SUGAR BLACKSLAVE HISTORY

15713054607238903501092629203849.jpgBlack History Month October celebrates abolition of slaves whose wealth enrich G7 Western Europe and America but deprived slaves of their dignity and long life so slaves became traumatized. 15713056029367773464045337576003.jpgTriangular trade from Europe on ships to Africa to Carribean to America back to Europe. G7 member nations enslaved Africans. Belgian King Leopold invited them jointly to divide and own Africa.15713055252467866924691785551731.jpg Almost a thousand years black slavery continued despite official abolition law. Slavery produced sugar, cocoa, coffee, cotton for “triangle merchants” of slave trade in Britain, Africa and West Indies. 15713054895557916154530721927074.jpgTriangle trips carried guns, goods from England to Africa for slaves from Africa to Caribbean. Sugar, coffee, cotton and rum to England for commercial slavery by supply and demand on plantations. 1571305574491870094090532857700.jpg15714076486934305525943298638509.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0021.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0011.jpgAtlantic crossing from Africa Middle Passage shows cruelties of plantations in the British Caribbean. Africans were herded on slave ships and branded with irons labels people property of owners.15713033917892027579692775521469.jpgPortuguese also built sugar plantations in 1550’s off the coast of their Brazilian settlement colony, located on the island Sao Vincente. Portuguese and Spanish colonial presence in Caribbean Iberian Peninsula wealth cultivated cash crops.15713030689847713844378615539055.jpgThe economic boom of these plantations began colonizing remaining American territories to capitalize on the lucrative cultivation and trade of native’s natural resources. Sugar is the most important crop in Caribbean but other crops such as coffee, indigo, and rice also grown. 1571303161531508320018965015780.jpg15712992630563548705097506481294.jpgThe coastal sugae cane was best grown on the flat land near coastal waters as the soil was naturally yellow and fertile. The mountainous parts of islands were used for sugarcane cultivation industry. IMG-20191017-WA0010.jpg15712987137944748591809211620677.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0004.jpg348s.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0020.jpgThe coastal placement of commercial ports gave imperial states a geographic advantage to ship the crop throughout the transatlantic world. Sugar Slavery  trading of the Africans highly profitable not paying slaves for enforced labour. downloadfile-1.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0014.jpgSlave-Ship-pic-4-Wikipedia.jpg15714064266664307134901227462768.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0015.jpg15713038953617219558390950064672.jpg15713037481496759185923572241666.jpg15713036678907107097446613800368.jpgSlaves lived in appalling conditions but masters indulged in excessive luxury by toils of slaves. Triangular trade profits  prospered the West but underdeveloped blacks made poor despite the hardwork. 15713035569197275545111601093952.jpgwp-1571322668408.jpgManufactured goods were traded to the West African coast for slaves, who were shipped to the sugar colonies by middle passage. Sugar, molasses, rum, shipped from these islands back into England.15713038363315671248783757607047.jpg15713038628448686754927140878564.jpg15713036996912748769302716101649.jpg15713036364091737502484623690543.jpgSugar was the main crop produced on  plantations throughout Caribbean in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Most of the islands were covered with sugar cane fields and mills for refining sugar. IMG-20191017-WA0003.jpg15713001247174007076067301082629.jpg15713002203195667591899451618769.jpg15713001854538734211621372862312.jpg15713001504746913528570416798187.jpgwp-1571311816344.jpg15713002724015553289083152949101.jpgThe main source of labour was enslaved Africans. After the abolition of slavery, indentured labourers from IndiaChina, Java migrated to Caribbean to work on sugar plantations. Plantations produced 80 – 90% sugar used in Western Europe.15712995770488034116736118045599.jpg15712996195613941216406783616691.jpg15712997447027764109633942991300.jpg15712995281323834808765635583176.jpgSugar enabled slave labour for profits with tragic consequences in Caribbean. Imperial powers forced West Africans to cultivate sugar by slaves. Exploited labour, natural world created imperial conflicts in these Caribbean regions.IMG-20191017-WA0002.jpg15713029223757577184974282763473.jpg 157130286531419080874850560467.jpg15713027760246994249402391806889.jpg15713028101291278500655225486775.jpg15712977059634715966485674610399.jpgUse political and economic control they create to divide and rule people policy of animosity. Conflicts among English, Spanish, French and various indigenous people was used for territorial gain.15712964787331552835795446583723.jpg15712950696973492756233402938394.jpg15712972087976309023403494269657.jpg15712989701492300170279122619503.jpg 15712973826202918078063655814609.jpg15712954764466783854135368343091.jpgEuropean states exploited environment, resources so sugar production began to stagnate. Due loss of trees for timber in the sugar refinement process, European imperial powers competed and fought over Caribbean in middle 17th century.15712948461163990403389790355463.jpg15712948817835962190680372982605.jpg15712953753492679276778321664742.jpg15712961917284396878281626055702.jpg1571294941734562424695867162323.jpg15712950360621362782314632360478.jpgEuropean settlers’ entry into Caribbean world caused changes. The indigenous populations died due to influx of world diseases of colonists. Population losses from 8.4 – 112.5 millions of these native populations cleared way for plantation industry and less conflict for Europeans and all these indigenous peoples too15712965493371578408370674417736.jpg15712966476488592384520750409745.jpgColonial arrival of sugar cane culture impact societie’s economy in Caribbean. Increased ratio of slaves to freemen and increased the sizes of slave plantations. Sugar plantation use of slaves affected cash crop economies in cultivation. The large plantations with the slaves Africa  imported worked on plantations. 15712956357681865740619933022642.jpg15712955869055477780312402713803.jpgPrior to 1650 three-quarters of island’s population was of European descent. In 1680 plantation in Barbados increased to about 60 slaves. So sugar plantations expanded transatlantic trade prospers. In 1832, plantation in Jamaica had 150 slaves one in four lived with 250 slaves. 15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15712947049235987567928405600593.jpgAbout 100 years, Barbados was richest European colony in Caribbean region. Then sugar cane production expanded to larger colonies Saint-Domingue and Jamaica. Mass sugar industry sugarcane processed commodities: rummolasses, and falernumWest India Interest was formed in 1740s by British merchants to West Indian sugar planters. 15712969933543584698609408312672.jpg157129755509656600633346701060.jpg15712963455442945155011821550429.jpg15712962302017147386549329208022.jpgwp-1571322746426.jpgBritish and West Indies shared profits or costs. needs. This first sugar-trading company was powerful in Parliament. In 1740s Jamaica and Saint Domingue or Haiti world’s main sugar producers. IMG-20191017-WA0000.jpgIncreased production in St. Domingue used irrigation system French engineers built. Reservoirsdiverted dam levees  aqueducts and canals. Improved mills and varieties of cane and grasses helped increase profits. St. Domingue in 19th century Haiti and Cuba sugar plantation Caribbean did better than British island.1571297025702538564298899779586.jpgIn the 19th century, sugar dominated  MartiniqueGrenadaJamaicaSaint CroixBarbadosLeeward IslandsSaint DomingueCuba, and other island run by FrenchBritish, or Spanish owners. During late 19th and 20th centuries the sugar cane industry dominated Puerto Rico‘s economy by colonial rule of Spain and under United States. 1571294727684996436954631513550.jpgAfter slavery, sugar plantation labour was workers imported from colonial India, Southern China. In 20th century, large-scale sugar production using wage labour continued in many parts of the region. Sugar cane industry’s negative impact affected the environment as this industry grew in Caribbean countries. 15712951825801502632195092917389.jpgThese include the destruction of forests, water pollution, loss of fertility, erosion of soils. These problems on a different scale in Dominican Republic in the 16th century; Lesser Antilles in 17th century; Jamaica, Haiti in 18th century, Cuba and Puerto Rico in 19th century. The nations impacted by sugar on the environment.15712952542173744336540029352835.jpgThe deterioration natural environment, had socio-economic consequences. And took its toll on Africans an integral part to cultivation, production of sugarcane. Slaves toiled in fields, boiling houses to supply huge amounts of labour sugar required. Four million slaves survived  Caribbean sugar plantations. wp-1571330195777.jpgConditions were harsh, mortality rates high through all stages of slaves’ lives. Some sugar colonie’s slave population ten times less than the European slave uprisings ever-present fear of planters. Slave trading highly profitable triangle of trade of Atlantic manufactured goods traded to West African coast for slaves shipped to sugar colonies of the middle passage and sugar, molasses, and rum were shipped from islands to England.wp-1571330138914.jpgSlavery in England  deemed illegal since 1772. The slavery in sugar colonies was vigorously pursued in Parliament and publication throughout last quarter of eighteenth century to time of abolition of trade in 1807, emancipation in 1833.15712977450102090396760846491987.jpg wp-1571330017603.jpgwp-1571330075100.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0001.jpg15712970952265673717702786919787.jpg15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15713021011131294159836164367675.jpg15712969306591487070998245117838.jpgdownloadfile-2.jpg12355_2014_311_Fig1_HTML.jpgAbolitionists arguments against slavery was support in England and in America. Abolitionist movement boycotted slave-grown sugar by protests is celebrated as key component of abolition’s success.15712979796166770357711539697198.jpggettyimages-919491468-612x612.jpg15712985345335906738950765594570.jpg1571300771153191415282151247452.jpg15713004757394126936251265247884.jpg15713005171167919886088148258374.jpg15713007268423280865825419848256.jpgBoycott from writings to educate sugar is derived from blood, sweat and tears of slaves pollutes the body. The planters by prospect of abolition emancipation, attack on their financial interests, place in empire argued in favour of slavery.15713009777485298377118240667583.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0006.jpg15712980902104280568193144664796.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0005.jpg15713003436563749568168188652437.jpg15713014110543316473429243866261.jpg15713013089491042850157734430430.jpg15713011469935621723745379844781.jpgWilliam Beckford, large-scale Jamaican planter wrote about the island unable to inherited plantation debt. Plantations profit dwindled by later plantation era so planters were compensated for their loss of earnings. Slaves never received compensations, restitution or apology. 15712989421675147982996667160052.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0009.jpg15713018236223543718958756404016.jpg15713016238362599330973898756795.jpg20191018_194544.jpg15712991574789124671528049609976.jpg15713015641859068275661653780133.jpg1571301463714798903122388001392.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0008.jpg15713014963618985587415087318746.jpg1571301334033345284614607997855.jpgInstead suffer racism from the people who sent ships thousand of miles to drag them from their homeland into strange lands. Many slaves after the wars were sent from America to Liberia and Sierra Leone in western Africa.20191017_095342.jpgIt was a problem their roots could not be traced having been renamed by force despite protests of Kunta Kinte. Natives discriminated against them because they were not indigenous citizens. And residue from slavery and colonialism is institutional racism still directed black people today.20191017_095707.jpgInvincible chain of slavery, colonialism racism hatred propaganda promote the harassment of black people. Western countries built by slave labour, natural resources usurped controlled by West. African economies are still owned by Western nations exploiting resources. Yet conqueror parasites play the victim despite depending on African slavery and ccolonialism. Kings like Prempeh exiled to Sierra Leone and Seychelles for resisting slavery and colonialism. So was Nelson Mandela incarcerated with others who fought back. Some toppled by coup detat directed from the West were replaced by stooges put in place. The Africans enslaved or colonised both victims of a system that exploited them. Africa’s resources of gold from Ghana, Guinea,  Mali, Songhai empires, Mansa Musa had supersized gold tied to horse taken by whites. Gold was so abundant it was dished out freely to loyal citizens. Gold taken over as diamonds. Africans did not gain from slavery to enrich the kings as people claim. But were stripped of natural resources owned by Western countries. Africa never has economic so still controlled by the Western nations today.

