CHRISTIAN TEXTS EFFACED

3111Extraordinary discovery by eagle-eyed scholar identified the shadowy outlines of passages from Bible behind eighth century manuscript of the Qur’an. This is evidence of a recorded palimpsest in which a Christian text has been effaced to make way for the Islamic text. French scholar Dr Eléonore Cellard was looking for images of a palimpsest page sold a decade earlier by Christie’s when she came across the auction house’s latest catalogue, which included fragments from a manuscript of the Qur’an which Christie’s dated to eighth century AD or second century of Islam. Scrutinising the image, she noticed that, appearing faintly behind the Arabic script, were Coptic letters. She contacted Christie’s, and they managed to identify the Coptic text as coming from the Old Testament’s Book of Deuteronomy part of the Torah and the Christian Old Testament. This is important discovery for the history of the Qur’an and early Islam shows the cultural interactions between different religious communities, said Cellard who is attached to the College de France. “It’s extraordinary said Christie’s specialist Romain Pingannaud. “Once you know it’s there, you can only see it, it becomes so obvious but missed at the beginning. It’s fascinating, particularly because it’s the example where you have an Arabic text on top of non-Arabic text. And even more fascinating it is on top of passages from the Old Testament … It shows the contact between communities in first centuries of Islam; it’s very relevant.” So Christie’s, is offering the fragments for auction with a guide price of £80,000-£120,000 on Thursday. The manuscript is likely to have been produced in Egypt, as home to the Coptic community, at the time of the Arab conquest. It said these fragments “resonate with the historical reality of religious communities in Near East and as an invaluable survival from the earliest centuries of Islam.” While the writing style of Qur’an scribe dates it to around the eighth century or early ninth century, its not possible to identify how much older original Coptic writing is although the formation of the letters means it is unlikely to be written earlier than the seventh century, according to Pingannaud. “Carbon 14 testing would date only the material, not the writing, but it’s quite destructive and folios are too thin,” he said. Qur’anic palimpsests extremely rare according to Christie’s, with only handful previously recorded, not copied above a Christian text. Other examples of Qur’anic palimpsests of two leaves from a seventh-century Hijazi Qur’an is copied above an earlier version of the Qur’an. “We think this is because the Qur’an is an important text although vellum was very expensive the Qur’an was always written on the new material so they use new material,” said Pingannaud. It was, “quite common in the Byzantine and Greek worlds to have palimpsests” he added. “Parchment is very strong, it doesn’t suffer too much it’s sensitive to humidity but very solid,” he said. “At the time it was erased the parchment was probably like new and it’s with centuries passing ink sank into parchment provides an image seen.”

