FOOLED BY FOOD LABELS?

We often think of food as healthy or unhealthy, good for you or bad. So the companies use this to their advantage in their branding and packaging, to give foods health haloes that suggest they are healthy, when the reality may be more complicated than that. Seducing claims such as ‘natural’ and ‘low fat’ lead many of us to overestimate how healthy a food is. It can also discourage us from reading the nutritional details on the back label.

What do labels really mean?

Organic: it’s easy to believe that ‘organic’ equals nutritious. But organic certification does not guarantee the nutritional quality of food – instead it states the production methods. A US study has suggested that when food is labelled ‘organic’, people tend to believe it contains fewer calories.

Superfood: the term ‘superfood’ has no regulatory approval and no accepted definition – it is more a marketing word than a health one. Regardless, it’s been shown to have a strong effect on consumers – 61 percent of us have bought something because it is labelled ‘superfood’, according to YouGov.

Low fat: ‘low fat’ doesn’t always equal healthy. In the UK this label means the product must have less than 3g of fat per 100g. But when producers take out fat they often pile in sugar. Studies have shown that a ‘low fat’ label can trick us into eating more.

Low sugar: similarly to the ‘low fat’ label, ‘low-sugar’ foods can be high in fat and calories. The ‘no added sugar’ label doesn’t guarantee a low sugar content. Companies use fruit juice concentrate as a sweetener, as it does not have to be labelled as ‘added sugar’, but it is essentially sugar.

Natural: this word evokes a sense of healthy, unprocessed food. The Food Standards Agency states that ‘natural’ should mean that the food is made up of ingredients produced by nature. Many contain chemicals renamed to be more appealing to consumers. ‘Carrot concentrate’, for example, is a highly processed ingredient that’s used as a yellow food colouring.

Labelling and digestion

When individuals think they have consumed more calories than they have, their bodies respond as if they have actually consumed more. In a 2011 study, milkshake was packaged in two different bottles. One was labelled ‘Sensishake’, claiming to be a low-calorie drink with 0 percent fat, no added sugar and 140 calories. The other labelled ‘Indulgence’ and advertised as a rich treat with 620 calories. Both drinks had 380 calories. The study measured the participants’ level of ghrelin, the ‘hunger hormone’, whose levels drop in the body after a big meal, signalling to your brain that you’re full. They drank ‘Indulgence’ milkshake and their ghrelin levels dropped three times than when they drank ‘Sensishake.’ The difference in ghrelin response is seen as consistent with what happens if the individuals really consumed drink with different calorie counts. The results are consistent with well-documented placebo effect.

Location, location, location

We are bad at estimating how many calories are in food, and labelling makes this even more difficult. It turns out location really is everything. Research suggests that when people eat at a fast food chain labelled ‘healthy’ (even if it isn’t), they greatly underestimate calories consumed compared to when they eat somewhere they believe to be ‘unhealthy.’ They may also order more side dishes, drinks and desserts when eating out somewhere ‘healthy’.

‘If I have a low-fat snack I can eat more of it’

If you have a salad for dinner, do you think you deserve a slice of chocolate cake? A front label only gives limited information and it’s important to read the ingredients list at the back. Even if you are trying to reduce the fat in your diet, eating foods with the fat swapped for sugar will not necessarily be better for you. A great way to eat better is to cook for yourself so you know exactly what you’re eating.

