JESUS KING OF Kings/Princes

20190901_215455.jpgJesus is KING OF Kings and Princes Who return to rule in Israel. Revelation 20:4+ says resurrected saints rule and reign with Christ. Jesus and saints return with a heavenly army in Jude 1:14 as Enoch the seventh from Adam prophesied. The Lord comes with ten thousands of His saints and many passages in the old and new testament confirm saints will rule. Isaiah 32:1 says the righteous reign with Messiah and princes rule with justice. Daniel and John says saints rule after the beast destroyed in Revelation 19:20 in Second Coming of Christ, reign of saints not yet come. Four kings arise out of earth but saints of Most High God will receive to possess kingdoms forever in Daniel 7:17-18. The Ancient of Days will come to judge but favour saints of Most High in Daniel 7:21-22. God’s Kingdom,  dominion, greatness of kingdoms under the whole heaven given saints. Kingdom is everlasting, dominions will serve and obey Jesus in Daniel 7:27. Jesus given an authority over cities Luke 19:17-19. Not as James and John want position on left and right of Jesus share rule in Mathew 20:20, Mark 10:37. Revelation 3:21 says Jesus tells overcomers to sit with Him on His throne as He sits on His father’s throne: God’s gives high authority to the believers with Jesus on David’s throne in Matthew 25:31 as kings on this earth. This kings and priests of God’s kingdom iRevelation 5:10 reign in the FUTURE as kings and priests to God. Joint heirs with Jesus as believers in God’s Word by royal priesthood. New new creations as His special people, Body of Christ, heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ Jesus. KINGS AND PRIEST.jpgAs Jesus Rules and Reigns all in Christ will rule and reign as kings, queens and royal priests on earth. Jesus is ONLY KING’S KINGDOM citizens made Kings and Queens. People in other kingdoms are NOT ALL Kings as UNIQUE Kingdom of God. People must know because some are going around saying they kings and queens. In Deuteronomy 17:14–15, God said, “ In land the LORD your God gives you say, ‘set king over us like all nations be sure to appoint a king LORD chooses. God promised Jacob, Nations will come from you and kings among descendants in Genesis 35:11, Genesis 36:31; 49:10; Numbers 24:7–9; Deuteronomy 28:36. In Bible, Jezebel the woman she – devil in 1 Kings 16:31; 18:4-19; 19:1, 2; 21:5-25; 2 Kings 9 manipulates King Ahab to control nation. Its a misnomer to encourage the people to think all are kings and queens all at the same time. One reigning king and queen and subordinate kings and queen living in harmony. Hierarchy structure of kingship is birthright seniority from God but exceptions happen on special occasions. Hierarchy structure includes set formal positions with authority of each king. A paramount King is bowed to by lesser king during durbars. During procession event lesser king got out of his palaquin to walk on foot by a Senior King’s palace as a sign of respect and honour. Repeats again on return after procession to sit in palaquin after passing the King’s palace. Each king holds their strategic positions in battle knows which location to be in to cover the Senior King permanently associated with each kingdom. These kings meet together at international and local level to help celebrate community and to keep in touch with the citizens. thought-1.jpgDisputes or differences settled amicably but warring faction may disagree on the issues they do not see eye to eye. This is a traditional kingship which treats their king as God’s representative on earth. A lesser king brings specific gifts, tributes, to the Senior Kings. During the hunting season parts of the game veal belonging to Senior King given to them. A public  sitting, arrival, processions are all based on preset protocol of Kingdom structure for thousands of years. Highly followed protocol based on hierarchy of an office and position of a king is established by the traditions. They are not based on the favouritism or popularity of the King or opinions of the people. Those close to a kings family are trained from birth to be aware of these traditions. People not familiar with a kingdom rule may find a standard protocol strange but it has the very role to establish order and security or safety. Some misunderstand protocol demand to be treated as they like do not respect a traditional setting structure. Some declare they are kings wear huge gold chains, gold teeth, distorts true reality of kingship. Lack humility and mislead people by delusion of grandeur megalomaniac impostor syndrome of a royal paranoia always feeling superior to others. Do not submit to authority or understand that kings are not arrogant pompous tyrants who order the people around. Its King makers who choose a humble considerate and pliable person they feel will cope well with position. They are trained and taught kingship is duty for life not self aggrandisement for negative attention seeking behaviour to outshine others and to show off to the world. It is essential to educate modern generations about social structure to understand role of subjects and citizens. Lack of modern education makes social media want to dictate structures they do not fully understand. Security reasons require discreet communication silence, using trained eyes, blink, wink, handle position of teacup, bags, subtle language in the presence of dignitaries. One cannot be blunt, raw or outspoken all the time for personal safety. Revelation 8:1 says when the Lamb opens seventh seal is silence in heaven for about half an hour. There is a time to speak and a time to be silent we must know when to talk and when to say nothing as Bible says in Ecclesiastes 3:17. Jesus SUBMITS to God yet He is the ONLY KING of Kings SEATED AT GOD’S RIGHT HAND. Good to know wealth or fame is not reason to become king. Some think being rich in powerful positions automatically makes them king. So make unrealistic demand on others to fulfil their fantasy so if they are rebuffed get so angry and irrational. They live in a utopia fantasy world with blindspots not realising life is tough and challenging so must adapt and grow up.  Must put other people first because life is not exclusively only all about them. IMG-20191029-WA0004.jpgThere is ONLY ONE KING OF Kings Jesus Head of all Children of God. Jesus warns in the last days highminded people who feel above their station have minds on physical things not real things of God. God is not retained in their thoughts in Psalm 10:4, Romans 1, despise authority do their own thing for they think they are superior to God and Jesus. They are presumptuous, self-willed, impose their strong will on others by their way or no way behaviour, act out of dictates of their own hearts to influence public opinion than following God with humility and trusting HIM to bring HIS WILL to pass. 2 Peter 3 says: 1 Know in the last days perilous times will come 2 people will be lovers of themselves lovers of money, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, 3 unloving, unforgiving, slanderers, without self-control, brutal, despisers of good, 4 traitors, headstrong, haughty, lovers of pleasure than lovers of God 5 having form of godliness but deny God’s power. From such turn away 6 For this sort creep in houses and make captives of silly women load down with sins, led away by lusts 7 always learning and never able to come to knowledge of truth. 8 As Jannes and Jambres resisted Moses, resist truth, men of corrupt minds disapproved of by faith 9 will not progress their folly manifests to all they misled. Man of God using Word of God must 10 follow doctrine, lead Godly life, faith, longsuffering, love, perseverance 11 face challenges like Antioch, Iconium endured as the LORD delivered. 12 All who live Godly in Christ go through life challenges 13 as the evil men impostors grow worse deceive so deceived.KINGS AND PRIESTS.jpg2 Peter 3 says 14 You continue in things learnt in childhood 15 known Holy Scriptures to make you wise for salvation by faith in Christ. 16 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God is profitable for doctrine, reproof, correction instruction, righteousness 17 man of God to be complete equipped for good works. ONLY JESUS MILLENNIAL REIGN believers made kings so don’t be deceived or think too highly of yourself not submit to God. Daniel 2:21 says God changes times seasons HE makes  kings,  removes kings, promote kings. HE gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to the humble. A TV show put only kings in a house without servants so did chores, cooked, cleaned. SOVEREIGN LORD gave Jesus all POWER of authority in heaven and earth in Matthew 28:18-19. To teach all nations, baptizing them in Name of Father God, Son, Holy Spirit. Jesus in John 14:12–14 gives power as crucified risen Christ. But satan tries to be like Most High God in Ezekiel, Isaiah 14 cast out of heaven. So Most High God is KING could not have another king in heaven. Kings and queens in kingdoms so no two kings or queens at same time. After satan cast out of heaven to earth the world became his kingdom as ruler of world in John 12:31. Kingdom of God has One KING, Jesus Christ ruling KING in 1 Corinthians 15:28. Jesus refused the offer of satan to make him king after He fasted 40 days and nights in wilderness. In future all overcomer saints rule with Jesus as sons and daughters of God. The Kingdom of God gives leadership power of dominion to saints. Jesus is Absolute KING OF Kings and Lord of lords.