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OUR INTERCONNECTEDNESS

cultural-diversityToday our interconnectedness requires caring compassion more than ever before for a common good for all in society. In John Ford’s film The Searchers, John Wayne’s character spends years looking for his niece Debbie kidnapped as child by Comanche Indians. When he finally finds her, she wanted to stay with her Comanche husband rather than return home. Although shocking in the film, it’s historically accurate. Whites captured by American Indians commonly chose to stay with their captors and the book cites a case of a captive woman who hid from her would-be rescuers. Sebastian Junger argues in his book that people need to feel connected to others. During war often people from different classes mixed in the ways they did not before and joined together in the face of a common enemy. More astonishingly, from the earliest days of Europeans in America, settlers of both sexes ran away to join Indian tribes. This was not just a few people but hundreds of hundreds as the practice was so rife in the early 1600s settler leaders made it an offence with harsh punishments. But over the following centuries people still ran off in huge numbers. It hardly happened the other way, Indians did not want to join white society. The attraction argues Junger, was the sense of community, the importance of the tribe, evident in other primates primitive human societies. The superficial attractive American Indian life was obvious: more relaxed, clothing more comfortable, religion less harsh. It was mostly structure of Indian society appeal as less hierarchical, essentially classless, egalitarian.438a8-jewish2bimmigration2brussia2bto2bunited2bstates252c2bcopyright2bby2bheb-2bpub-2bco-2b1901252c2bpublic2bdomain2bvia2bwikimedia2bcommons People nomadic so personal property hardly mattered, as limited to what you or horses could carry. What changed this natural way of living for humans was agriculture and industry. And accumulation of personal property led to people doing what they thought best for themselves, rather than for the common good. But, Junger, says we are not happy like this we’re wired to the lifestyle of community tribe. Take the London Blitz during World War II as it began the government feared there would be riots and maybe revolution as people fought one another for space in bomb shelters or for food but infact exactly the reverse happened. People from all different classes mixed in a way they had not before joined together in face of common enemy. Historians credit ‘spirit of the Blitz’ as the cause of the Labour landslide victory in the 1945 election, strong feeling for community led to foundation of NHS and a robust welfare state. Percentage of buildings in Hull destroyed in the Blitz. Junger, an American journalist and former war correspondent, gives many examples of what our modern way of living cost us. In a modern city or suburb you can go through an entire day meeting only strangers. Affluence, urbanisation rise, rates of suicide, depression go up. The World Health Organisation says people in wealthy countries suffer eight times depression rate of those in poorer ones. When we revert to group for support in a community tribe things improve.Sebastian Junger argues in this book that people need to feel connected to others. During the war, people from different classes mixed in a way they hadn¿t before and joined together in the face of a common enemy  Those caught up in the bloody conflict in Bosnia say they were happier during challenges. The reason was all pulled together and so felt connected part of something bigger than themselves and spent time embedded with others. U.S. troops in Afghanistan said they never felt alone there, soldiers slept a dozen to a shelter you couldn’t stretch an arm without touching someone. People of all colours, classes, creeds bonded as they had to look out for one another. So idea of interconnectedness is associated with sustainability, in reference to the manner in which environment, society, and economic systems are inextricably linked. Interconnectedness also refers to phenomena not structured hierarchy systems for dominance and control. So the internet and flight make the world closer than ever before so distance is no longer an issue. The interconnectedness of things allows that common language to take full advantage of all societies in a new way. Breaking all of society into a long-term patterns of change in human interconnectedness. Rising level of such interconnectedness has ‘civilising’ effect in encouraging societies to form ‘unions of states’ to respond to shared problems. These outline of global cliques intensify difference more than common good.  In tribes survival individual depends upon survival of group. Lack of kind support makes it hard for the returning combat veterans to reintegrate in contemporary fragmented society lifestyles. unity-is-found-in-gods-wordAbove all, people need to feel connected to others. It’s a good starting point for rethinking the way we live our troubled modern lives. Community spirit in U.S. rocketed after 9/11. And the suicide rate dropped dramatically. There were no rampage shootings in public places in schools, colleges for 2 years. Shootings happen in middle-class rural suburban areas never in poor inner-city location, gangs provide tribal sense of belonging. Bonding with larger group often begins at birth in and less developed countries children sleep with in close proximity to parents and extended family group. In Northern European countries and U.S. small children sleep alone so go through a developmental stage of bonding with stuffed animals, ‘comfort’ blankets. In Junger’s book self-determination theory of things necessary is life contentment. People need to feel competent at what they do to feel authentic in life. Above all, they need to feel connected with others. It’s a good starting point for rethinking the way we live our troubled modern lives. In Bible this deep sense of intricate belonging is described as the parts of bespoke wheel joined together to function congruently in unison. Each codepends on others to work together and in isolation is just a piece of tool not accomplishing good by itself. Is a notion built upon word of God that it is better to give than to receive. The joy of relief shared being helpful to each other strengthens group rather than division by haves and the have-nots suffering. Coupled with their pressure is a fear of constantly looking over their shoulder of threats of others taking back what they usurped. Means they never relax or feel secure at peace. The inner peace and inner joy thought to be gained by excessive gains and superabundance is illusive replaced by worries. Jesus told the rich young man to sell all to help the poor yet society is enthusiastic about loving money more than loving precious priceless humans. Fragmented society divides materialism which does not constitute real life and yer an entire lifetime is spent collecting and preserving material possessions left behind. Absolutely nothing is taken into the grave but those things caused stress of a lifetime misled to value them as the status of life. Within a second life passes helplessly without those very material things life is enslaved to produce. All the precious years wasted acquiring, chasing, replacing, storing, maintaining if only spent better to take more care of all humans as Jesus recommended. And the cycle continues getting worse as the trend to accumulate more deprives all others more marshal laws are made to safeguard and enforced at cost of whole community deprived. The irony is those communities that hold onto intergrated values of common good for all are being threatened and endangered by a selfish few destroying their own. They stretch further and further afield with a sight on conquering the whole world even if it means losing their souls. This further leads to disappointment, resentment, conflict over demands for fairness and justice. The good news is there is soon coming a great day of recompense to restore all the years the cankerworm and locusts eaten times of double restoration. God is resetting agenda to take back nations to be given rightful owner LORD Jesus.