Reblogged BBC Food

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STOP BLOOD CLOTS IN BODY

Venous thromboembolism(VTE) blood clots diagnosis is a serious preventable medical condition. So its important to know VTE or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) happens to anybody at any age and causes serious illness, disability and in some cases, death. VTE is prevented and treated if discovered early. PE in SCD patients is etiologic factor in patients who develop respiratory symptoms. Xray imaging procedure scans chest for blood clots treated with full-dose anticoagulation. Diagnosis of venous thromboembolism by positive Duplex ultrasound, ventilation-perfusion scan, or computed tomography angiography in most cases. Radiology reports for patients with documented history of anticoagulation treatment venous thromboembolism cases. This criterion verifies the high specificity history venous thromboembolism. So thromboembolism data collected on date of diagnosis, recurrence, site of thrombosis, central venous catheter-related status. Additional triggering factors includes oral contraceptives, pregnancy, cancer, hospitalization, surgery recorded. Hospitalization associated clots defined by venous thromboembolism occurring 24 hours after admission or within 90-days after discharge. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clot forms thrómbōsis  clotting inside the blood vessels obstructing flow of blood through the circulatory system. If a blood vessel vein or artery is injured, the body uses platelets thrombocytes and fibrin to form blood clot to prevent blood loss. Even when blood vessel is not injured, blood clots form in body under certain conditions. The blood clot or piece of clot breaks free, travels around body as embolus in body blocking small blood vessels. Symptoms are chest pain shortness of breath, leg pain, problems speaking, or moving parts of body. As clotting factors and platelets used up bleeding occurs with blood in urine, blood in stool, bleeding in skin. Complication include organ failure. Red blood cells are principal means delivering oxygen (O2) to body tissues via blood flow circulatory system. RBCs take up oxygen in lung released into tissues squeezing through body’s capillaries. Blood clot blocks circulation causing severe pain or bruising mark on leg.  Treatment for a pulmonaryembolism is at the hospital to treat underlying causes of deep vein thrombosis. This starts with anticoagulant medications asheparin and warfarin to stop blood clots from returning. Pulmonary embolism occurs as clump of blood clot gets wedged into artery in lungs. Blood clots from leg condition deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A catheter is inserted into vein in the groin upper thigh or arm and threaded to clots in the lung. The doctor may use catheter to remove clot or deliver medicine to dissolve it. Rarely, surgery is needed to remove the blood clotClots block oxygen flow 2.4 million erythrocytes produced per second in human adults affected. Blocks red cells developing in bone marrow circulating 100–120 days in the body before component recycled by macrophages. Circulation takes 60 seconds or one minute and a quarter of the cells in human body are red blood cells. And the blood volume is 40% to 45% is red blood cells. Blood related conditions are critical life situations so must be taken urgently, extremely seriously. Every second counts and they must have continous oxygen supply during crises. The blood clots can appear incredibly quickly, due to a number of factors like change in temperature. It causes a number of problems in the body and causes issues heart attacks. If found during routine check ups clot dealt with before obstructing oxygen in red blood portal veins or arteries.S_0917_deep-vein-thrombosis_M17501.2e16d0ba.fill-767x511

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs if a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in body, usually in legs. Deep vein thrombosis causes leg pain or swelling occur with cramps or no symptoms. Deep vein thrombosis develops if certain medical conditions affect blood clots. It happens if not mobile for long time after surgery confined to bed. Deep vein thrombosis is serious because blood clots in veins break loose, travel through bloodstream and lodge in the lungs blocking blood flow oxygen by pulmonary embolism. A lack of fresh oxygen from lungs causes breathing difficulties and shortage of breath so life threatening. Treatment is for 5-7 days or typically for 3-6 months, though blood thinners are continued for life if clotting disorder increases risk of another clot. After seven days, the clot is unlikely to be completely resolved so total time taken depends on the size of the clot. Most blood clots occur in lower legs and form when an individual is inactive for a lengthy period of time. A blood clot may develop in a patient’s leg after spending hours sitting or cramped on a plane. The symptoms experienced vary based on a size of clot, bigger clots are more painful than a smaller-sized ones. Those who have a blood clot in an arm or leg can experience swelling and tenderness. If the clot is small, minor calf swelling can occur but bigger blood clots cause whole leg or arm to swell. Those who have a clot notice a warm sensation or the affected area may turn bluish in color. The symptoms of a deep vein thrombosis signs and symptoms can include: Swelling in the affected leg. Rarely, there’s swelling in both legs.

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  • Pain in leg often starts in calf and feels like cramping soreness.
  • Red or discolored skin on the leg.
  • A feeling of warmth in affected leg.

Deep vein thrombosis occurs without noticeable symptoms sometimes. See a doctor if developed signs or symptoms of deep vein thrombosis, contact doctor. If developed the signs or symptoms of a pulmonary embolism a life-threatening complication of deep vein thrombosis seek immediate medical attention.