 

JESUS UNITES ALL IN ISRAEL

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Galatians 3:26-28 says not a Jew, Gentile, Greek, SLAVE, free, MALE, FEMALE ALL ARE ONE IN CHRIST JESUS. In the Bible Jesus Christ of Nazareth came to SAVE to redeem ALL FAMILIES in Christ. God created all black and white people equal in God’s Kingdom, no rank, class, status. SOVEREIGN GOD JEHOVAH and CHRIST JESUS are Ultimate Authority all submit to in ETERNAL LIFE. So Matthew 22:30 says after resurrection people DO NOT MARRY so no virgins to marry. Glorified body is like angels in heaven in eternal life so no need to marry, to give birth to replenish earth in future. All restored to youthful bodies, healed, live perfectly healthy lives eternally. Love is directed totally first to God and to Jesus Christ flowing through all people. There is no need to seek fulfilment through a human being because all are fulfilled in Christ Jesus. The supernatural love God fills mankind with is superior to human love. All LOVE comes from God through Jesus the Bridegroom, enriched deeply in Christ Jesus Alone in eternal life. So human romance pales in comparison to GOD’S DEEPEST LOVE BEYOND human understanding in terms of earthly love. Earthly love is full of disappointment, pain, hurt and grief. A Heavenly LOVE yet fully experienced on earth glimpses of true love found here, there on earth.4bdde64e26478018c275ab2ae84328d6.jpgPERFECT LOVE after GLORIOUS BODY IS FOUND IN CHRIST so no human can provide angelic love for glorified body higher being in Christ Jesus. ETERNAL LIFE IN GOD’S PRESENCE is NO HATRED VENGEANCE, Bitterness or vendetta for only the PURE IN HEART FULL OF LOVE ENTER GOD’S PRESENCE. GOD IS LOVE in heaven no evil on earth exists after judgement BY JEHOVAH. Only the sheep enter heaven and goats are thrown out into hellfire burning forever. A banquet by KING MASTER JESUS for all no slaves IN HEAVEN. Emancipate yourself from the arrogant mental slavery justifying abuse of people in THE NAME of God. Vengeance belongs to Jehovah to meet out so stop misleading the people with twisted lies misquoting Bible to deceive naive vulnerable people. Only Jesus is able to Comfort us and restore PERFECT PEACE we crave because human love is limited. Be content, so grateful, thankful for families you feel not good for you. It is God who puts people in families for a reason. Trust God with your family and AVOID ANYONE WHO DIVIDES FAMILY! 29131.jpgJesus the Messiah is surrounded by His mother, father siblings in His Ministry on earth and in heaven with Jesus. Any Church that divides family is a cult for manipulation naive members to control them by CUTTING OFF from loved ones who SEE THROUGH FAKE PASTORS. The fake pastor deceives people for control weakens them without back up support challenging controlling behaviour. They fear families standing up to stop abuse so anyone who knows the Bible well or confronts them is blackmailed and also vilified to subdue members. They make examples of people to humiliate them to put fear in them to become ZOMBIES or robots they control. Beware of anyone twisting BIBLE to CONTROL your life because who the SON JESUS SETS FREE IS FREE INDEED!!! God is LOVE and by love people know you are the children of God.  Jesus LOVE YOUR ENEMIES do good to those who hate you and do not inherit enmity and hatred from a bitter miserable people preaching evil hatred.  God’s promise to Abraham the land of Israel is a BLESSING to ALL NATIONS.Galatians_3-28.jpgIn Genesis 12:2; 18:18; 22:17–18; 26:3–4 God fulfilled promise to Abraham, first in the nation of Israel then all nations. Israel’s technological, agricultural, and medical innovations, advances help all people in the world. God’s greatest meaningful fulfillment of covenant promise is Word of God Jewish people gave all world. God faithfully protects and brought Israel’s eternal salvation through faith in Jesus the Messiah. So Father God in Lord Jesus Messiah by His great mercy Christians born agains are raised the Messiah from dead. To live in future is a great expectation of priceless inheritance in heaven, pure, undefiled, beyond death and decay. Through faith, God protects by HIS power to endure to end, receive crown of life 1 Peter 1:3–5.  God’s destiny for Abraham to become the father of MULTITUDE of NATIONS includes Gentile nations fulfilled in Jesus, a direct descendant of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob Israel in Matthew 1:2–17.  God LOVES people of all tribes, tongues, nationalities, languages in Jesus as heirs of Abraham and joint heir with Christ.

imageGod’s joint heirs are kings and priests of God in Christ Jesus. There is neither Jew nor Greek, neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; you are ALL ONE IN MESSIAH YESHUA. In MESSIAH you are Abraham’s seed heirs according to promise in Galatians 3:2729. Today know Jesus better by READING BIBLE to STUDY LIKE BEREANS not just do what so called fake control freak cult pastors order you to do to manipulate your life. Messiah Jesus is coming to decide your reward based on if you are HIS SHEEP. Not what the fake prophet misquoted in Bible designed to lie to you because you lack knowledge. God says  MY PEOPLE are destroyed for lack of knowledge of Bible. God says Study to show yourself APPROVED TO GOD not show off Bible verses you memorized. But APPLY the Bible to each need you have, read the specific TEXT daily to meet your need.Galatians+3_26-28.jpgEach one faces God alone on judgement day so remember God will not ask about what the pastor told you. God demands account of your PERSONAL LIFE not the total social media number of followers, bank accounts, mansions, private jets, size of your family, your status, class, colour or race. Each person must share Gospel to DIRECT PEOPLE TO GOD IN CHRIST. The Church you attend or the denomination  is IRRELEVANT TO GOD. Letter to seven Churches in Bible warns Churches. Israel and Jewish people are ONE IN CHRIST JESUS to fulfill all God’s feasts, prophecies covenant promises.  Isaiah 27:6 says, God will cause them that come of Jacob to take root Israel shall blossom and bud to fill the face of the world with fruit. The people of Israel return from parts of the world  their ancestors dispersed take root. The land is blessed and people blessed in the world. Israel’s desert desolate is a major exporter of food to the world. The crops are major export by companies in Israel Isaiah predicted. Isaiah predicted in the Word of God over 2,600 years ago fruit of the land blessing Earth with physical food exported and fruits of God’s Word confirms by Holy Spirit in Christ Jesus. Matthew+1-22+To+Fulfill+What+Was+Spokne+By+The+Lord+Through+Prophets+red.jpg Zechariah says all nations on earth will come yearly to Israel to celebrate Feast of Tabernacles to worship LORD of Hosts. Zechariah 14:16. Isaiah points to road connecting Egypt to Assyria and through this area access road is being built called King’s Highway. Building a super highways links them with all the surrounding nations. These prophesies of Isaiah and Zechariah prepares way in advance in time for Messiah’s rule from His Throne in Israel. Jesus Rules whole Earth and all people will know God in the millennial kingdom in Israel after rapture and His second coming on earth after Armageddon. The land is prepared today to fulfil prophecy of Messiah Jesus as KING of Kings and Lord of lords. And above all countless multitudes of people of all nations, tribes, languages, colours, BELONGS TOGETHER IN HEAVEN AND LATER DWELL ON EARTH WITH GOD. God is not a respecter of persons to put any person above others by class, race, colour, wealth or status. Death is their leveller making all equal before God. No man is bigger or stronger than Jehovah God no matter how powerful they may feel in own eyes to inflate their ego.