LOVED ONES AFTER DEATH

The question asked often is where do the loved ones go after death so debate focusses on Biblical perspective. Many theories or lots of views exist but focus here is from the Bible’s perspective to clarify this topic. This discussion based on desire of loved ones for reassurance of knowing loved ones are at peace. And for comfort in grief to know if they are alright. This above video explains Bible texts clearly to help better understand a Godly view as taught by Jesus. The Bible teaches these facts on heaven, paradise, sheol, gehenna, hell and says according to your faith be it unto you. So all those who do not believe in John 14:3 Jesus already prepared heaven for their Spirit from God alive after death to return to God stay asleep till after millineal Reign of Christ. The Spirit soul life breath from God NEVER DIES returns to LORD GOD in heaven. The dust human flesh stays in the grave until Resurrection stated in Ecclesiastes Chapters 9 and 12. Due to unbelief God allows permissive will to sleep until the second final Resurrection of the white throne judgement. Stubborn unbelief means Jesus let some stay asleep not wakened by Christ in first Resurrection Rapture to go into heaven. Those in Christ Spirit comes alive with Jesus so reunited with body seen by all TRANSFORMS INTO HEAVENLY BODIES. All alive in Christ together with risen dead transformed, like Enoch, Elijah ALIVE INTO HEAVEN. JESUS ALIVE IN HEAVEN, ABRAHAM IN HEAVEN, Lazarus is in heaven in bosom of ABRAHAM. God allows people to get what they prefer if they do not believe in living in presence of God with Jesus, 24 elders from Israel surrounding Throne of God. The 12 Apostles + 12 Elders of tribes of Israel are 24 elders. Moses and Elijah from heaven met Jesus, Peter, James, John in transfiguration. Heaven found by NASA recorded for all to see on Google. God Dwells in heaven and lives with saints who DIED IN CHRIST. Those who prefer to remain on earth forever are permitted to do so. Believers in CHRIST arise in Rapture Resurrection but unbeliever earth dwellers rise after 1000 year millineal Reign of Christ so remain on earth till New Heaven and New Earth comes to Jerusalem with God Dwelling among men on perfect earth. Some do not believe they are CHOSEN in Christ to enter God’s PRESENCE in heaven so granted their unbelief to live on earth. Their spirit remains asleep so Christ let’s them stay on earth forever. They think heaven is too good to be true so do not feel worthy of God’s Presence to be with God in heaven. God said in Bible people have no idea the glorious things God prepared awaiting believers IN CHRIST going straight to God in heaven. Mankind is mere dust without Spirit of God alive in them. This is why all people are God’s creation but only those in CHRIST are God’s Children chosen to live with God in heaven. God has so many mansions prepared in heaven for all the countless multitudes from all the nations, tribes, tongues, including sealed 144,000 Jews from 12 tribes × 12,000 male virgins from Israel in Revelations not Jehovah’s witnesses. If man-made space station is able to survive in space so its POSSIBLE God the CREATOR of heaven and earth has palace home in heaven too. God easily created humans, firmaments, universe, all things on earth, in heaven, under earth and seas. So is there anything too hard for God to create heaven, angels or saints living with billions of people over many generations in heaven HE built, with most precious jewels to return soul back to God in heaven? 

MEN’S SAD GRIEVING ISSUES

Bearded adult man with migraine headacheGrief is an inevitable part of every human life, regardless of gender. It is also one of the great isolating forces in the lives of men. Male grief is all too often invisible, misunderstood, and unwanted, which leaves many men in the difficult position of having to deal with their grief on their own, if they deal with it at all. Most men myself included routinely reject vital aspects of themselves and their histories because they do not want, or do not know how, to feel and move through the grief that is bound up and waiting inside them. The fear of being shamed by another when most vulnerable of being stripped of one’s masculinity by women as well as by other men is powerful motivation not to feel and express one’s grief. The requirement to go into grief all alone, in secret for lack of understanding, trusted support is another prime or completely understandable reason for avoidance. There is a deep and profound loneliness in knowing one must do such difficult, intense work alone, without witness, and it’s no wonder so many men don’t want to do it. I fight that battle myself all the time. Today I’d like to share excerpts from three posts I’ve seen recently on the subject of male grief that shine some light on this important and severely neglected aspect of the masculine experience. My hope is that, in some very near future, the dialogue about male grief can become far more common and open than it is today, so that men who are grieving can come out of the shadows and men who need to grieve, but haven’t felt the freedom and support necessary to do so, can begin.repast-after-funeral_f20726a791b0215c