Pneumonia is also an inflammatory condition of lung affecting primarily the small air sacs called alveoli. At the end of the breathing tube of lungs, clusters of tiny air sacs become inflamed and fill up with fluid. Symptoms include some combination of dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. This can be triggered by the blood clot blocking wind pipes of lungs making it difficult to breathe without an oxygen tank or oxygenator. Pneumonia is often caused by infection with viruses or bacteria, by other microorganisms, or medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Risk factors include lung diseases: cystic fibrosis, COPD, asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, inability to cough due such as following a stroke, or weak immune system. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and physical examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests and culture of  sputum may help confirm a diagnosis. The disease is classified by where it was acquired within community, hospital, health care associated pneumonia. Vaccine prevent some types of pneumonia, prevention methods include handwashing and not smoking. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. The pneumonia due to bacteria is treated with antibiotics. In bacterial pneumonia, the white blood cell count high but falls in severe cases. In viral mycoplasmapneumonia white cell count is low or normal but severe pneumonia cases hospitalized. Oxygen therapy is used if oxygen levels are low.

The warning signs and symptoms of a pulmonary embolism include:

  • Sudden shortness of breath
  • Chest pain or discomfort worsens when taking deep breath or cough
  • Feeling lightheaded, dizzy, fainting
  • Rapid pulse rates
  • Coughing up blood
  • Loss of appetite

Blood in Urine and some causes: 

The causes of gross hematuria are infection, trauma, kidney stones, cancer, blood cell disorders, some medications, and strenuous exercise. We do not know why strenuous exercise can cause blood leaking in the urinary tract, but it could be fluid balance (dehydration), blood cell breakdown, liver or bladder trauma. Treatment is by medication, drinking plenty of water to avoid infections.

People sometimes in certain extreme cases need the red blood clots removed surgically or medication, treatment by leaches work effectively. Blood thinning medication of aspirin or medical doctor prescribes medicines to treat patients. It must be treated urgently to stop lungs running out of air due to blocked clot as red blood clot in lungs causes shortage of breath or no blood circulation death. Respiratory circulatory system of blood clots produces blood poisoning from the decomposing blood matter. The blood is exchanged using centrifugal transfusion to replace coagulated blood. If it’s done early saves lives but delays of waiting for machine worsen patient’s survival. A patient must seek help early so as not to self – sabotage essential treatment for life because life is in the blood. IMG_20180627_101138

The widespread use of opioids to treat pain frequently prompts concerns about addiction and even deaths. So, why are these sometimes dangerous drugs still being given to patients? Much stronger than many of the other options, opioids are among the world’s most commonly prescribed painkillers. These drugs – including morphine, tramadol and fentanyl used to treat pain caused by everything from heart attacks to cancer has side effects. In the UK they were recently linked to the deaths of hundreds of elderly hospital patients, while the US is battling a well-documented opioid epidemic. Why not use other painkillers to avoid the risk of harm, addiction blood clots and breathing problems? These painkillers literally kill patients instead of alleviating excruciating pain. The triple harmful side-effects  cause personality changes, confusion, hallucination so patients become less active. Instead of helping ease people’s pain at the moment harming them. With huge bonuses paid for use of such  medications to pharmaceutical companies they are pushing it’s use more than safe non toxic options available.