SLAVE DANCE MUSIC ITEMS

Slave+drum+from+1645,+found+on+a+VA+plantation.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0001.jpgat783176122225883477906321000011840561155310077420182n1.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0003.jpgslavedance.jpgwp-1572269263498.jpgwp-1572269200706.jpgUncle-Toms-Cabin-2.jpgcard07.jpgA0057_image0001.jpgthe-bamboula-granger.jpgwp-1571952504645.jpgtap_12.gifdancing-the-slaves-1024x617.jpg6drmr.jpg7D955E00-D477-4299-89D9-73C96B138393.jpgdownloadfile-39.jpg2008268WH0417-1024x683.jpgbenin.jpg3d9dfa5e820988bc198023a09700f9f5bffaae75_00.jpgdownloadfile-48.jpgAtem-Bangwa-carver-sculptor-artist-Cameroon.jpgTamTam.jpg20191028_145811.jpgLunda 1972 - portage d'un tambour.jpgslide_4-1.jpgRaineri_Musical-instruments-belonging-to-negro-slaves.jpgslide_6.jpgdownloadfile-37.jpgdownloadfile-40.jpg611f8a5f-c350-4068-9063-99c447c064f1.jpgAfrica-Unplugged.jpegweb1_CubanBarbershop.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0004.jpghqdefault.jpg46517066_196782661230954_2434980490982195200_o.jpg19367118_1919652318316036_5681263008345489408_n.jpgTraditional music of African continent is passed down orally and is not written. Sub-Saharan African music tradition is based on many percussion instruments  including xylophones, drums, and tone-producing instruments such as mbira or “thumb piano.” The music and dance of African diaspora is from these various regions of diaspora origins. The degree of influence of African musical tradition includes American music or Caribbean genres like soca, calypso and zouk. And Latin American music genres: rumba, conga, bomba, cumbia or samba music of the music of enslaved Africans. These in turn influence African global music.ee69f5393c8ce402bdf85148553c983b.jpgReplica of a Akan West African chief’s drum used for dance music events. The artist is high ranking West African well slave community. Drum denotes a wood carving specialist but drums prohibited because white colonists feared its used to communicate for revolt. So Virginia preserved African Cultures from 1700 – 1800, drums made of animal material and Wood. Drums are oldest African-American objects collected early 1700s in Colony of Virginia in America. Drum was made in the Akan region in Ghana West Africa is played during ceremonies or social occasions. The music is fusion of sounds from Ghana, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Gambia, Uganda, Morocco, Belgium, Scotland, England, Denmark, and France. instruments include Kora, Ngoni, Gimbre, Krakab, Axatse, sticks, Gakogui, Seprewa, Sogo, Apentema, Kpanlogo, Atumpani, Fontonfrom, Dondo, Endingidi, Goje, Bolong, Atenteben Flute, the orchestral Flute and Egoe Calabash Gourd.

The drum travelled across Atlantic on a slave ship used to exercise slaves to keep healthy. Music legacy of drumming on plantations by over 12 million Africans transported to America between 1501-1800s. Provided labour for mines, plantations of sugar, rice, tobacco and cotton. Drumming, African musical tradition in colonies of different music, shouts, hollars, work songs, fife, drum and spirituals. Ghana drum opens news broadcast with ‘Ghana muntie’ ie Ghana listen.   

Music of 12 million Africans into Brazil, Caribbean, America by Europeans from West Africa. Europe used war captive as slaves to farm plantations and domestic slaves. Chained below deck, did not see outside travelling on deck to breathe air or dance. Shackled, densely packed like sardines got sick some died, killed from their societies at sea. Sloane’s collected the material culture of Drum objects in African-American slave trade era. These middle passage forced Africans to dance to exercise for slave labour. Akan drum reached Virginia as musical instrument coerced circulate as cultural resources is used in African international music.

Sloane recorded slave music in Jamaica of African drum, guitar. African-Americans play guitar or drums identity of community. Planters didn’t tolerate performances of slave societies. Sloane notes instrument bans didn’t make drums ddisappear. Sloane collected slave artefacts in C18th tools, clothing, whips, nooses, weapons or anatomical remains. Objects, were gifts from correspondents or collectors, judged Sloane on Caribbean’s natural history slavery. The Akan drum donor Reverend Clerk to Sloane identified it “as Indian drum,” but its African. True identity of African objects survived and circulated by slave traders, recreated by slaves for music to dance to. downloadfile-33.jpgAccording to RootsKunta Kinte was born circa 1750 in Mandinka village of Juffure, in Gambia. He was raised in a Muslim family. In 1767, Kunta while he searched for wood to make a drum for his younger brother, four men chased him and took him captive. Haley traced record of ship The Lord Ligonier to Maryland where Kunta arrived in chain in America. Kunta Kinte kept name of his village and native name of Gambia River origin from Portuguese cambio for exchange or trade. Kunta Kinte’s life in village is similar to Masaka Africana.

Cambio is Kamby Bolongo native trade route like Naplis is Minneapolis. By 1600s large agricultural or commercial estates in Brazil needed more slaves. Portuguese slave traders of Gambia kidnapped Kunte. He traced his roots back to the Gambia. Kunte Family was: Omoro (father) and Binta (mother); Belle (wife); Kizzy (daughter); Chicken George (grandson). Kunte was born in c. 1750 in Juffure, The Gambia and died: c. 1822 (aged c.71–77); in the Spotsylvania County, Virginia. Despite attempt by the slave master to erode his name, Kunta Kinte held onto his memories passed on to his descendants written about in his life history book, Roots made into films. 

Courtesy & Credit Images

Professor Kwesi Ampene, CU West African High Life & World Music International Team

Adam Holden, Obroni Dance Music

Anthony Appiah, Princeton University,

Alex Haley, Roots, Kunta Kinte, Virginia

James Delbourgo, Associate Professor of History, Rutgers University, USA

Patton, S.F. (1998) African-American art. Oxford, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.Hans Sloane’s collection?