THE AFRICANS IN THE BIBLE

1568307998234350287588732800503.jpgGod declares to African people in Psalm 68:31 that “Cush shall reach out arms to God as early Church loved this promise, saw a black man help Jesus carry Cross. considered Cush to be a metaphor for the Gentile Bride of Christ. The Psalms predicted that one day people would recognize the spirituality of the Cushites, and declare that they had been born anew in Zion in Psalm 87:3-6. Isaiah said God will bring remnant from Cush in Psalm 11:11, redeemed people bring gifts to Zion in Psalm 18:1-8. Zephaniah said from beyond rivers of Cush, God’s people bring offerings in Zephaniah 3:10. Amos expresses God’s concern for Cush: “‘Are you not like Cushites to me people of Israel?’ says the LORD” Zephaniah 9:7.15683073793472425722686661667645.jpg

Biblical scholars are aware ‘Cush’ refers to all of Africa, sometimes to all Africa except Egypt, and sometimes to ancient Nubia, stretching from modern Aswan in the north to Khartoum in south. Most of this area lies in the Sudan. But how is the general reader to understand Cush and Cushite used 57 times in Hebrew Bible are in a designation for an African nation and people? Some versions of the Bible translate “Cush” as “Ethiopia,” but this does not ordinarily designate the modern country of that name. David Adamo suggested the best translation is simply “Africa.” All of us have a right to know and applaud important biblical role played by Africans. People of the African descent claim the deep roots of their ancestors in the Bible.15683069277985189522243142459692.jpgAfrica is in Old Testament from Genesis one of rivers of Eden is around whole land of Cush, and another encircled land of Havilah that yielded gold, onyx and bdellium in Genesis 2:10-13. These products found in antiquity in the area known as the Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia. Tigris and Euphrates rivers located in Babylonia, shows good reason to believe rivers of Eden lay in Africa. We are told oldest human remains may be traced to Africa. Hagar, the Egyptian concubine of Abraham, derived her ancestry from south of Egypt. She alone of all the Bible characters gives God a name in Genesis 16:13. Like Abraham, she meets God in and is given a promise her progeny will become a great nation in Genesis 21:18.15683105750826963769477824241236.jpgmmmmmMoses’ Cushite wife aroused jealousy of sister Miriam in Numbers 12:11-16. Miriam, who resents her black sister-in-law, becomes white with leprosy until she mends her ways. This Cushite wife Zipporah is Moses’ father-in-law Jethro the priest, who instituted  judicial, administrative and sacrificial patterns of Israel in Exodus 18:1-27. He and his family received the exiled Moses during Moses’ forty years as shepherd in Sinai. Zipporah had understood importance of circumcision and performed the ritual on their sons in Exodus 18:1-27. Cushite wife helps Moses looks to father-in-law for guidance and direction in Numbers 10:29-32; Judges 1:16.15683067809035397664470500877270.jpgWhen Israelites settled land of Canaan there were Africans among them. Some  left Egypt with Israelites at the time of Exodus; others came military invaders in 1 Kings 14:25-28; 2 Chronicles 12:2-3; 14:9-15; cf. 16:8. The Ethiopian colony at Gerar buffer between Egypt and Judah. Ethiopians became permanent residents in Palestine, remaining there until time of Hezekiah in 715-685 BCE. “Journeyed to entrance of Gedor, the east side of the valley, to seek pasture for their flocks, where they found rich, good pasture the land was broad, quiet, peaceful, former inhabitants of Ham in 1 Chronicles 4:39 -40. Group of Philistines, Arabs, settled near Ethiopians in 2 Chronicles 21:16.15683060779121682956306936306740.jpgPersons of African descent appear took active role in Israel’s social and political life. A bride in Song of Solomon is black and beautiful in Songs 1:5. A Cushite who possessed tact, discretion and high position in the royal court appeared as a trusted courtier sent to tell David news of Absalom’s death in 2 Samuel 18:19-32. Africans enjoyed royal favour, as Solomon married an Egyptian princess in 1 Kings 9:16, 24; 2 Chronicles 8:11 and received Queen of Sheba in 1 Kings 10:1-13; 2 Chronicles 9:1-2. Influential queen ruled African peoples both sides of the Red Sea. Queen Sheba, may well have come to Solomon to negotiate and trade treaty with his growing maritime power. Tested him with hard questions, in the end she told him all that was in her heart. It appears that in this black woman Solomon found a kindred spirit with whom he could discourse freely.15683118638493056538262816214734.jpgThat relationship was sexual evidenced alliance did indeed produce children as the ruling class black Jews. Zephaniah, a descendant of Hezekiah, is called son of Cushi and brings the special prophecies of Cush in Zephaniah 1:1; 3:10. Jehudi, a courtier sent to Jeremiah with message from Baruch to King Zedekiah had the  Cushite ancestor in Jeremiah 36:14. And Baruch stands before the king, reading the words of God but king slashes scroll cast into fire in Jeremiah 21, 23. Ebed-Melek, confidential advisor of the king, is identified as Cushite four times in Jeremiah 38:7, 10, 12; 39:16. Believing Jeremiah was bringing God’s authentic voice to Judah, Ebed-Melek risked his life to rescue the prophet from cistern and secure for him a hearing with the king. Jeremiah commends the courtier’s faith in Jeremiah15-18, proclaims to him special covenant of God’s protection.156833171072865783293502443737.jpgIn Genesis 16 Hagar meets God who has promised to provide for her and son. 15683285280597530140274396867836.jpgIMG-20190912-WA0008.jpgIMG-20190912-WA0009.jpg15683283082642766521076979514161.jpg15683284047696941858969006489791.jpg15683969308308576360979223589953.jpg15683063656013498788289630592015.jpgCushite pharaohs ruled over Egypt, they contracted military alliances with both Israel and Judah, especially during the time of Twenty-fifth or Cushite Dynasty. Sabacho in 716-701 BC, is So in 2 Kings 17:4 contracted an alliance against Assyria with Hoshea, king of Israel, while Tirhakah (690-664) came to aid Hezekiah as Jerusalem was beseiged in 2 Kings 19:9; Isaiah 37:9. A mortuary figurines of Tirhakah reveal his African features of enormous statue still towers above great temple complex at Karnak.15670948767161078613926685946495.jpgThe kingdom of Cush continues to play a role in New Testament we read of the conversion of the Candace’s Ethiopian treasurer in Acts 8:26-39. Candace was the royal title of Queen Mother of Nubia powerful African nation located in what is Sudan. Greek was spoken in the court, so the chamberlain would have had no problem reading a Septuagint version of the prophet Isaiah; and Philip, a Greek-speaking Jew, easily communicated the Gospel to him. Candace wielded the real political, military power from capitol city in Meroe while her son served as a religious figurehead. Royal mother gifts to God on behalf of the kingdom sent by her chamberlain with gift to Jerusalem.Tirhakah_artTirhakah

Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, waged war against Sennacherib during the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah (2 Kings 19:9; Isaiah 37:9) and drove him from his intention of destroying Jerusalem and deporting its inhabitants, according to blacksinthebible.org. God used this African king to protect the Jews as HIS chosen people. Also the Arts civilization flourished at high level throughout her realm, twice her forces engaged the Roman army in battle.15683124595885667631283936059650.jpgTo the north Cyrene, capital city of the Roman province Cyrenaica famous for three schools of philosophy and native sons excelled in medicine, mathematics, rhetoric and literature. Most famous or illustrious of these was the astronomer Eratosthenes, who in approximately 200 BC computed circumference of earth with remarkable accuracy. The brilliant Hellenistic poet Callimachus, director of library at Alexandria acquired the great reputation for versatility of aptitudes. And the athletes from Cyrene excelled in Olympic competition especially in horse chariot racing. Ships carried corn, oil, wool from fertile fields of Cyrene and contraceptive sylphium to Rome. Cyrene maintained a monopoly on the herb until became extinct over harvest in AD 200. Citizens of Cyrene roamed far and wide through Mediterannean world merchants, athletes, philosophers and orators, mercenaries, entertainers. The Jewish community of the city had a deep interest in Judaism and produced an important literature including a five-book history of Maccabees by Jason the Cyrenian in 2 Maccabees 2:43. The close ties with Jerusalem is Simon of Cyrene Libya helped carry the Cross of Jesus. A devout Jew goes to Passover, Jerusalem. He became a believer his sons known to Christian community in Mark 15:21; cf. Romans 16:13.1568307998234350287588732800503.jpgAn African synagogue of the Cyreneans and Alexandrians, first objected to the preaching of Stephen in Acts 6:9, other natives of Cyrene were early adherents of Christianity and carried good news to Cyprus in Acts 11:19-26. The Cyrenians and Cyprians travelled to Antioch with innovated Gospel approach to the non-Jewish Greeks. The revolutionary action drew attention of the Jerusalem Council, and Barnabas was dispatched to assess this new development. Convinced of the authenticity of the mission, Barnabas strategized with the leaders and went to Tarsus to seek out Paul. Implementation of African’s dream require involvement of multinational and multicultural task force. As the church at Antioch prayed, searched the Scriptures and strategized for a full year core of leaders developed. Of the five named, two Africans Lucius of Cyrene and Simon called the Black in Acts 13:1-2. Translations fails to inform us “Niger” is Latin for “Black” Simon of Cyrene. Missionary agency in large part initiated, strategized, promoted directed by Africans. The story of Acts tells us Paul and Barnabas promptly sent to Cyprus, home of some members of the Antiochene community in Acts 13:4-12. Archaeological evidence of arrival of the Gospel in Cyrene by the end of first century AD Christian burials inside the Jewish cemetery at Cyrene.15684580861912112964805784651956.jpgByzantine writer on interpretations of Biblical questions in the first half of the third century of the common era. Suidas (s.v. Ἀφρικανός) says Africanus was a Libyan philosopher supported by Julius’ works written in Greek shows author’s knowledge of Latin. He was a native of Latin North Africa the son of Christian parents from a noble family. Took part in expedition with Septimius Severus  against Osrhoene in 195. Is a friend of Abgar VIII. of Edessa whose materials from his works in archives of city. These relations reveal Oriental knowledge of Syriac, fourth chapter of his Κεστοί, he gives Syrian name of a fish. Familiar with conditions of Jews in Babylon in the Susanna Epistle Jews were living under their own jurisdiction in Exile. His works in Biblical criticism Hebrew language known. He was presbyter and bishop of Emmaus (Nicopolis) Palestine headed embassy to Rome on behalf of city. He was contemporary and friend of Origen lived in emperors Heliogabalus and Alexander Severus times. Africanus highly valued in Christianity of interest to Judaism. These works are: five books, founder of Church history, predecessor of Eusebius, source and pattern for the Byzantine chronographers for extracts from his work preserved fragments. His history of world seven epoch weeks like Jewish “Lepto Genesis” Jubilees, earliest history of human race, Jewish history synchronised general history. Put Moses 1,020 years before first Olympic date of Justus of Tiberias. Africanus source are traced various facts found in Africanus’ history parallel Josephus. In Biblical stories Africanus legends origin found in the Apocalypses and the Midrashim.15683064907397689947182494053598.jpgAFRICANS IN THE EARLY CHURCH15684524981767689343288530996876.jpg1568453317180494040346684595245.jpgClement of Alexandria in 150-215 was a Christian philosopher with keen desire to win pagan intellectuals to Christ. He directed catechetical school, Alexandria and wrote important exhortations to the heathen and Christians calling them to a more perfect life in Christ. Another African, Origen in 185-254, became the director of a catechetical school at age 18 was finest mind the church produced in 300 years. Origen highly successful in debating Jews, pagans, Gnostics credited with destroying Gnosticism. Important biblical scholar, theologian, an exegete, pioneer in biblical criticism produced Hexapla comparing six version of Bible.15684526730534572263193667551376.jpg15684528353382475705494581185241.jpg15684525396155447266077609462099.jpg15684527520384885477447801125455.jpg1568452774226694314850693388142.jpgIMG-20190913-WA0002.jpgHe influenced theological thought for centuries. Tertullian in 160-225 a pagan lawyer converted to Christianity. He authored the apologetic and theological, controversial works, first theologian to write in Latin. He formulated doctrine of Trinity, and coined nearly a thousand new words to explain Christian truths. Athanasius in 296-373, was Bishop of Alexandria and a major theologian and writer. He was the chief upholder of the doctrine Christ was both man and God and principle opponent of the Arian doctrine Jesus was man not God. As a very young deacon, he was influential at the Council of Nicea. And opponents referred to him as the “black dwarf.” He was repeatedly exiled and persecuted, but his principles ultimately prevailed at the Council of Constantinople in 381.15683136550409031563494505743307.jpgCyril, who died in 444 was a Bishop of Alexandria. He brilliantly represented, systematized teachings of Athanasius and Alexandrians. He was a vigorous opponent of heresy. Perpetua, Felicitas two martyrs died in Carthage arena in 202. Their story was widely used in the winning of others to Christ. Cyprian Bishop of Carthage died martyr in 258. Possessed profound knowledge of Scriptures, wrote important theology, fought heresy, and insisted on unity of the Church. Lactantius in AD 317 is best known for his Institutes, described as the “most comprehensive apology Christianity created before the end of the time of persecution.” The major theme of Institutes is justice. Lactantius insisted that God had given humanity a way of life open to all people regardless of race, education, sex, colour or creed. St. Maurice of Aganum born about 287, a Roman general who refused to kill Christians during a slave revolt in Gaul. He told the emperor Maximian: We cannot obey you without denying God, Creator of all things is our Master and yours if you acknowledge it or not. He was slaughtered by imperial decree with his regiment for defense of slaves.15683063971748743997771719083155.jpgG. Marius Victorinus in 280-363 was a neoplatonist professor of rhetoric with a brilliant record philosopher scholar. Educated in Africa but taught in Rome, wrote theological, devotional works, led to conversion of Augustine. Augustine in 354-430, Bishop of Hippo, was one of the Doctors of the Church. A profoundly influential theologian, he dealt with three heresies: Manichaeism, Donatism, and Pelagianism. Augustine remarkable insight into the human heart and soul. His most famous work is Confessions, describing his conversion to win others to Christ by detailing the philosophical basis for Christianity. And Monica in 331-387 was Augustine’s prayerful and powerful mother. Zeno of Verona was the bishop of Verona from 362 to 375. Over hundreds of his tractates survive and collection of sermons. Optatus of Melevis was Bishop in North Africa. He worked to reconcile Christians during Donatist Schism, and was influential in the East and West as well as in Africa. He died before 400 AD. By 480 Victor of Vita Bishop in the province of Byzacena. He described survival of Church during invasion of vandals. Saw persecution as religious and political. Bishop Vigilius of Thapsus participated in religious synod between Arians and Orthodox in 484. Produced important theological and ecclesiastical works.15683134503836206460010102808726.jpgFulgentius of Ruspe in 467-533 a Roman civil servant resigned his post to enter priesthood. In 507 was elected bishop of Ruspe. Later driven out of Africa by the Vandals, instrumental in popularizing Augustine’s work. Three early African popes: Are Pope Victor I in AD 189-199 popularized Latin as common language of church making  Christianity more democratic and accessible to ordinary people. Pope Melchaides in 311-314, also known as Meltiades persecuted prior to reign as pope, considered one of African Christian martyrs. Pope Gelasius I in A.D. 492-496 worked to settle conflicts in church and believed “civil and sacred powers of divine origin is independent each in its own sphere.”15683136036864992702812355303110.jpgLet us thank God for the important role played by Africans in Bible and early Church. Let us share Good News Christ died to redeem people of all races and nationalities. Let us proclaim that God’s love knows no boundaries. And let us affirm the amazing diversity of God’s creation! CBE advances the Gospel by equipping Christians to use their God given talents in leadership and service regardless of gender, ethnicity, or class. Together with supporters and ministry partners from 100 denominations and 65 countries, CBE works to inspire and mobilize women and men with Bible’s call to lead serve as equals in Christ.IMG-20190913-WA0001.jpgIMG-20190913-WA0000.jpgPaul says in Colossians 4:9 “Onesimus, our faithful and dear brother, who is one of you and Paul says in Philemon 1:10 Onesimus has become a son to him. Why did Jesus and Hebrews turn white in history books of Albinoes as Hebrews and Blacks originally lived and ruled in countries taken by thirty years war on continent and British civil wars of the 1600s. These race wars with religion are focal points Europe’s ancient Black and Catholic Rulers. Albinos chased out of homeland in Asia by Mongols into Black lands of Europe brought massive influx of millions of Albinos changed Europe in over two thousand years. Since then they portray Jesus and Hebrews white in books to impersonate history.