A worldwide problem

Opioids work by combining with receptors in the brain to reduce the sensation of pain and they are highly effective. However, opioid receptors are present in areas of the brain responsible for breath control and high doses dangerously reduced rate of breathing as cause of almost all opioid deaths. Inquiry into Gosport said more than 450 people died between 1989 and 2000 from administration of “dangerous” amounts of opioids without medical justification. In US, increasingly widespread prescription of opioids to treat long-term pain led to epidemic addiction. In 2016, 11.5 million people in the US misused prescription opioids, and 42,249 died from overdoses. In England, GPs prescribed 23.8 million opioid-based painkillers in 2017 a rise of 10 million prescriptions since 2007. Since those with chronic pain require strong painkillers some are killed by overzealous use due to need to control excruciating pain and make patients comfortable. Those with sickle cell disease (SCD) have signs of the disease during the first year of life, around 5 months of age. Symptoms and complications of SCD are different for each person and can range from mild to severe pain. The reason infants don’t show symptoms at birth is because baby or fetal haemoglobin protects the red blood cells from sickling. When the infant is around 4 to 5 months of age, the baby or fetal haemoglobin is replaced by sickle hemoglobin and the cells begin to sickle. SCD is a disease that worsens over time. Treatments are available can prevent complications and lengthen lives of those who have this condition. The treatment options can be different for a person depending on symptom’s severity. Hydroxyurea (pronounced hye droks ee yoor EE a) is a medicine that can decrease several complications of SCD. This treatment is safe if given by medical specialists experienced in caring for patients with SCD. Side effects of taking hydroxyurea during pregnancy or for a long time are not completely known. The Food and Drug Administration approved a new medicine to reduce the number of sickle cell crises in adults and children older than age five; it is called L-glutamine. Another treatment, which can actually cure SCD, is a stem cell transplant (also called a bone marrow transplant); this procedure infuses healthy cells, called stem cells, into the body to replace damaged or diseased bone marrow (bone marrow is the center of the bone where blood cells are made). Although transplants of bone marrow or blood from healthy donors are increasingly used to successfully cure SCD, they require a matched donor (a person with similar, compatible bone marrow), and transplants sometimes cause severe side effects and occasional life-threatening illness or death. People with SCD and families should ask their doctors about benefits and risks of treatment options.

Sickle Cell Jaundice

Sickle cell jaundice bilirubin is released byproduct of red blood cells destroyed. The liver must process bilirubin to be excreted as bile into gut for digestion and passed out in the stools or urine. Jaundice occurs when there is too much bilirubin produced by too many red blood cells destroyed. The liver fails to process bilirubin in tummy so abdomen becomes swollen because of a build-up of fluid ascites. Liver and spleen may be enlarged plus unexcreted pile of dead red cells blocks passage of bile into gut. Jaundice disease is assessed and treated with significant symptoms of tiredness, ankle swelling, and also gastrointestinal bleeding, coma, confusion, ascites, etc. Clinical investigations show causes of jaundice increased bilirubin production increase of red blood cells destroyed. So haemolysis collection of blood in tissue red blood cell destroyed cause tiredness or lethargy called haemolyticanaemia. Failure of the liver to process bilirubin excretion diseases affects liver as viral infection, genetic diseases, excessive accumulation of chemicals (copper and iron. The disease Gilbert’s syndrome is a genetic disease causing jaundice by this method. Blockage of passage of bile into gut causes gallstones in bileduct of liver. Accumulation of gallstones requires the removal by surgery.

Jaundice Assessment

Complete jaundice assessment includes yellow eyes seen during clinical history, clinical examination, general or specific investigations. Review of clinical history and a complete routine medical history needs to be obtained. Medical history gives the causes of jaundice including pale stool, very dark urine, itchiness, gallbladder pain, tummy pain or others. A thorough general examination will be carried out specifically, liver and spleen should be felt for an enlargement. Other features include signs of anaemia lack of red blood cells in the body. A routine blood test checks of liver, blood system. The urine is tested to find exact cause in specific investigations by ultrasound for liver and tummy, CT of tummy, or direct visualisation of bile ducts in the tummy. A sample of liver tissue may be required for diagnosis in liver biopsy sometimes.

Treatment of Jaundiced Liver

Treatment of jaundice varies according to causes. A haematologist specialist in blood system, surgeon or physician is involved in treating causes of jaundice. Read more about liver and take care of yourself because the rate young people suffer from kidney disease is alarming. As a result some end up in Hospital on life support with kidney problems but can avert the menace of kidney disease.

TOP 6 CAUSES OF KIDNEY DISEASE:

1. Delay going to a toilet. Keeping your urine in your bladder for too long is a bad idea. A full bladder can cause bladder damage as urine in the bladder multiplies bacteria quickly. Once the urine refluxes back to the ureter and kidneys, the toxic substances can result in kidney infections, then urinary tract infections, nephritis, uremia and sepsis. When nature calls do it soon as you can.