TOBACCO’S BLACK HISTORY

downloadfile-34.jpgTobacco black history plantation shows  slave masters on horseback and slaves working in fields. The slave-labourers forced to work without rest whipped to carry on working without work.345060382.jpg IMG-20191028-WA0000.jpgSlaves working with tobacco in Virginia, by an unknown artist, 1670..jpgvinales_d9ca.jpeg5217827538_0f360909da_c-720x400.jpgTobacco-Control.jpgSlaves denied their freedom, peace, rest were exploited by the masters to enrich themselves at the slave’s toil expenses. The affluent blatantly exploited slaves from tropical countries working fields51sCNoa+zTL._SX355_.jpg Severely punished for the slightest thing on the plantation without any prospects of freedom or guaranteed happy life. So families separated sold off to anywhere.IMG-20191027-WA0008.jpgSold from parts of West Africa to world to work as slaves in United States, Brazil or South Africa. Slavery life sentence is out of their power under controls of the masters as possession provide tobacco.downloadfile-28.jpgTobacco is imported from the plantation in Cuba, Caribbean to America, Britain and G7 countries. Exchanged by journey of goods destined to places to economies to build wealth since 14th-19th century. harvest-pic-1.jpgStill ongoing in some countries, brought transformation to the G7 countries and their economies from these plantations. Increased value meant poor treatments  of slaves to produce more to cover cost.c6149634806538966eb4075d8f46821f_XL.jpgThe slave master’s conomies prospered by slave labour but do not acknowledge their source of wealth, apologise or pay compensation to them from economies.Two-companies-to-lose-their-license..jpgSlave trade tobacco industry still largely influence colonialism and racism today as consequences of such treatments. So economies grew rich from exploitation.downloadfile-11.jpg1490735754008.jpgProfit driven companies of commercial cigarettes genetically modified enhance  supply but needlessly means inhaling a multitude of pesticide-grade chemicals and many other radioactive elements.99109089-leaves-of-tobacco-in-the-drying-plant.jpgTobacco_drying_in_Pinar_del_Río_(01).jpgTobacco brand American Spirit adverts says its “additive free” and “natural” but their tobacco brand is said treated with ammonia and urea to increase tobacco freebase nicotine content is being sued.50548794-classical-way-of-drying-tobacco-in-barn.jpg8485124146_d8af9c0291_b-2016_12_26-17_14_34-UTC.jpgIMG-20191027-WA0007.jpgPiliraniSemu_Banda150508HighRes.jpgThe whole leaf tobacco is said to be less expensive compared to the cost of pack of cigarettes containing 20 grams or less of actual tobacco. A whole leaf tobacco is sold cheaper sold in bulk is taxed less.20191028_110139.jpgFactory_lector (3).jpgdownloadfile-38.jpg6e1d6c993998bd4a82fe9928b3c04f64_XL.jpgCigarettes are processed by converting a 200kg tobacco leaves in cases to batches of cut rag made into cigarettes. Tobacco leaves from a green leaf threshing plant of a British American Tobacco-Vinataba factory in Dong Nai Province factory of 60,000 square meters. Is one of the most modern factories of British American Tobacco Group modern equipment with trademarks: Hauni Germany, Dickinson Legg of UK’s breakthrough technologies. KT2 cutter for stems, laminas of tobacco leaf, air-curing set, air convecter curing machine is the newest generation of the impurities-removing Tobacco Scan II.downloadfile-20.jpgProcessed tobacco leaves are delivered to factory, checked for quality, blended with other ingredients for brand recipe, flavours or expanded tobacco. Various types of tobacco ingredients of blending components is vital. Moisture content of tobacco leaf crumbles if too dry, spoiled in storage due to high moisture content. Blended tobacco is treated with a right amount of steam and water to make it supple, cut to form cigarettes. Moisture is removed, cut rag given final blending and quality check. Current capacity and operation technology is 4 tons of cut rag per hour or 17,000 tons a year. Cut rag from factory accounts for 1/3 of the total amount manufactured in Vietnam.20191027_180331.jpgOB-YJ180_0730JT_G_20130730075221.jpgCigarette-Tube-Making.jpgProcesssed because is often considered as an agriculture commodity in a whole leaf form. Tobacco and cigarette spread globally by Hollywood adverts and even doctors recommended smoking in past.pro_01.jpgIMG-20191027-WA0009.jpg20191027_164612.jpgcigarette_acceptedwaste.jpg20191027_164902.jpg20191027_164700.jpgCigarette waste is baled and stored at a warehouse until a high enough volume is reached and transferred to processor. Waste is recycled by shredding filters of cellulose acetate blended with the other recyclable plastics and pelletizing used in injection moulding prioritized hard plastic shipping pallet. Residual tobacco waste goes to non-food compost system.JTI-reveals-cigarette-waste-recycling-scheme.jpgCigRecycling03.jpgTobacco and cigarette affects health and the lungs in the latter years people now are advised by their doctors to cut down on quantity smoked or quit completely. Its replaced by e-cigarettes known to kill people due to contaminated chemicals used in refill supply chain. Its banned altogether in some states in America. So whatever reasons for smoking due to a peer pressure to fit in to look cool or its seen as grown up it costs countries food supply. Land is used to farm tobacco as people starve and slaves descendants wait for compensation over 500 years.

Tobacco history Timeline and events.

  • 6,000 BC – Native Americans first start cultivating the tobacco plant.
  • Circa 1 BC – Indigenous American tribes start smoking tobacco in religious ceremonies and for medicinal purposes.
  • 1492 – Christopher Columbus first encounters dried tobacco leaves. They were given to him as a gift by the American Indians.
  • 1492 – Tobacco plant and smoking introduced to Europeans.
  • 1531 – Europeans start cultivation of the tobacco plant in Central America.
  • 1558 – First attempt at tobacco cultivation in Europe fail.
  • 1571 – European doctors start publishing works on healthy properties of the tobacco plant, claiming it can cure a myriad of diseases, from toothache to lockjaw and cancer.
  • 1600 – Tobacco used as cash-crop – a monetary standard that lasts twice as long as the gold standard.
  • 1602 – King James I condemns tobacco in his treatise A Counterblast to Tobacco.
  • 1614 – Tobacco shops open across Britain, selling the Virginia blend tobacco.
  • 1624 – Popes ban use of tobacco in holy places, considering sneezing (snuff) too close to sexual pleasures.
  • 1633 – Turkey introduces a death penalty for smoking but it doesn’t stay in effect for long and is lifted in 1647.
  • 1650 – Tobacco arrives in Africa – European settlers grow it and use it as a currency.
  • 1700 – African slaves are first forced to work on tobacco plantations, years before they become a workforce in the cotton fields.
  • 1730 – First American tobacco companies open their doors in Virginia.
  • 1753 – Tobacco genus named by a Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus – nicotiana rustica and nicotiana tabacum named for the first time.
  • 1791 – British doctors find that snuff leads to increased risk of nose cancer.
  • 1794 – First American tobacco tax.
  • 1826 – Nicotine isolated for the first time.
  • 1847 – Philip Morris opens their first shop in Great Britain, selling hand-rolled Turkish cigarettes.
  • 1961 – First American cigarette factory produces 20 million cigarettes.
  • 1880 – Bonsack develops the first cigarette-rolling machine.
  • 1890 – American Tobacco Company opens its doors.
  • 1990 – 4 billion cigarettes are sold this year and manufacture is on the rise.
  • 1902 – Philip Morris starts selling cigarettes in the US – one of the brands offered is Marlboro.
  • 1912 – First reported connection between smoking and lung cancer.
  • 1918 – An entire generation of young men returns from war addicted to cigarettes.
  • 1924 – Over 70 billion of cigarettes are sold in the US.
  • 1925 – Philip Morris starts marketing to women, tripling the number of female smokers in just 10 years.
  • 1947 – Lorillard chemist admits that there is enough evidence that smoking can cause cancer.
  • 1950 – 50% of a cigarette now consists of the cigarette filter tip.
  • 1967 – Surgeon General definitively links smoking to lung cancer and presents evidence that it is causing heart problems.
  • 1970 – Tobacco manufacturers legally obliged to print a warning on the labels that smoking is a health hazard.
  • 1970 – 1990 – Tobacco companies faced with a series of lawsuits. Courts limit their advertising and marketing.
  • 1992 – Nicotine patch is introduced – in the following years more cessation products will start being developed.
  • 1996 – Researchers find conclusive evidence that tobacco damages a cancer-suppressor gene.
  • 1997 – Liggett Tobacco Company issues a statement acknowledging that tobacco causes cancer and carries a considerable health risk.
  • 1997 – Tobacco companies slammed with major lawsuits – ordered to spend billions of dollar on anti-smoking campaigns over the next 25 years predominantly focused on educating the young on dangers of smoking.
  • 1997 – For the first time in history a tobacco company CEO admits on trial that cigarettes and related tobacco products cause cancer. His name was Bennett Lebow.
  • 1990 – 2000 – Bans on public smoking come into effect in most states in America, as well as in other countries in the world