Some Black Verses In The Bible

Job 30:30, “My skin is black.
Song of Solomon 1:5, “I am black, lovely, O daughters of Jerusalem, like the tents of Kedar, like the curtains of Solomon.

Solomon 1:6,“Don’t stare at me because I am black for sun burns me. Mother’s  sons angry with me made me caretaker of their vineyards but I must take care of my own vineyard.

Job 30:28, “I mourn for comfort, I stand in the assembly and cry out for help.
Lamentations 4:8, Appearance is black like soot, They are not recognized in the streets; Their skin is dark, their bone is like that of wood.

Africans In Bible And Early Church

ISAIAH QUMRAN CAVE TEXTS

15675038823374640821258272163795.jpgIsaiah texts found in the Qumran caves in Israel talk about Jesus blessings in the last days. Messiah Jesus will establish His rule over Jerusalem as center of all world government for Jews and Gentiles in Isaiah 2:2–4, 11:10, 42:1. In the last days mountain of the LORD’s Temple will be established as highest of all mountains. Exalted above hills, and all nations will stream to there. The law will go out from Zion word of LORD from Jerusalem in Isaiah 2:2–3. Israel in endtimes of GREAT TRIBULATION and great distress in Matthew 24:16-21. After 62 weeks Messiah cut off by the people of the prince who destroyed city and the sanctuary. Isaiah 14:1 says God will fully restore Israel with Gentiles grafted in and their Covenant land restored.156750413455744591763124215406.jpg15675040054922384650299807268041.jpgIMG-20190901-WA0001.jpgThey make covenant with many for one week but in middle of week puts end to sacrifice and offering. The abomination sacrilege destroy but God’s annihilation poured on one who destroys’” in Daniel 9:26,27. GREAT TRIBULATION prophecy of Daniel, Jesus and John in Revelations are days of great testing, trial hardships. 1567504767055561015587967803398.jpg1567321233522944788266481653304.jpg15675144717012126230166156195684.jpgGod sends Elijah, Moses and 144,000 to evangelise in GREAT TRIBULATION so countless multitudes will be saved. But it is such desperate times, people will go into caves, rocks holes on earth because of the fear of God’s wrath. The earth is shaken by earthquakes, storms, tsunami fires, volcanoes floods etc. That DAY will cast away idols and go in clefts of rocks and crevices because of the fear of God rising to shake earth in Isaiah 2: 19-21.20190903_105307.jpgIMG-20190903-WA0012.jpg1567504237063528231591623493837.jpg15675054080973635894150619713187.jpg156750616883473278782334855259.jpg15675039440192476232508297509974.jpgIMG-20190901-WA0002.jpgIn time of GREAT TRIBULATION as Jesus foretold the world will face adversities in Matthew 24:25 “There will be signs in the sun, moon, stars on the earth distress of nations, with perplexity. The sea and waves roaring; 26 men’s hearts failing them from fear and expectation of things coming on earth for powers of heavens will be shaken. 27 They will see the Son of Man coming in CLOUD with POWER and GREAT GLORY. 28 When these things happen, look up lift up your heads your redemption is near, says Luke 21:25-28. 15673211596177715165354755398018.jpg15675050718586564726076222229271.jpgGod’s SOVEREIGN plan brings justice to end evil on earth to stop the persecution hatred of Jews and the Gentiles grafted in. People will try to escape God’s wrath so beg to die unable to do so, “and say to mountains, “Cover us to hills “Fall on us in Hosea 10:8. Kings of earth, great men, nobles, rich, mighty, slave, free, hides in caves, rocks, mountain from the FACE of ONE seated on THRONE from Wrath of Lamb Jesus on GREAT DAY of WRATH in confirms the Bible in Revelation 6:15-17.20190903_083435.jpg15675060476288002142079633414469.jpgThat DAY people seek death don’t find it death flees from them in Revelation 9:6. Isaiah prophecy on God’s WRATH, Jesus Jeremiah, prophets true. Jesus says, This happens but not yet end in Matthew 24 : 6. GREAT TRIBULATION to happen since beginning of world not happen again in Matthew 24:21. In GREAT TRIBULATION of those DAYS  sun is darkened, moon not give light, stars fall from heaven and powers of heavens will be shaken by God in destructions. 15675047096255877361278943320957.jpg15675057097442760130497633119311.jpgThen Sign of Son of Man will appear in heaven as all tribes on earth will mourn and SEE the Son of Man coming in cloud of heaven in POWER and GREAT GLORY. God will send His angels with the great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather together His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other in Matthew 24:29-31. The great DAY of God coming is a DAY of wrath, troubles and distress, devastating storm, desolation,  gloom, clouds thick darkness and alarm against fortified cities and high towers. 15675057790182376890532777751609.jpg15675057495836494388495567429033.jpgIsaiah 53:4-5 prophesied “Surely Jesus bore our griefs and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem Him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. 5 He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon Him. And with His stripes we are healed. Christ Jesus came to save headland deliver all who accept Him. But Time of distress for mankind oblivious to sin against God their blood poured out like dust and flesh like dung. Their silver or gold unable to save on the DAY of God’s WRATH on earth in Zephaniah 1:14-18. God’s believers don’t be afraid on a DAY for all those who reject Jesus’ salvation. Time will be up if they don’t repent and and seek God for Mercy and forgiveness and salvation in Christ. Jesus Reigns on earth from Mount Zion headquarters in Israel. So saints, kings, queens in God’s Eternal Kingdom rule, Second Coming physically in Jerusalem millennial rule20190904_193239.jpgGod says PRAY for the PEACE of Jerusalem in Psalm 122:6-9: “Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: ‘May those who love you be secure. May there be peace within your walls and security within your citadels.’ For the sake of my brothers and friends, I will say, ‘Peace be within you.’ For the sake of the house of the LORD our God, I will seek your prosperity.” Praying for peace and good to come to God’s HOLY CITY also benefits those who PRAY. God promised blessings on those who bless Israel and curses on those who curse Israel Genesis 12:3. Jerusalem is center of God’s Kingdom to Jews first and to all Gentiles who follow Jesus. Pray for her peace, security and God’s intervention.