Women Learn About Male Grief
The first selection, written by Mark Mercer, is called “What Women Should Know About Male Grief”. Mark, who has been a hospice bereavement director and counselor for 18 years, says, “Men grieve far more than shown or discuss. I would certainly agree. Excerpt is almost never cry in front of other men. If we feel that a woman is “safe,” we may cry with her. But most of our tears are shed when we are alone, perhaps while driving our vehicles. In too many cases, our hot tears become a deep-freeze of anger or rage. Most very angry men are very sad men dealing with grief. You can read Mark’s entire post hereFor additional thoughts on how women can create safe emotional space for men who are grieving, see my companion post “What If He Cries?” here.men-3-300x200

Teenage Boys – Grieving and Loss
The second post, written by Earl Hipp, is called “Teen Boys – Grief and Loss”. Earl is involved with groups, organizations that focus on men’s issues, development for over thirty years. In his post, Earl talks about learning, as a boy and young man, how he was supposed to deal with grief and loss: The absence of support, or even positive role modeling around dealing with loss, grief, communicated a pretty clear message: You’re on your own, just deal with it. I did … became a kid who was emotionally bound up, pressurized, and lived with thick veneer as shield over all anger and sadness. On the top I wore an “I’m OK” mask. I know that story all too well, as do countless men. Earl’s focus, as always, is on using his own experience as a starting point to help succeeding generations avoid the traps and pitfalls that have caused, and are still causing, so much pain for so many boys and men, and he devotes the majority of the post to that task. You can read Earl’s full post here.depositphotos_53419697-stock-photo-young-man-lost-in-depression

Tom Golden’s The Way Men Heal
The third and final post is a reader review by Andy Thomas of the new book The Way Men Heal. The author of the book, Tom Golden, has been exploring, writing, and speaking on the subject of male grief for many years. In his review, Andy shares a personal experience that illustrates how the taboo against male grief is often enforced, not only for the man who is grieving, but for any other man or boy who might be watching: The day after my Dad died, I was speaking to a friend of his when I broke down, cried briefly I was interrupted by a woman who had known my father but who did not know me. She asked, what would my 4 year old niece think if she saw me crying while handing me a tissue I did not want. Had I been a woman, no doubt she would have put her arm around me, but as a man I was politely told to “man up” my pain was embarrassing her. As someone who has a certain awareness of society’s different expectations for men and women, this experience came as no great surprise to me. For young minds, such experiences are painful however, and quickly teach young boys that “real men don’t cry.” They learn how to keep pain to themselves. Again, this story no doubt resonate powerfully and personally with a lot of men. You can find out more about Tom Golden’s book, The Way Men Heal, here.44934bcc89d831c518266700e7fbc0dc

Male Grief: Not Alien Concept
I hope these excerpts will encourage you to read the full posts and learn more about the male experience of grief in all its aspects. I recall being quite mystified 30 years ago when I was first introduced to the subject via the work of Robert Bly, John Lee, and Dan Jones. They all emphasized critical importance of a man’s awareness of his own grief, his conscious relationship with it, and his ability to feel it and to allow it to move through him so that his natural energy and innate masculine power would not be blocked and withheld, both from himself and the world. At the time, all that talk of grief mystified me. I didn’t have any idea what it was. I was keenly aware I was angry, frustrated, lonely, sad, depressed … had no sense of any grief. I didn’t really understand what grief was or how it might feel. It seemed completely abstract to me, completely foreign. Perplexed, I wrote poem “grief” found in my book Iron Man Family Outing one day as a way of trying to figure out what this grief that I kept hearing about might be. After many years of hard work, I understand. I’m far from fully comfortable with my own grief, but it’s no longer an alien concept to me. I hope to see the day when male grief is no longer an alien concept to other men, and to the women around them, as well.

Image: “Blue Spaceman” by David Jewell. Used by permission. This post is part of Common Grief, a Healthy Living editorial initiative. Grief is an inevitable part of life, but that doesn’t make navigating it any easier. The deep sorrow that accompanies the death of a loved one, the end of a marriage or even moving far away from home, is real. But while grief is universal, we all grieve differently. So we started Common Grief to help learn from each other. Let’s talk about living with loss. If you have a story you’d like to share, email us at strongertogether@huffingtonpost.com.