 

 

Courtesy & Image Credit
Fredrika Bremer, Homes of New World; impressions of American slavery
Freefromsmoking.com

SAUL’S 1ST BIBLE MARATHON

Bible-Marathon.jpgA man of the tribe Benjamin ran from a battle line to Shiloh same day with his clothes torn and dust on his head in 1 Samuel 4:12. The young King Saul in c. 1050 – 1012 BCE ran 42 km from Eben Ezra renamed Rosh Ha’ayin to Shiloh, to inform the high priest of 30,000 Jewish soldiers killed including the two sons of the High Priest and the Ark of Covenant taken. Forty-two kilometers is length of the Olympic marathon in 1908 London Olympic Games. The second Marathon was ran by Pheidippides to Athens of a victory his people over Persia, 490 BCE. This first Bible marathon in Bible by a Benjamin man running through hills of the Binyamin region in the West Bank is a great landmark event in the history of Israel after Exodus from Egypt. The land is named after each tribe confirms man from “tribe of Benjamin” region ancient map of Israel. Bible says wherever soles of our feet touch is for inheritance of a chosen people for God’s GLORY. Full 42 kilometers marathon run by Saul is the accomplishment of completing running like the race of salvation. Israel’s Bible Marathon is evidence of history of land recorded by people in the State of Israel.Untitled-2-copy.jpgGod told Samuel sons of the High Priest will perish treating God’s sacrifice with disdain for harassing women in Temple. Israel fought losing battle so Philistines  defeated them, every man fled to his tent in 1 Samuel 4:10. 30,000 Israelites were killed in battle including Hophni and Phinehas the two sons of Eli, high priest serving at Shiloh. Philistines captured the Ark of Covenant so the Saul young Benjaminite raced from the battlefield to Tabernacle to bring news of defeat to the prophet Samuel. “Then a man of Benjamin ran from battle line the same day, came to Shiloh with his clothes torn and dirt on his head” in 1 Samuel 4 : 12. The distance between the battlefield in Even Ezer to Shiloh is 42 kilometers and 26 miles official length of Olympic marathon. This is why the race reenacts the passage from 1 Samuel 4 hosting the this first Bible Marathon in Jerusalem. maxresdefault.jpgRunners take off to the sound of shofar, accompanied by musicians, dressed in white biblical clothing, togas, sandals and cloth head dresses. The finish line, looks over ancient city gate, a cheering squad greets with beat of goblet drums, shofar blasts, flutes or harps. The clay  medals of the top three winners in each race inscribed clay pitcher for a trophy. Finish line of ancient Shiloh Hakeduma is a site archaeologists searching Ark of Covenant. Shiloh was a religious capital of Israel for 369 years, after conquest of Canaan till King David made Jerusalem eternal capital of Jewish nation. Shiloh was the longest standing Jewish capital before City of Jerusalem. It is believed Ark once stood there in ancient history and so running Marathon is running through history. At the top of hill is the entire course of magnificent views seen of Israel’s paranomic beautiful horizon. The rocky hill is green with olive trees and vineyards like True Vine Messiah in bible prophecy who once walked on the streets of the Jewish homeland. It gives hope and assurance to people to run the race to keep going kilometers of eternal life to win the prize in Saul’s footsteps.BIBLE-LOGO.jpgSilence of cordoned off areas protect the runners but Jewish settlement of Eli or Ma’ale Levona families lined routes clap racers to Sinjil and Qaryut is quiet. Jesus on donkey to Jerusalem people lined the streets will return for the Armageddon battle in victory. Bible Marathon is an international recognition of land Israel God gave all nations beyond boundaries of State of Israel, partakers of Covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob fulfilled in Jesus. The Israel Marathon Association managing race for Benjamin Regional Council, preserves history of Saul’s race. The Bible Marathon though not listed in AIM’s race directory of Jerusalem, Dead Sea, Eilat, Tel Aviv, Sea of Galilee races is kept alive by efforts of the runners. In the last four years since inception keeps the Benjamin tribe history in focus. The Maccabiah games, Yosef Yekutieli, tried to launch Bible Marathon after Israel won 1967 Six Day War but was not safe. It faces challenges of communication so multiple runners can start early on time from starting line information to collect numbers needed to run. The 10k racers merge with a half marathoners around kilometer 15 to finish line. Like Saul ran in biblical footsteps many partakers are retracing living history of Israel. So clay prizes are appropriate claim to preserve land as a constant reminder for God to intervene for the Peace of Jerusalem.