JESUS’ BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY

IMG-20190823-WA0006.jpgIMG-20190828-WA0015.jpg15670181022068472870892802949715.jpgJESUS WAS BORN IN AUGUSTUS CAESAR’S TIME
IMG-20190818-WA0014.jpgJesus Bethlehem Star in Herod Roman ISRAEL15665444585456037928711354045433.jpgBC= (Before Christ) AD =(Ano Domini)15665438173193802429330246765213.jpgIMG-20190818-WA0015.jpgIMG-20190818-WA0016.jpg     CE = (Current Era is same as AD)IMG-20190818-WA0012.jpgIMG-20190818-WA0019.jpgIMG-20190826-WA0001.jpg15668144222191724282044097895602.jpgJesus’ Nativity Grotto Manger built in cave the place of His birth in Israel at Bethlehem celebrated globally today.1566423816977775302544281360036.jpgThe walls are protected by the heavy leather drapes backed with asbestos. Grotto Manger is covered by marble. 15664241738113112520822431802471.jpgThe 14-point silver star marble floor Grotto Nativity words “Hic de Virgine Maria Jesus Christus natus est,” Jesus Christ was born by the Virgin Mary. 15664247415413966455054614853852.jpgBethlehem Church of Nativity altar is a cave rectangle 12 by 3 metres rock trough replaced by marble. On feast days cave is lit by 48 hanging lamps.15664825904808576486757094227569.jpg 15664265948953064182727094918725.jpgA small altar in Grotto of Manger is dedicated to Adoration of Magi, Three Wise Men in Matthew’s Gospel from the East to worship newborn Jesus.15664267378333176950932698485893.jpgThe crosses on original grotto pillar.15664262814155682875504643502475.jpgThis original manger feeding trough rock cut by Bedouins found in Megiddo like one Jesus slept in. Grotto was enlarged for pilgrims. Silver manger replaced stone trough of Jesus bed.15664736799232959997281084708902.jpgNearby Church of Nativity Bethlehem a cave on Milk Grotto street hollowed out of soft white rock sacred to Christians.IMG-20190822-WA0002.jpg1564765725974608829493392566377.jpgHerod was killing infants so Jesus lived in secret cave hide outs done to escape Jesus’ death before going into Egypt for many years until Herod died. So family returned to Jerusalem but moved back to live again in Nazareth hometown.156648475499118206631917729006.jpgChurches are built on many places Jesus lived as a child and to His adulthood. So people visit the various places and of His ministry on earth. Home of Jesus in Nazareth is like this ancient house.15665031256949219574567600189324.jpg15663236614986317289956720022642.jpg15662362640174233423692023829914.jpg15662362348833108589619410840358.jpg15662361693593675924940286115312.jpg15664940828772395510996587276684.jpg15662365140781068905542913250518.jpg1566236478995994813015487377863.jpgpictures-jesus-photos-images-jesus-christ.jpg15663394616698521787745321239378.jpgOn third day of wedding in Cana, Galilee mother of Jesus and disciples told Jesus, “They have no wine.” Jesus said to her, “Woman why concerned my hour has not yet come.” in John 2:1-4. She told them to do what he says so Jesus asked them to to fill jars with water He turned to wine.15669358452308775356471386031975.jpg15669357895561757365477922007520.jpgExcavations at Khirbet Cana in lower Galilee show evidence its town Jesus’ first miracle performed. There is discovered large Christian underground veneration complex site of worship in Cana of Galilee of early Christians. IMG-20190828-WA0010.jpg15670082031233262210970988777229.jpg15670082904218773792228080786170.jpg15670085105472130690804631178149.jpg15668144879756191493016025430071.jpg15670107870142772919909853508456.jpg1567011653567850557501939099228.jpgWidow’s coins minted for Alexander the Great in 336-323 B.C. used in Jesus’ time. Her offering pleased Jesus as she gave her all cheerfully and freely to God. In Mark 12:41 – 44 and Luke 21:1-4 Jesus in the Temple in Jerusalem specified two mites, in Greek lepta, worth quadrans. Is the smallest least value Roman coin in circulation in Judea about sixth of a day wage. Jesus sat near treasury and saw crowd put money into treasury. The rich put in large sums but poor widow put in two small coins. Jesus told His disciples, ‘This poor widow put in more than all the others who gave surplus wealth. So contributed her all though poor. Others gave to show off wealth proudly but she gave from her heart all her little to God.15663249773947962716299888396233.jpgIn Capernaum Jesus preached, taught in synagogues Gospel good news, healed diseases, cast out demons. Synagogue in Capernaum with an artist’s impression.15663358055988475408216808120575.jpg15663358238894987569791949183702.jpg15664172581063736700920800346121.jpgCapernaum Byzantine Christian Church 15663326512346522450012154860155.jpgByzantine church home of Peter & Jesus.15663243739756729027642452721728.jpg15670815546847062269346887881642.jpg15662898597205896586587013407161.jpgMagdala stone from ancient synagogue to rest Torah on. Used during time of Jesus when they went into synagogue.15652753242012541944933542349369.jpg1567088090316862647094541099186.jpg15670876243245119766838690711785.jpg15670889467298907210550841406749.jpg15670851991408588309565971821284.jpg15670856556857654663206755445214.jpg15670885202274300226693725603084.jpg15670831312008915914056587105187.jpgJesus cast out Gadarene demoniac’s evil legion spirits run into pigs and drowned in sea, saved an evangelist in his town. 15670822830504673379061637071824.jpg15670836703732572662902447410981.jpg15670835520678301324301608397543.jpgJesus’ said prodigal son repented, went back to his father for forgiveness. So all mankind given chance to repent and go back to God the Father through Jesus to obey all God’s commands in the Bible. 156708789663047215162505234737.jpgTransfiguration of Jesus glory radiance on mountain in Matthew 17:1–8, Mark 9:2-8, Luke 9:28-36; 2 Peter 1:16-18.15662912546075529512496030354082.jpgAs many times as Israel did not remain loyal to God exiled many times. Temples of Solomon and Herod destroyed. In 70 AD after 40 years as Jesus predicted fell destroyed by Romans rumbles remain. These are coins used during Jesus’ time.15662925580936803512405705657561.jpg156629322900342107636046674473.jpg15662926940426063586077841079287.jpgJESUS PAID TEMPLE & ROMAN TAXES15662926500811374526630168511865.jpg20190828_221510.jpg15670111831725599063996389985364.jpg15662925241803434292147364051315.jpg15668405886782239637014589755044.jpg15668487695326259794423146412809.jpg1566845019009123509438516231754.jpgIMG-20190827-WA0000.jpg15668159100026310704675091084098.jpgJesus said in Luke 17:2 in the Bible that if anyone hurts a child its better that a millstone was hanged about his neck to be cast into the sea than to offend little children. Jesus said do not cause a little child to stumble to lose faith in God. If a person does incurs the wrath of Jesus so better large millstone hung round neck.15668165507422226521038688812880.jpg15668160172793661401119101523099.jpgIMG-20190826-WA0011.jpg15668415689723957343237436326019.jpg15668371309423068194743376001348.jpgThis small ceramic and glass flasks pear shaped bottles dated to a period in time. Includes time of Yeshua from 50 BC till beginning of 2nd century AD type of jar used in Luke 7:37 to anoint Jesus’ feet.15668160745238101147809458323887.jpgPrecious oils cost lots of money as made from essential fragrance perfumes that anoint the body or used for embalming dead with perfumed oils during Biblical times. In Matthew 28:1, Luke 24:1, John 20:1.women took oils to prepare Jesus’ body after death but He had risen.15668490394053975909664804014148.jpgIMG-20190826-WA0014.jpg15668491466145424823508162907642.jpg15668483234634864725718773270260.jpg15668445698841008633996223022033.jpg20190820_223424.jpg15670852934774798800673806614724.jpgJesus healed the cripple waiting 38years by this ancient Pool of Bethesda ruins in Old City Of Jerusalem. Bethesda ruins in Israel excavated shows buildings, places Jesus walked and ministered. People all over go to Jerusalem three times a year for feasts God required Jewish males do.15670922314977885903453516038122.jpg15670882522765652044414096832105.jpg15666404128014194366947009658658.jpgIMG-20190829-WA0012.jpg15663181940934169181263354126930.jpgIMG-20190827-WA0001.jpg15668450565778109949425112341738.jpg15668418821692915175104095000323.jpgJersusalem Garden of Gethsemane Jesus prayed before trails, crucifixion and His resurrection. This is Mount of Olives in Jerusalem amazing urban garden, very famous place where Jesus prayed as His disciples slept but angel comforted Him.IMG-20190828-WA0008.jpgIMG-20190828-WA0009.jpg15664135414271097513066499190994.jpg15664131185097414822708197235281.jpgMatthew 27:57-61 says a rich man from Arimathea Joseph disciple of Jesus went to Pilate for Jesus’ body. So Joseph took Jesus’ body wrapped in linen cloth and placed Him in his own NEW TOMB CUT OUT OF A ROCK. He rolled big stone at entrance of tomb and put body in. Mary Magdalene and other Mary sat opposite the tomb. Jesus died 3 p.m. as Passover Sabbath in John 19:31 begun at sunset Joseph acted quickly in John 19:38 went to Pilate discreetly. Luke 23:50 – 51, says Joseph was member of Sanhedrin ruling council of Judaism buried Jesus in cave fulfills prophecy Jesus buried with rich.15663180686217434891882956545879.jpg15664188782057439064172452035796.jpg15662947799909184051289945294166.jpg15664160380952703210444056131719.jpg15664177960142525595668191577811.jpg20190912_095055.jpgEpoch Times says tomb was opened in October 2016 said to be where Jesus lay for three days after Crucifixion. Tomb was subject to a restoration project in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem’s Old City. Fredrik Hiebert of National Geographic was part of the team and explained: “Tomb destroyed many times by fire, earthquakes and invasions over the centuries. It is a fake tomb created by the high priests to save face by embarrassment of resurrection of Jesus Christ. Paid soldiers to deceive people Jesus did not rise from death in Matthew 28:11-15. A violent earthquake and angel rolling stone from Jesus’ tomb guarded by governor’s soldiers shocked by fear collapsed to ground in Matthew 28:2-4. The angel told women at tomb Jesus had risen from death sent to tell His disciples. Guards at tomb went to tell chief priests what happened. 