THE SPRITE THUNDERLIGHTS

Upperatmoslight1Stunning images of the seldom seen elusive sky phenomenon known as sprites. These brilliant strands of red light surge outbound from the tops of clouds towards space by thunderstorms emitting lightning. “Sprites can reach 50-60 miles into space and penetrate downward into the middle of the stratosphere 15-20 miles high.with jellyfish-like tendrils.” imrsGod’s Majestic displays of lightenings or thunder are often interpreted in various ways by Scientists and religious people as signs from their gods. Interestingly in the Bible God often displays thundering and lightenings as signs of HIS presence when God reveals HIMSELF to address HIS people. God’s natural phenomena is displaying HIS majestic wonders. The 7 Thunders sealed by Daniel from God’s Throneroom endtime signs or wonders from heaven. imrs (1)The above sprite was seen in Oklahoma, often last milliseconds so rarely visible from the ground due to the clouds in the way, precious few sprites have been observed. Ahrns, a graduate student at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks and crew of scientists are flown on several sprite-hunting missions from NCAR’s Research Aviation Flight Facility centre. The ISS provides a clear perspective on The Earth’s Weather. _100729621_thunderstorm_seen_from_space_stationThere are bizarre happenings in upper atmosphere of the earth so new mission wants to know more about it. These is done by Atmosphere-Space Interaction Monitor (ASIM), will be brought to the International Space Station on Monday, observes strange electricity phenomena that occur over thunderstorms. The ISS operating at height circulated over 400 km, offers perfect view of the turbulent weather of earth. ASIM will be deployed aboard the station later this month.Media Caption A thunderstorms by ISS. Electrifying effects of storms observed from the space station. When lightning strikes, something completely different happens over the tops of clouds. Known as Transient Luminous Events (TLE the unusual features were first discovered by chance. Thunderstorms are some of the most spectacular events in nature but what is seen from surface of our planet is just beginnings of wonders. 

Courtesy Images:

CWG’s Don Lipman wrote post in 2012. NCAR’s Research Aviation Flight Facility in Boulder Related: Red sprites, blue jets, elves mysterious, elusive phenomena.

 