SUGAR BLACKSLAVE HISTORY

15713054607238903501092629203849.jpgBlack History Month October celebrates abolition of slaves whose wealth enrich G7 Western Europe and America but deprived slaves of their dignity and long life so slaves became traumatized. 15713056029367773464045337576003.jpgTriangular trade from Europe on ships to Africa to Carribean to America back to Europe. G7 member nations enslaved Africans. Belgian King Leopold invited them jointly to divide and own Africa.15713055252467866924691785551731.jpg Almost a thousand years black slavery continued despite official abolition law. Slavery produced sugar, cocoa, coffee, cotton for “triangle merchants” of slave trade in Britain, Africa and West Indies. 15713054895557916154530721927074.jpgTriangle trips carried guns, goods from England to Africa for slaves from Africa to Caribbean. Sugar, coffee, cotton and rum to England for commercial slavery by supply and demand on plantations. 1571305574491870094090532857700.jpg15714076486934305525943298638509.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0021.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0011.jpgAtlantic crossing from Africa Middle Passage shows cruelties of plantations in the British Caribbean. Africans were herded on slave ships and branded with irons labels people property of owners.15713033917892027579692775521469.jpgPortuguese also built sugar plantations in 1550’s off the coast of their Brazilian settlement colony, located on the island Sao Vincente. Portuguese and Spanish colonial presence in Caribbean Iberian Peninsula wealth cultivated cash crops.15713030689847713844378615539055.jpgThe economic boom of these plantations began colonizing remaining American territories to capitalize on the lucrative cultivation and trade of native’s natural resources. Sugar is the most important crop in Caribbean but other crops such as coffee, indigo, wheat and rice grown. 15712992630563548705097506481294.jpgThe coastal sugae cane was best grown on the flat land near coastal waters as the soil was naturally yellow and fertile. The mountainous parts of islands were used for sugarcane cultivation industry. IMG-20191017-WA0010.jpgslavery-west-indies-granger.jpg15712987137944748591809211620677.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0004.jpg348s.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0020.jpgThe coastal placement of commercial ports gave imperial states a geographic advantage to ship the crop throughout the transatlantic world. Sugar Slavery  trading of the Africans highly profitable not paying slaves for enforced labour. downloadfile-1.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0014.jpgSlave-Ship-pic-4-Wikipedia.jpg15714064266664307134901227462768.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0015.jpg15713038953617219558390950064672.jpg15713037481496759185923572241666.jpg15713036678907107097446613800368.jpgSlaves lived in appalling conditions but masters indulged in excessive luxury by toils of slaves. Triangular trade profits  prospered the West but underdeveloped blacks made poor despite the hardwork. 15713035569197275545111601093952.jpgwp-1571322668408.jpgManufactured goods were traded to the West African coast for slaves, who were shipped to the sugar colonies by middle passage. Sugar, molasses, rum, shipped from these islands back into England.15713038363315671248783757607047.jpg15713038628448686754927140878564.jpg15713036996912748769302716101649.jpg15713036364091737502484623690543.jpgSugar was the main crop produced on  plantations throughout Caribbean in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Most of the islands were covered with sugar cane fields and mills for refining sugar. IMG-20191017-WA0003.jpgportraet_sklaverei_zucker_g.jpg15713001247174007076067301082629.jpg15713002203195667591899451618769.jpg15713001854538734211621372862312.jpg15713001504746913528570416798187.jpgwp-1571311816344.jpg15713002724015553289083152949101.jpgThe main source of labour was enslaved Africans. After the abolition of slavery, indentured labourers from IndiaChina, Java migrated to Caribbean to work on sugar plantations. Plantations produced 80 – 90% sugar used in Western Europe.15712995770488034116736118045599.jpg15712996195613941216406783616691.jpg15712997447027764109633942991300.jpg15712995281323834808765635583176.jpgSugar enabled slave labour for profits with tragic consequences in Caribbean. Imperial powers forced West Africans to cultivate sugar by slaves. Exploited labour, natural world created imperial conflicts in these Caribbean regions._108506961_gettyimages-1002312094.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0002.jpgIMG-20191031-WA0004.jpg15713029223757577184974282763473.jpg 157130286531419080874850560467.jpg15713027760246994249402391806889.jpg15713028101291278500655225486775.jpg15712977059634715966485674610399.jpgUse political and economic control they create to divide and rule people policy of animosity. Conflicts among English, Spanish, French and various indigenous people was used for territorial gain.15712964787331552835795446583723.jpg15712950696973492756233402938394.jpg15712972087976309023403494269657.jpg15712989701492300170279122619503.jpg 15712973826202918078063655814609.jpg15712954764466783854135368343091.jpgEuropean states exploited environment, resources so sugar production began to stagnate. Due loss of trees for timber in the sugar refinement process, European imperial powers competed and fought over Caribbean in middle 17th century.slave_dynasty_i1.jpg15712948461163990403389790355463.jpg15712948817835962190680372982605.jpg15712953753492679276778321664742.jpg15712961917284396878281626055702.jpg1571294941734562424695867162323.jpg15712950360621362782314632360478.jpgEuropean settlers’ entry into Caribbean world caused changes. The indigenous populations died due to influx of world diseases of colonists. Population losses from 8.4 – 112.5 millions of these native populations cleared way for plantation industry and less conflict for Europeans and all these indigenous peoples too15712965493371578408370674417736.jpg15712966476488592384520750409745.jpgColonial arrival of sugar cane culture impact societie’s economy in Caribbean. Increased ratio of slaves to freemen and increased the sizes of slave plantations. Sugar plantation use of slaves affected cash crop economies in cultivation. The large plantations with the slaves Africa  imported worked on plantations. 15712956357681865740619933022642.jpg15712955869055477780312402713803.jpgPrior to 1650 three-quarters of island’s population was of European descent. In 1680 plantation in Barbados increased to about 60 slaves. So sugar plantations expanded transatlantic trade prospers. In 1832, plantation in Jamaica had 150 slaves one in four lived with 250 slaves. 15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15712947049235987567928405600593.jpgAbout 100 years, Barbados was richest European colony in Caribbean region. Then sugar cane production expanded to larger colonies Saint-Domingue and Jamaica. Mass sugar industry sugarcane processed commodities: rummolasses, and falernumWest India Interest was formed in 1740s by British merchants to West Indian sugar planters. 