12 The chief priests and elders gave soldiers a large sum of money, 13 “Told to say, ‘His disciples came at night to steal body as while asleep.’ 14 If governor hears truth you will be in trouble.” 15 The soldiers took money did as instructed. This story known among Jews to this day Matthew wrote rumour in his gospel. If disciples stole Jesus body grave robbing is serious offence of death sentence? How did the guards asleep SEE who rolled the huge stone of tomb to lift Jesus? Why did they get away with not guarding Jesus’ body of death penalty? Guards said, disciples took Jesus body why did the authorities not deal with them to put them on trial?
Apostles were persecuted so put on trial for preaching Jesus is alive if they knew Jesus was not raised? The TRUTH is the stone rolled by angels Jesus came from tomb ALIVE by VICTORY over death. Chief priests tried to cover up truth with a lie for they did not believe Jesus arose from death. They hate Jesus seen radical who could upset social order in city of Jerusalem and followers threat to them. They did not believe in resurrection and chief priests felt guards of tomb lied and story will bring more people to Jesus to replace them as expected King of Jews. Its fake “Tomb” not used by Jesus so real tomb used is empty and in Jerusalem. 15662943207971563147261305293085.jpgAncient retaining wall uncovered under City of David during last century arrow on right in 1 Chronicles 11:8 shows city built from supporting terraces. Millo is extended by Joab to repair City. 7 David, resident in fortress City of David told his soldiers whoever takes rest of city will be captain. Joab son of Zeruiah, nephew of King David, commander of army won took city extended upwards. King David conquered Jerusalem in 2 Samuel 2-5 in Canaanite royal city Joab took Millo.15666400248286791627505959410494.jpg15662314547413347899319819000870.jpg15662945597882388846102832295170.jpg1566231546768786128824024332029.jpgIMG-20190820-WA0006.jpgPool of Siloam is a rock-cut pool on the southern slope of City of David. Siloam Pool is where Jesus Cured blind man in Biblical Archaeology. A Canaanite pool built by King Hezekiah’s Lower Pool. Is significant in John 9:7 mentioned in the Bible the pool is near the Temple sites.15662961420895759387409267980938.jpgThe Triple Gate on the Temple Mount is at the Royal Stoa southend of Solomon’s Colonnade by stairway of worshippers to outer courtyard of the Temple Mount. This Triple Gate is “Beautiful Gate” in Acts 3:2: the beggar healed by Peter and John in Solomon’s Colonnade Acts 3:1-11. The Temple Gate has a highly decorated stone called “The Beautiful Gate.” Jesus and apostles walked through this gate led to outer courts of Solomon’s Porch early church in Jerusalem met daily.  15662984895838916042761061226141.jpg15662992301654758318511346102690.jpgRobinson staircase once widestone arch stood at southwestern corner of  Temple Mount. Built as expansion of the Second Temple by Herod the Great at the end of 1st century BCE completed in at least 20 years after his death. This massive stone span constructed with retaining wall of Temple Mount. In ancient Jerusalem’s Lower Market area by Tyropoeon street to Royal Stoa complex esplanade Mount. overpass destroyed during Great Jewish Revolt, a few decades after completion.15662989486731074866030682879497.jpgThe Mikvah in first century used in days of Jesus south of Temple Mount at base of Double Gate stairs. Used to baptize some of 3,000 new Jewish believers on Day of Pentecost in Acts 2. Water is used by Jews for ceremonial washing, ritual baths to purify before or after if events make them unclean. Judaism requires submersion in a mikvah. Temple Mount south filled with mikvah to baptize the converted Jews in Jesus’ name change as a sign of new faith. Mikvah’s source is running water, spring, or fresh water rain. Mikvah large to immerse people. Stairs used to descend in and out of the mikvah. A wall separates the clean side from the unclean yet to be cleaned.15663136444944018069398915433631.jpgIMG-20190818-WA0017.jpg15670888942508890919960644943674.jpgIMG-20190827-WA0009.jpgIMG-20190827-WA0026.jpg15663164477812878629231246823882.jpgIMG-20190827-WA0022.jpgIMG-20190818-WA0013.jpgIMG-20190818-WA0020.jpgIMG-20190818-WA0018.jpg1566233011094615817986516559480.jpg15662092444831610928066468387198.jpg15662132613634254343354155873501.jpg15662184773413084311194003862594.jpg15662133863335980419097039675382.jpgIMG-20190818-WA0022.jpgJewish proselyte male converts from the whole world go to Jerusalem Passover.IMG-20190829-WA0014.jpg15674099287478925127510311752197.jpg15670927147571808113465177764769.jpg15670928244454442280400405526663.jpg15670930145905241487063085671002.jpg15670944795622528301894066437933.jpg15670943561933930112097596112003.jpgETHIOPIAN Eunuch baptized by Phillip15670946683088724137789873070593.jpg15670947325128349577097322478541.jpg15662319479053946165838556539094.jpgIMG-20190827-WA0031.jpg15662531969842340283848650706831.jpg15670879889012480806963422995676.jpgIMG-20190818-WA0021.jpg15666369890558135462993977521811.jpgIMG-20190818-WA0023.jpgThe Exodus ends 400 years of slavery for the descendants of Israel in Egypt.156623163646838325166646868832.jpgJourney of Abraham Isaac and Jacob. In Genesis 15:13 The LORD Elohim told Abraham, For four hundred years your descendants will be strangers in other countries enslaved and mistreated. 14 I will punish nations you served as slaves and come out with great possessions.15662205129971715746272086909865.jpgIMG-20190824-WA0001.jpg15666407099056762572369719790770.jpg15 You will live in and be buried at a good old age. 16  Your fourth generation descendants will go back for the sin of Amorites.” 17 At sunset, Presence of God by fire passed between Sacrifice by Abraham to God sealed the Covenant.15670880467304502790752470356315.jpg15666408718284068419412156589777.jpg18 The LORD God’s COVENANT to Abram said, “To your descendants I GIVE lands between Nile, Euphrates,19 Kenites and  the Kenizzites,  Kadmonites  20 Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaites  21Amorites, and Canaanites, Girgashites and Jebusites.” You will be father of all nations grafted in Covenant with Israel as countless as sands of seas and stars in the heavens. 4000 years ago, God in the Garden of Eden, PROMISED Seed (Jesus) of woman (Mary) will restore all mankind to God after sin of Adam and Eve. Jesus’ Victory over sin and death brings mankind to God as Second Adam the Only Way God Chose to restore HIS of Gift eternal Life. 15670795163494228425110843377816.jpg15634398664748753317748116550906.jpg20190718_095342.jpg15669012257071536523316912386443.jpgIMG-20190827-WA0011.jpgIMG-20190827-WA0007.jpg15668153479111273704434683951209.jpgIMG-20190827-WA0012.jpgArchaeologists discover new finds at sites in the lands of the Bible but most do make the news headlines. Scholars show the relevant discoveries as Sodom and the Exodus routes that happened. A trail of evidence exist of ancient Jericho, Israelites, and David’s City as great king. New discoveries in 20 years highlights recent finds to the claims of the Bible an Experienced archaeologist David Graves assembled a helpful collection of some discoveries journeys confirm in history biblical events and people past. Explore new archaeological discoveries, pottery, inscriptions, seals, ossuaries, coins, and manuscripts, and artifacts. Presented a short history of archaeology, outlining characteristics and role in Christianity. in meticulous excavation methods used to explore significant manuscripts for the transmission of Bible. And insightful books illustrate the archaeological finds in photographs, detailed maps, charts and tables, glossaries defined technical archaeological terms of extensive study footnotes and bibliography. Invaluable resource provide information to help us understand the cultural and historical background of Bible archaeology. This is resource for people to know more about archaeology and the Bible, in seminary courses, college classrooms, church groups or personal study.