A SOCIAL GOSPEL OF JESUS

the-new-evangelization-and-social-justice-6-638Jesus preached a social gospel typically to diverse audience of religious leaders, governors, media, officials, the masses, to reach their heart, mind, body, soul to relate with others on Godly terms. This theme King put in historical context as part of social justice to bring awareness to each other. Especially with regard to God’s superabundant human resources provided and entrusted to all as stewards. Reverend King, the prophet, theologian, scholar, preacher, pastor dwelt on these social gospel themes analysing society’s lifelong struggles for economic justice, empowerment of the poor working-class people of all colours. King described himself as “profound advocate of social gospel” who tried to teach the capitalist system not to put profit, property rights ahead of basic human rights demanded people have adequate food, education, housing, decent job, well paid income. His more revolutionary quest for social justice, society above racist poverty, prevention of war not celebrated as his peaceful civil rights movement. Martin Luther King Jr. emphasised there is no intrinsic difference between workers. And King told American Federation of Labour and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) an American important trade union in 1963, that skin colour, ethnicity must not divide those working for a living, he said. “Economic justice,” King said, required land so men must not take all the basic necessities to give luxuries to the few,” and “where all our gifts and resources are held not for ourselves alone but as instruments of service for the rest of humanity.” Same year, King called on President J. F Kennedy to honour emancipation of African-Americans from slavery in 100 years before. King said, a new freedom agenda is necessary. People gather at the end of the Poor People March on 19 June 19 1968 in Washington DC.This agenda was not only about civil rights so 28 August demonstration culminated in King’s “I Have a Dream” speech publicized 4th April Washington for Job Freedom. It was result of many years of organizing by black workers and their unions. In his speech, King said nations gave former slaves a “bad check” promise of freedom that did not materialize. And generations later, his dream is for equal rights for substantive change in people’s economic and social conditions. Though country’s adoption of Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act completed “first phase” of freedom movement King said. The “second phase” was for “economic equality” so everyone could have a well-paying job or basic level of income with decent levels of healthcare, education and housing. In October 1966, 100,000 copies of the booklet A Freedom Budget for All Americans, with introduction by King distributed by unions. Freedom Budget proposed a second New Deal to promote job growth of living wages for public spending on social goods. After 50 years since Martin Luther’s demand for equal human rights for all people, it is sad go say things have gotten worse. Although it is true that great strides are achieved since 50 years, some of these issues got worse for working classes. So many are suffering although they built the country and their labour, resourses or blood sacrificed as veterans to fight and defend country they do not receive the due entitlement. As a matter of fact society has shifted from human centred needs of Marlow’s hierarchy to selfish few depriving the majority. The divide of haves and have nots intensified and so many thousands now homeless and without food daily. It is scandalous tons of perfectly good food, clothes, items are thrown away instead of giving it to poor starving and dying daily. Government issued final warning to the businesses to report gender pay gap by midnight it emerged Conservative party did not plan to file its own figures until a day after the deadline. Amber Rudd, the minister for women and equalities as well as home secretary, said there was no excuse for businesses not to be transparent as deadline on Wednesday 4th approached warned them refusing to report is breaking law. Jesus-expulsa-vendilhoes-do-templo IMG_20180424_195818Those with 250 or more employees had until before midnight to meet the legal requirement to report a pay gap data to government or face enforcement action by Equality Commission. 50 years after Martin Luther King’s pleas for the social and economic system justice still society seems worse off. Jesus said the rich are getting richer while the poor get poorer due to greed of those in charge of God’s resources misallocated. Hardworking people are poorest dealing with lack of resources, hunger, poverty inspite of challenges keep their heads up high with dignity. Those in charge label them “lazy” underclass not worth same equal treatment. Those entrusted responsible to provide equally for them hurt them by their unfair policies. The world sees more wealth and more resources than ever before limited exclusively to those few privileged at the top. They ensure all their needs and luxurious wants met but despise other’s needs and refuse to provide for them. Many suffer and die needlessly because of such treatments and unfair policies. #Paymetoo women’s platform seeks justice from boardrooms exclusively run by men without realistic knowledge of women and family needs. Society is still run by draconian policies that treat women as inferior weaker sex not competent as male counterparts. So refuse to recognise great talents and the achievements of women globally in all spheres of life. Some men literally think paying women well diminishes power over them use pay gap to bully women. Interesting colleagues trained by same experts, graduates of same universities, employed by same company refuse to pay them equally because is male and other female. Gender is used to punish career women working twice to run the home, family and gender discrimination at work. 21st Century women in space contribute to all aspects of life. Behind every successful man is a woman and men need women’s input so pay well. It is important macho policies recognise a need to provide to help working-class children’s life chances and wellbeing as they are introducing policies actively to make their lives worse. Look at anti-welfare measures like cutting “in-work” benefits freezing housing and children’s benefits. So education system scrapped education maintenance grants, stripped school budgets so teachers are unable to afford paper for their pupils. Closure of local youth clubs and children’s centres as research from Barnardo’s this week finds funding to early-years children’s services has been cut by 50% in some areas since 2010. Families now choose between eating and buying medicines. social justice and the gospelPeople gather at the end of Poor People March on 19 June 1968 in Washington DC. Photograph: Arnold Sachs/AFP/Getty Images Before travelling to Memphis in 1968 to participate in garbage-workers’ strike King had been criss-crossing the country for weeks, promoting a multi-racial coalition to pressure Congress to reallocate money from Vietnam war to money for human needs. King called it Poor People’s Campaign so promoted an economic bill of rights for all Americans including five pillars of meaningful jobs at a living wage; a secure and adequate income; access to land; access to capital, for poor people, minorities; ability for ordinary people to play truly significant role in government. It was, King said, a “last ditch” effort to save America from the interrelated evils of racism, poverty and war. Historians constantly search for and reshape knowledge of the past, based on challenges faced in their own times. Public awareness focus on King’s “first phase” of the movement, for civil voting, rights, a plethora of scholarship sees King as inconvenient hero who led a movement beyond civil rights to more fundamental economic or social change.JIMEverything decent and fair in American life is under threat, King said in his time so all must do well to remember a fight for economic justice as King’s dream for better encompassing American society. Remembering King’s economic justice, broadly conceived helps understand the relevance of his legacy today. It helps us to realize King’s moral discourse of the gap between “haves and the have-nots” from his role in labour movement and civil rights movements. Remembering eloquent man in the Lincoln Memorial in 1963, remembers King as man on the streets, sitting in jail cells, or as a man rousing workers at union conventions and on union picket lines. Remembered as nonviolent surrounded by a violent police, screaming mobs, and physically assaulted by white racists sometimes. It is essential all nations remember King’s crusade seeking justice and fairness for all alternatives to America’s exploitative racial capitalism. King is remembered as a pioneer helping to understand the agenda for modern times. Exploitative capitalism will come to an end as Bible warns in the book of Revelations.

  • Adapted from To the Promised Land: Martin Luther King and the Fight for Economic Justice by Michael K Honey. Copyright © 2018 by Michael K Honey. With permission of the publisher, WW Norton, Inc. All rights reserved