15712969933543584698609408312672.jpg157129755509656600633346701060.jpg15712963455442945155011821550429.jpg15712962302017147386549329208022.jpgwp-1571322746426.jpgBritish and West Indies shared profits or costs. needs. This first sugar-trading company was powerful in Parliament. In 1740s Jamaica and Saint Domingue or Haiti world’s main sugar producers. IMG-20191017-WA0000.jpgIncreased production in St. Domingue used irrigation system French engineers built. Reservoirsdiverted dam levees  aqueducts and canals. Improved mills and varieties of cane and grasses helped increase profits. St. Domingue in 19th century Haiti and Cuba sugar plantation Caribbean did better than British island.1571297025702538564298899779586.jpgIn the 19th century, sugar dominated  MartiniqueGrenadaJamaicaSaint CroixBarbadosLeeward IslandsSaint DomingueCuba, and other island run by FrenchBritish, or Spanish owners. During late 19th and 20th centuries the sugar cane industry dominated Puerto Rico‘s economy by colonial rule of Spain and under United States. 1571294727684996436954631513550.jpgAfter slavery, sugar plantation labour was workers imported from colonial India, Southern China. In 20th century, large-scale sugar production using wage labour continued in many parts of the region. Sugar cane industry’s negative impact affected the environment as this industry grew in Caribbean countries. 15712951825801502632195092917389.jpgThese include the destruction of forests, water pollution, loss of fertility, erosion of soils. These problems on a different scale in Dominican Republic in the 16th century; Lesser Antilles in 17th century; Jamaica, Haiti in 18th century, Cuba and Puerto Rico in 19th century. The nations impacted by sugar on the environment.15712952542173744336540029352835.jpgThe deterioration natural environment, had socio-economic consequences. And took its toll on Africans an integral part to cultivation, production of sugarcane. Slaves toiled in fields, boiling houses to supply huge amounts of labour sugar required. Four million slaves survived  Caribbean sugar plantations. wp-1571330195777.jpgConditions were harsh, mortality rates high through all stages of slaves’ lives. Some sugar colonie’s slave population ten times less than the European slave uprisings ever-present fear of planters. Slave trading highly profitable triangle of trade of Atlantic manufactured goods traded to West African coast for slaves shipped to sugar colonies of the middle passage and sugar, molasses, and rum were shipped from islands to England.wp-1571330138914.jpgSlavery in England  deemed illegal since 1772. The slavery in sugar colonies was vigorously pursued in Parliament and publication throughout last quarter of eighteenth century to time of abolition of trade in 1807, emancipation in 1833.15712977450102090396760846491987.jpg wp-1571330017603.jpgwp-1571330075100.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0001.jpg15712970952265673717702786919787.jpg15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15713021011131294159836164367675.jpg15712969306591487070998245117838.jpgdownloadfile-2.jpg12355_2014_311_Fig1_HTML.jpgAbolitionists arguments against slavery was support in England and in America. Abolitionist movement boycotted slave-grown sugar by protests is celebrated as key component of abolition’s success.15712979796166770357711539697198.jpggettyimages-919491468-612x612.jpg15712985345335906738950765594570.jpg1571300771153191415282151247452.jpg15713004757394126936251265247884.jpg15713005171167919886088148258374.jpg15713007268423280865825419848256.jpgBoycott from writings to educate sugar is derived from blood, sweat and tears of slaves pollutes the body. The planters by prospect of abolition emancipation, attack on their financial interests, place in empire argued in favour of slavery.15713009777485298377118240667583.jpg20191024_104134.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0006.jpg15712980902104280568193144664796.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0005.jpg15713003436563749568168188652437.jpg15713014110543316473429243866261.jpg15713013089491042850157734430430.jpg15713011469935621723745379844781.jpgWilliam Beckford, large-scale Jamaican planter wrote about the island unable to inherited plantation debt. Plantations profit dwindled by later plantation era so planters were compensated for their loss of earnings. Slaves never received compensations, restitution or apology. 15712989421675147982996667160052.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0009.jpg15713018236223543718958756404016.jpg15713016238362599330973898756795.jpg20191018_194544.jpg15712991574789124671528049609976.jpg15713015641859068275661653780133.jpg1571301463714798903122388001392.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0008.jpg15713014963618985587415087318746.jpg1571301334033345284614607997855.jpgInstead suffer racism from the people who sent ships thousand of miles to drag them from their homeland into strange lands. Many slaves after the wars were sent from America to Liberia and Sierra Leone in western Africa.20191017_095342.jpgIt was a problem their roots could not be traced having been renamed by force despite protests of Kunta Kinte. Natives discriminated against them because they were not indigenous citizens. And residue from slavery and colonialism is institutional racism still directed black people today.20191017_095707.jpgInvincible chain of slavery, colonialism racism hatred propaganda promote the harassment of black people. Western countries built by slave labour, natural resources usurped controlled by West. African economies are still owned by Western nations exploiting resources. Yet conqueror parasites play the victim despite depending on African slavery and ccolonialism. Kings like Prempeh exiled to Sierra Leone and Seychelles for resisting slavery and colonialism. IMG-20191018-WA0005.jpgNelson Mandela was incarcerated many years others like Lumumba killed for fighting back. Kwame Nkrumah was toppled by coup detat directed by West replaced by stooges to control Africans. Africans enslaved and those colonised are both victims of the West exploiting them. African resources: diamond, gold, in Ghana, Guinea,  Mali, Songhai empire Mansa Musa Aldrisi supersized gold tied to horse taken by whites. Gold abundant it was dished out freely to loyal citizens. Gold taken over as diamonds. Africans did not gain from slavery to enrich the kings as people claim. But stripped of natural resources owned by Western countries. Africa never had economic independence is still controlled by the Western nations today. West markets all finished goods processed from natural resources from Africa back to Africans. Forced dependency on West sabotages Africa’s self-sufficiency stops revenues of multibillions of dollars for the West. Average person consumes 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar a year or 33.1 kilograms (73 lb) in Western developed countries, over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the 20th century,  a diet high in refined sugar damages human health. Excessive consumption causes obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, and tooth decay. The World Health Organization recommend adults and children reduce their intake of sugar to less than 10% encouraged to reduce to below 5%, total energy intake.