 

Author of Biblical Archaeology Book

DAVID E. GRAVES (Ph.D., University of Aberdeen) involved in teaching Bible and archaeology for more than thirty-five years and is currently an Assistant Professor at Liberty University Online, Rawlings School of Divinity. He is one of the worlds leading experts on Sodom. Has taught archaeology at Oxford University, England; provided tours of the Ashmolean and British Museums; traveled extensively in the Middle East; and been involved in Mount Ararat research. He is currently a supervisor at the Shiloh excavations, Israel and was part of the team who discovered and excavated the Dead Sea Scroll cave Q12 near Qumran, Israel (Jan 2017) and Tall el-Hammam (Sodom), Jordan (2005-2015); and is a member of the Near East Archaeological Society (NEAS). He is the author of Seven Messages of Revelation and the Vassal Treaties: Literary Genre, Structure, and Function; Key Themes of the Old Testament and New Testament; The Location of Sodom; and has authored a number of articles on the Bible and archaeology.

JESUS IN EGYPT/ISRAEL MAPS

15648316192607707449909183363327.jpg1564831665367273111586519463515.jpg15646569304355726739680845638052.jpg15646580529202498646035413327622.jpg15648546710452198377635394704783.jpg20190801_114025.jpg15646554813917923813950887627950.jpg15646562281846992982701824170222.jpg156528139138431019198289823953.jpg15652809163262709635233645971108.jpg15652812227642151811642722896062.jpg15652754342556541025313775213031.jpg15652775560478461047745527868434.jpg15652773988384062994561002768282.jpgIMG-20190803-WA0007.jpg1565278131237375231407812607157.jpg15654300362746904440185833961432.jpg1565431437013826047730710704884.jpg15648538306026119783726148711226.jpg15648543935634144667990688587349.jpg15648546510932550606444320384397.jpg15652752687567915768972387138132.jpgIMG-20190808-WA0011.jpg15652753242012541944933542349369.jpg15648551162901513821157231214724.jpg15648542978586972753849835007463.jpg15648540948062852046322113809379.jpg15648552624101731811809511746555.jpg20190803_1934071564833995601663476476502697859.jpg15646050110116496470922657949029.jpg15648555350191784473057191826756.jpgBible details of Jesus’ birth in Gospel in Matthew 2:1 is during the days of Herod who died in 4 B.C. Joseph and Mary fled Bethlehem with Jesus Herod ordered all boys 2 years old and younger in vicinity killed. Jesus could be 2 before Herod’s death so His birth between 6 and 4 B.C. In Luke 2:1-2, “In those days a decree from Caesar Augustus that all the world be registered. This was first registration when Quirinius was governor of Syria.” Caesar Augustus reigned from 27 B.C. to A.D. 14 and Quirinius’ record and Judea in 6 B.C. This census mentioned by Luke is history details of time of Christ’s birth in Bethlehem in 6-5 B.C. Luke’s timeline: “Jesus, began His ministry about thirty years of age” in Luke 3:23 during time of John the Baptist in wilderness. John started “in the fifteenth year of reign of Tiberius Caesar. Pontius Pilate governor of Judea, Herod was tetrarch of Galilee. His brother Philip, tetrarch of Ituraea, Trachonitis, Lysanias, Abilene, during high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas” in Luke 3:1-2 time period. Facts fit A.D. 27-29, Jesus “about thirty years of age” in A.D. 27 shows His birth between 6A.D and 4 B.C. Jesus at 30 years began His ministry till thirty three years of age. As Jesus’ family moved Baby Jesus from Bethlehem into Nazareth and into Egypt to escape the massacre of innocents by Herod. Angel Gabriel warned Joseph in dream to leave at night and stayed three and half years in Egypt. Angel Gabriel returned to tell Joseph again in dream to take the Holy family back into Israel. When back into Jerusalem but another cruel Herod in power they moved back to Nazareth. Versions of living history of Jesus exists in many accounts narrated from other perspectives. Regenerations in modern cities means some old names changed but others retain consistency in the records. Psalm 69:35 says,“God will save Zion and rebuild cities of Judah so that they will dwell there and have it in possession. Jesus is real in history not fables misleading people. God’s word prophesied fulfilled in Jesus tells people to hear this Gospel message and to be saved in Christ Jesus Name. God Chose Jesus to REPRESENT HIM to bring people back to God before it is too late to repent. GOD HIGHLY EXALTED JESUS ABOVE ALL other names for there is no other name given among mankind to be saved. Jesus is ULTIMATE SACRIFICE who redeems mankind from sin and gives GIFT OF ETERNAL LIFE to all Children of God. You decide to accept Jesus as your personal Saviour and be with God Forevermore. After that time,’ declares the LORD. ‘I will put My law in their minds and write it on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be My people. No longer will they teach their neighbour or say to each other, ‘Know the LORD,’ because they will all know ME, from the least to the greatest,” says the LORD. ‘For I will FORGIVE their wickedness and will remember their sins no more says Jeremiah 31:33–34.

WHAT DID JESUS SAY ON TAX

IMG-20190718-WA0003.jpgMatthew 17:24-27;22:15, Mark 12; Luke 20, Jesus said, Give to Caesar what belongs to Caesar, to God what belongs to God. The Biblical accounts of Gospels in Capernaum said tax collectors of two drachma temple tax asked Peter if Jesus pays tax, he said He does. If Jesus paid taxes then what did Jesus teach His disciples? Matthew records two taxes  Jesus paid in Matthew 17:24-27; 22:15-22 temple tax and tax to government in Rome. People asked Jesus: “Is it right to pay taxes to Caesar?” It was a ploy to set a trap for Jesus. But He saw through their attempt to manipulate Him and falsely accuse Him of asking people not to pay. 15634591710442531419311844554429.jpgSo obliged to pay the tax, Jesus paid His taxes with the coin from the mouth of a fish Peter caught. Tax collector cornered Peter and asked if Jesus paid the temple tax. Later in Matthew 17:2427 Jesus said to Peter at home, “Simon, does the kings collect taxes from their own children or from other people? Peter answered the others. And Jesus replied we don’t want to cause trouble go cast a net in the lake and the first fish you catch open mouth, and you will find a coin. Use coin to pay your taxes and mine.” Take it and give them for my tax and yours.”15634589315132523190425229438762.jpgJesus told the Pharisees and Herodians to give to Caesar things belong to Caesar in Mark 12. The issue is controversial as people disagree on how the government spends money. Some people feel angry because their needs are not met though they pay tax. The Bible example of Jesus to pay taxes again in Gospel of Matthew Mark and Luke are other account of the Pharisees trying to trap Jesus to find the reason to accuse him. In Matthew 22:15-22 Pharisees went out and laid plans to trap Jesus to use His words against Him.Jesus on Taxes in the BiblePharisees disciples with Herodians said “Teacher,” they said, “we know you are sincere so teach the way of God in truth. You are not influenced by men. Tell us, what is your opinion? Is it right to pay taxes to Caesar or not?” Jesus, knowing their evil intention said, “You hypocrites why are you trying to trap me? Show a coin for paying tax.” They brought him a denarius and He asked them, “Whose head inscription?” They said, “Caesar’s. Then He said to them, “Give to Caesar what is Caesar’s and to God belongs to God.” When they heard this, they were amazed so they left him and went away.20190718_152609.jpgIf Jesus refused ​to pay or He condemned Caesar they will accuse Jesus of inciting rebellion. People had no choice but to pay as Jesus also did. And Zachaeus a tax collector climbed a tree to see Jesus passing by. Impressed Jesus dined in his home during meal he decided to restore money he extorted by collecting taxes in Mark 2:13-17. In Psalm 24:1, The earth is the LORD’S and everything in it but life requires money to function, pay staff, provide services, resources, processing, printing costs, transporting goods. And maintaining the structures and repairs restoration, regeneration, grounds and gardens etc. Too numerous to list costs of services provided by the nations. Amazon, Google, Wealthy Offshore accounts do not pay tax proportionately fairly like others.20190718_152057.jpgJesus and His disciples voluntarily gave to the Temple tax and state to set a good example. Taxes paid directly to local tax collectors who decided what people pay. Tax collectors paid by charging people more to earn money.  Levi, the apostle was the customs official in Capernaum taxed imports and exports as he liked. The Jews hated him because he worked for Rome and betrayed his countrymen.  Zacchaeus was a chief tax collector for the Jericho district notorious for taxes changed meeting Jesus of Nazareth.15634592789297575198766104501144.jpgPeople are saying the tax exemption for Churches are unfair making mega rich pastors super wealthy multimillionaires Church members struggle to pay bills, food, mortgage, health insurance, fees or basic necessities of life. Private jets, mansions get bigger, fleet of cars longer but members poor. Its a major source of tension rich multi billionaires are state sponsored in extravagant lifestyles. Schools reduce hours, hospitals cut staff budget reduced. The churches use tithe, offerings, donations, for salaries wages, cost of projects, feed orphans, help poor under the radar, homeless, HIV, disaster flood victims, TV ministry, preaching, teaching Gospel Message of Jesus Christ, Evangelism etc. among wonderful work  of God. Admission fee puts people off so first time Benny Hinn was at NEC entry was free. Thousands turned up with no room for overflow solved crowd control next visit with ticket admission. Only a few people turned up venue was almost empty. God said nobody must enter HIS Presence empty handed so Jesus talked about the widow’s mite even poor give. In Exodus 23:15 God said, no one shall appear before ME empty-handed. Also in Exodus 34:20 God said no one must appear before ME empty-handed. Again in  Deuteronomy 16:16 God said do not appear before the LORD empty-handed.20190718_151828.jpgGap between the rich and poor widens causing hunger and the stress, pressure, unemployment, lack, in deprived areas. No resources for disadvantaged so most public servants cannot get on the home ownership ladder. Many depend on the food banks despite their hard work and education. Zero hour job wastes time of trained staff without job or income. And the popular highly influential Christian leaders spew wrong ideas as ‘Christian Ideas.’ Don’t be misled…Study the bible yourself to know the truth of the Word of Christ. Read Bible as JesusFollowers and Christian’s. Some think Churches must follow Jesus’ example to provide fairly for the least in society too. So gap between rich and poor widens as many continue to suffer daily, starve and die in the most advance developed wealthy countries. Unfortunately a Class divide disproportionately allocate lion share to themselves as the world watches them flaunt it in their faces daily. 1 Timothy 6:10 says the LOVE of money is the root of all evil. Craving more money is cause of all evil in doing so wander from true faith so pierce themselves with sorrow.20190718_170247.jpg20190718_152338.jpgIMG-20190717-WA0000.jpgChristian family is fined taxes saying it is against God’s will to pay taxes. The  Christian family refused to pay income tax because its “against God’s will” but are ordered to pay more than A$2m tax (£1.1m $1.4m) to Australia’s tax office. It is Christian debate Rembertus Cornelis Beerepoot and Fanny Alida Beerepoot of Tasmania do not pay income tax since 2011 as their religious right. Their farm was seized and sold by a local council in 2017 for not paying seven years of tax rates. Ms Beerepoot told the court: “We don’t own anything because it is God’s.” The siblings represented themselves in Supreme Court of Tasmania Wednesday, after did not pay $930,000 in income tax or other charges in 2017 ABC News said.The Beerepoots leave court on 17 July 2019Rembertus Cornelis Beerepoot (left) and Fanny Alida Beerepoot (far right) seen here outside the court in Tasmania. Mr Beerepoot argued the law of God is the “supreme law of this land” and making people pay tax weakens dependency on God, leading to “curses… in the form of droughts and infertility.” “Transferring allegiance from God to Commonwealth means rebelling against God breaking first commandment,” he said, according to the public broadcaster. In judgement, Associate Justice Stephen Holt said he believed Beerepoots’ beliefs is genuinely held but there is no specific reference in Bible to support their argument. “In my view, Bible effectively said civil matters and law of God operate in two different spheres.” So the siblings ordered to pay sums of – Ms Beerepoot A$1.17m and Mr Beereport A$1.16m to cover income tax, administrative penalties and all interest charges” and costs in court documents. What do you think about various views?

