kernel oil extraction machine palm kernel crusher and separator also reduce employment as fewer people needed compared to the manual process. Overall palm oil is a good investment if properly managed. The other side of the coin is tons of the one use only plastic container wastes if not recycled for other purposes.