COFFEE’S HISTORY & ORIGINS

20191014_110716.jpg15710468834321102168724083807666.jpg15710437345183676338762388191799.jpgCoffee global originated from Ethiopia as earliest evidence of coffee drinking and knowledge of the coffee tree spread from early 15th century. Africans grow coffee harvested, grounded and drank by families as tropical crops. Coffee spread as commodity for trade from Ethiopia Horn of Africa to Yemen Arabia Felix monks monasteries spreading into Mecca and Cairo. Goats were seen hyper stimulated inspired coffee concoction born long ago in the mountains of Ethiopia. Legend says that Kaldi saw his excited herd dancing after eating coffee cherry berry, 16th century reached rest of Middle East, South India (Karnataka), Persia, Turkey to rest of Horn of Africa and northern Africa. Coffee spread to Balkans, Italy, the rest of Europe, Southeast Asia and Americas despite ban imposed in the 15th century by religious leaders in Mecca and Cairo, and later by the Catholic Church.15710460124356859565088160134012.jpg15710436855935512932863149678515.jpg15710447815743466109153844499277.jpgCoffee spread from Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Kaffa Province name of coffee, the first to recognize energizing effects of native coffee plant. So the tribesmen consumed as hunters on days-long treks benefitting from coffee plant’s ability to quell hunger and provide more energy. Studies of genetic diversity of Coffea arabica varieties retained the residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica. Oral history direct evidence has indicated Africans coffee grow among other crops natives used as stimulant so known earlier spread into seventeenth century. Original domesticated coffee plant from Harar, native population use derived from Ethiopia distinct is found populations in Sudan and Kenya.1571043405765699259889766813539.jpg15710434270053024933810851534611.jpg15710436277878114956373217936851.jpg15710435846402047751185959458711.jpg15710434925723954462411793900624.jpgCoffee is native to tropical Africa but its Brazil that is the world’s largest coffee producing country. Vietnam, Colombia are second and third biggest producers. Coffee was traded through Middle East, Asia and Europe before its taken to the Americas by European colonizers. The crop’s success there depended on slave trade. The history of coffee recognizes racism and the role of colonialism. The history of coffee has a dark side of the exploitation of Western countries taking advantage of the African countries. And multibillion multinational corporations making so much profit but don’t invest in these countries of the supply chains. 15710433560353172288782735507670.jpg15710440983255412735373397344862.jpg15710445900461747951835999486447.jpg15710441400893604583404307719482.jpg15710439366083654047546056266942.jpg15710440294184227315937896153147.jpg15710444445985513000575336350508.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.1571044828283157220128130682346.jpgwp-1571137280306.jpgdownloadfile.pngwp-1571007286187.jpgIMG-20191014-WA0001.jpgwp-1571136784509.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.15710478444701786177490462436469.jpg15710456532011356605169476525987.jpg15710456143886626766098078755663.jpg15710455659128566144229800899532.jpg15710448803383604231430384290796.jpg15710449771794187086487037815745.jpg15710450656392204661356868672582.jpg15710451149853942328613469727459.jpgBarbados and Jamaica were some of the earliest British colonies as slave traders provided outposts with human labour from Africa to work on sugar and coffee plantations. Goods and people moved in a triangle between West Africa, colonies in Caribbean and Americas and Europe.wp-1571143326145.jpg15710465101715420187119285288633.jpg1571046665177784825754492463044.jpg15710465806261383212562540144503.jpgwp-1571143230605.jpgwp-1571143279802.jpg15710462101437150544227229786142.jpgSan Domingo in French-occupied Haiti was supplying half of the world’s coffee in 1788 as a direct result of slave labour. Living conditions was appalling, slaves underfed, overworked and housed in the windowless huts. The African slaves were beaten, tortured or killed by their white European rulers.15710466183022452900408860596017.jpgwp-1571142356971.jpgwp-1571138218332.jpgwp-1571142304784.jpg15710467716452899072847031383823.jpg15710449165545412649823065829850.jpg15710450356353051306629389501833.jpg1571046353063816915106442229309.jpg15710432352042400621271070553203.jpgNapoleon tried to regain Haiti in early 1800s led to decline in coffee production prompted the Dutch to fill the gap with coffee produced in their own colony of Java, Indonesia. But has rigid hierarchy between the native Javanese and their colonial overlords. Laziness and apathy of Dutch landowners forced Javanese natives to harvest coffee for a pittance, whole villages died of starvation.15710462360581092218315998157921.jpg15710463381055154496466313978760.jpgwp-1571136892649.jpg15710470158994600447489546368637.jpg15710433079216012543656666705158.jpgUK drinks 95 million cups of coffee day with 500,000 tonnes of waste coffee grounds a year. Some business’s small waste coffee grounds customers to take home as garden fertiliser or homemade exfoliant. Wet coffee grounds waste into landfill in UK tax £88.95/tonne to £94.15 from 1st April 2020 levy operators cost to collection fee. Waste management companies charge for contaminated dry mixed with recycling. 15712234953994380269245425115741.jpgLandfill harmful greenhouse gases such as methane 34 times more potent than carbon dioxide over a 100 year period causing climate change. The wet coffee grounds in an anaerobic digestion plant absent of oxygen microorganisms break down biodegradable material managing waste or producting fuel but grounds sink to bottom in ‘belly’ inhibit rate of biomethane production. Waste grounds incinerated energy generation, not best usel. Bio-bean utilise wet coffee grounds waste recycled bio-products by disposal recycling service generate savings for businesses saving emission as bio-fuel.15710432727097757498507419898001.jpgCoffee declined in the West Indies but it thrived in Latin America. So first coffee bush in Brazil was planted by Francisco de Melo Palheta in Pará in 1727. Brazil became a coffee superpower under the rule of the Portuguese and continued to after independence. By the 1830s, coffee became Brazil’s largest export is around 30% of world coffee production.15710461315717905217574155760681.jpg15710452158122014500876146091126.jpgBrazilian coffee plantations used black or indigenous slave labour. Indentured labourers worked and lived in horrific conditions. Plantation owners treated their labourers as dispensable imported new slaves as they died from overwork. Did not treat existing slaves with any compassion most slaves last seven years from initial bondage.wp-1571142201640.jpg15710455063321556057087774078740.jpgBrazil made slavery illegal in 1888, but four million slaves had been brought from Africa. In Latin America, coffee industry depended on the indigenous labour. Black people not used as slaves in Central American countries anymore, Mayans and other native peoples served as semi-slaves.15710451884962273506023802601097.jpg15710452671042518442429950312232.jpgThe Mayans occupied best fertile lands for growing coffee and so increasingly became disenfranchized by colonial governments. Violently evicted by the military as the demand for coffee grew, forced to work land for the oppressors. Revolts and rebellions common during that time government brutality and the oppression was response.15710454680217849189674356110640.jpg20191015_133547.jpgThe coffee industry in Latin America explaining why the world is dominated by their coffee production. Slave labour no longer but paved the way for today’s industry. Many regions of Brazil and Colombia are now traditional coffee-growing areas with farming as main resource. Legacies of colonialism affect coffee supply chain in Latin America racial divide between farm owners and labourers.15710464500078699002128982820492.jpgMillions of blacks in Latin America Asia, and Africa live in poverty producing the affordable coffee for Western markets. African coffee is the best in the world as Tropical Africa origin of coffee. But that continent not treated on same level of Latin America. Colonialism by former European colonies in Africa left without infrastructure or stable political system. Structural racism economic oppression exists in supply chain. Inequality in the coffee production, baristas, economics. Education, politics of coffee-producing regions of the community in producing countries must contribute to improving sustainability, working conditions, and quality of life for people globally.tree-goat-morocco.jpg15712272641128742041996406789531.jpgObviousTimelyAlligatorsnappingturtle-size_restricted.gifThe Argan coffee like Ethiopian Coffee, Nepal coffee grown on Himalayan climate is ideal for coffee growing. The aroma of brewed coffee fragrance, coffee’s global recognition beans, grown in Nuwakot, a scored 90 points on a scale of 50 to 100 in Coffee Review, California-based trade magazine. In first-ever blind assessment Nepali coffee in Lekali is “savoury sweet in structure with gentle acidity; crisp, satiny mouthfeel.” Concluded the coffee is worth seeking its confident savoury-sweet cup. In 2016, coffee produced by Greenland Organic Farm scored an 89 Specialty Coffee Association of America, California trade group Nepali coffee producers elevate quality of country’s beans to international standards.Workers sort cherries for processing at Lekali Coffee Estate’s farm in Nuwakot in central Nepal. Nepali coffee’s in 2014, Banjara became Nepal’s first Q-grader trained in Xining in China. The West are calling coffee aficionados value beans’ from exotic origin to local cafe. Coffee companies create market for vacuum packed cans of coffee grounds and jars of instant coffee kitchens in the world,  Nepal’s high-end market export coffee. Some claim goat eaten berry coffee also exist like Luwak kopi coffees. Coffee farm in Mauja district of Kaski, view to the Annapurna mountain range Nepal’s first national coffee cupping as Q-graders identify characteristics and flavour, quality of coffee beans. Eight of the world’s 10 highest peaks like Mount Everest Nepal ideal climate high-quality beans. Nepal’s Arabica variety Bourbon and Typica coffee grow on rolling, misty mountain slopes at altitudes from 800 meters to 1,600 meters. First introduced to the country by a monk in the middle of 20th century the crop supports 32,000 farmers in 40 of country’s 77 districts. It exports coffee but Coffee Review rating recognition gives them a much-needed boost in the international market.15712209071994545813192981911343.jpgThe world’s most expensive is Coffee alamid highly sought-after brew among coffee aficionados is “caviar” of coffee. Odour-free coffee alamid aroma, syrup texture, chocolate hint, coffee alamid’s clean aftertaste and flavour is processed by acid from stomach of animals eating coffee cherry berries. The coffee seeds remain intact undigested excreted as a faecal material collected, washed and is grounded as premier luxury coffee sells U$500 -U$1000 per pound. Kopi luwak one of most expensive coffees in world. Vietnamese weasel coffee collecting coffee beans eaten by wild civets in India. Luwak coffee kopi luwak of Java Indonesia is second best.  But traders of this type of coffee exploit animals by caging, feeding them solely on coffee beans instead on an enriched variety of diets in wild more suitable to thrive. The tourists travel to see caged animals in action oblivious to animal rights issues involved in most expensive coffee processs. A cup of coffee cost $80 per cup in the tourist epic centres.

Mark Pendergrast: Uncommon Grounds, History of Coffee & How It Transformed Our World.

Sprudge.com, The Question of Racism