BBC News excerpts reblogged & updated

JESUS ATTENTION MIRACLES

1559765839202-1772898553.jpgJesus attention miracles by some people in the Bible is amazing. A totally mad man lunatic, insane, violent, bound in chains living in cemetery, cuts himself RECOGNISED and worshipped Jesus at Gadarenes. He fell on his knees, asked Jesus to deliver him from 1000 demons tormenting him. Jesus healed him and cast out demons into pigs drowned in the sea. An insane man seeking Jesus’ help by himself is a Miracle as families struggle to control them. The madman in Matthew 8:28-34 called on Jesus so sane who hear Words of salvation for Eternal life, believe and be saved too.1559767269622-1772898553.jpgAn army captain sought Jesus’ help for servant’s health at home. Although sick man was not physically present pleaded with Jesus for his healing and humbled himself as a man of great power and with authority. He asked Jesus to speak the word and man will be well because people listen and obey his commands. So much more will healing COMMAND of Jesus be taken more seriously by God in heaven to heal him by faith. Jesus is so impressed with his belief in healing power of God. His faith has made man whole and he was healed so there is no distance in prayer in Jesus Name.1559814275142-1772898553.jpg A boy is healed by Jesus in Mark 9:14-25 when his father brought him to the disciples. Jesus came to His disciples and saw the great multitude around and the scribes disputing with them. 15. People greatly amazed run and greeted Him.16 Jesus asked the scribes, “What they discussed?” 17 A man in the crowd said “Teacher I brought my son who has deaf spirit and fits. 18 It seizes him and throws him down so he foams in mouth, gnashes his teeth and becomes rigid. I told Your disciples to cast it out but they could not.” 19 Jesus said O faithless generation, how long will I be with you? How long do I bear with you? Bring him to Me. 20 They brought him to Jesus, as the boy saw Him the spirit convulsed so he fell on the ground, wallowed, foamed in the mouth. 21 He asked father, “How long is this happening to him, he said, from childhood. 22 He is thrown in fire and water. Have compassion, help us.” 23 Jesus said “All things are possible to all who believe.” The father cried with tears, “Lord I believe help my unbelief!” 24 Jesus rebuked unclean spirits, “Deaf and dumb spirit, I command you, come out of him and enter him no more.” 25 The boy was healed from epilepsy and Jesus said some deliverances need faith for powerful ministration with the gift of faith to believe. The father’s faith has turned from unbelief to believe in faith in agreement son’s miracle manifested. Jesus told His disciples some miracles need fasting and prayers.1559767896115-348722457.jpgAnother fascinating true Jesus seeker is a woman not allowed to be in public to announce her sickness. She is supposed to isolated until clean before daring to get near or touch Jesus, HOLY MAN OF GOD. She pushed through the crowds and the press to touch Jesus’ garments and her bleeding stopped. Her choice of treatment is interesting after years of seeking medical help in vain. She spent lots of money but got worse and broke so sought Jesus the Great Physician. One point touch contact with Jesus has made her completely whole by her faith. The disciples challenged Jesus about virtue flowing into her. Impediments or some restrictions cannot stop the bold daring faith action to seek Jesus despite all the obstacles in their way for God’s help. In Mark 5:25- And a woman was there who had been subject to bleeding for twelve years. 26 She had suffered a great deal under the care of many doctors and had spent all she had, yet instead of getting better she grew worse. She heard about Jesus came up behind in the crowd and touched his cloak 28 she thought, “If I touch his clothes, I will be healed.” 29 Immediately her bleeding stopped and she felt in body free from suffering. 30 Jesus realized power had gone out from him. He turned to crowd and said, “Who touched my clothes?” 31 Disciples said the crowds is thick yet you asked, ‘Who touched me? 32 Jesus look around to see 33 The woman, knowing who came and fell at his feet and, trembling with fear, told him the whole truth. 34 He said to her, “Daughter, your faith healed you. Go in peace and be free from suffering.”wp-1559815442204..jpgMark 5:22-43 Jesus raised this dead girl when a synagogue leader Jairus came to Jesus and fell at His Feet. 23 He pleaded, “My little daughter is dying please come and heal her. 24 Jesus went with him so a large crowd followed….35 While Jesus was speaking people from the house of Jairus said. “Your daughter is dead don’t bother Jesus anymore.” 36 Jesus heard them and told him, “Don’t be afraid; just believe.” 37 He did not let anyone follow him except Peter, James, John brother of James. They came to home of synagogue leader, saw people crying and wailing loudly 39 He went in and said to them, “The child is not dead just asleep 40 But they laughed at Him. He put them out He took the child’s father and mother and disciples with him into room where the child was. 41 He took her hand and said to her, “Talitha koum!”( it means “Little girl, rise up. 42 The girl stood and walked, she was twelve years old. They were surprised 43 And Jesus gave strict orders not to let anyone know this, and told them to give her something to eat.1559767621187-1772898553.jpgA Syrophoenician woman calls on Jesus to heal her daughter but told it’s not yet the time of the Gentiles. Jesus is called FIRST to the House of Israel then all the nations. Her persistence paid off when she said crumbs from the table are good enough for the dogs. Her faith touched Jesus so she received healing on behalf of her daughter. She boldly approached Jesus directly and got her miracle that day. Believe by faith you are worthy of God’s Grace and Mercy even if the odds are against you in Jesus Name.1559768570244-1413976713.jpgCurious children followed crowds to see Jesus and to watch miracles. They came too close near Jesus as disciples wanted to remove them from Jesus. Then Jesus intervenes and said let the children come to me, DO NOT HINDER THEM for theirs is the Kingdom of God. Jesus also healed children, taught them to be kind to share food and He raised others from death as God uses children in the Bible for HIS GLORY. Jesus said anyone that hinders them it is better a millstone is hanged around their neck to drown. An outcast madman or ostracised bleeding woman and Gentile woman and Highly successful powerful people in Authority and the children are all worthy of God’s Grace, healing power, Mercy and God’s Comfort in time of need in Eternal life and in imminent Rapture Resurrection.