2. Eating too much salt. You should eat no more than 5.8 grams of salt daily.

3. Eating too much meat. Too much protein in your diet is harmful for your kidneys. Protein digestion produces ammonia as a toxin very destructive to your kidneys. Too much meat than body needs equals more kidney damage.

4. Drinking too much caffeine. Caffeine is a component of many sodas and soft drinks. It raises your blood pressure and your kidneys start suffering. So you should cut down the amount of coke you drink daily.

5. Drinking water. Our kidneys should be hydrated properly to perform their functions well. If not drinking enough water the toxins can start accumulating in the blood, as there isn’t enough fluid to drain them through kidneys. Drink more than 10 glasses of water daily. An easy way to check if you are drinking enough water: look at the colour of your urine; the lighter the colour, the better.

6. Early treatment. Treat all your health problems quickly properly and have health checks regularly.  Help yourself God will protect you and your family from every disease.

(3) Avoid Tablets as very dangerous:
* D-cold
* Vicks Action-500
* Actified
* Coldarin
* Cosome
* Nice
* Nimulid
* Cetrizet-D
They contain Phenyl Propanol-Amide PPA causes strokes so banned in USA.

* Doctors in United States have found new cancer in human beings, caused by Silver Nitro Oxide. Whenever you buy recharge cards, don’t scratch with your nails, as it contains Silver Nitro Oxide coating and can cause skin cancer.

Important Health Tips:

1. Answer phone calls with the left ear.

2. Don’t take medicine with cold water.

3. Don’t eat heavy meals after 5pm.

4. Drink more water in morning, less at night.

5. Best sleeping time is 10pm to 4 am.

6. Don’t lie down immediately taking medicine or after meals.

7. If phone’s battery is low to last bar do not answer phone because radiation is 1000 times stronger. Knowledge is power.

Signs or symptoms of acute liver failure include:

  • Yellowing of skin and hands, feet
  • Yellow eyeballs jaundiced
  • Pain in upper right abdomen
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • General sense of feeling sick unwell malaise
  • Disorientation or confusion
  • Sleepiness

When to see a doctor

Acute liver failure can develop quickly in an otherwise healthy person and life-threatening. If one suddenly developed yellowing of eyes or skin; tenderness in upper abdomen or unusual changes in mental state, personality or behaviour seek medical attention right away.dreamstime_s_73450142-356x187

Blood Cells & Blood Coagulation

Pluripotential cells in bone marrow differentiate into red blood cells, white cells and platelets. The Immune system  impacts red and white cells. And recent advances help understand coagulation in the heterogeneous group of diseases, thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anaemia thrombocytopenia platelet clumping in microcirculation ischemic organ dysfunction neurologic symptoms. Increased thrombosis was reported in different hemolytic anaemia (HA), particularly in sickle cell disease (SCD), and thalassemia. The different patho-physiologies, hemolysis have the procoagulant condition. The mechanism involves abnormal red blood cell (RBC) properties. And the increased plasma concentrations of microparticles and a release of cell-free haemoglobin RBC arginase result in impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, increased blood concentration of oxidants, endothelial dysfunction. Major clinical consequence increase developing venous thrombosis, clinical sequelae of hemolysis symptom by NO depletion increased cell free plasma haemoglobin. Hemoglobinemia feature of the HA possibly contributing factor to explain clinical manifestation’s thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) characterized by microangiopathic HA and thrombocytopenia. The condition characterising intravascular hemolysis specific symptoms seen cell-free plasma haemoglobin sequalae. Conditions such as SCD and thalassemia syndromes and hemolytic conditions with substantial intravascular hemolysis. SCD, and the thalassemia represent common genetic disorders worldwide. Though different patho-physiologies, patients with both diseases share clinical manifestations, including thrombotic complications. So stroke in patients caused by large-vessel obstruction superimposed thrombosis, is one of the major complications in SCD. Pulmonary hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening complication in SCD, as documented by echo-cardiography (pulmonary artery pressure [PAP] > 30%) in approximately 30% adult patients with SCD screened. Autopsy showed evidence of new and old thrombi in pulmonary vasculature in up to 75% of SCD patients at the time of death. A recent report based on data by National Hospital Discharge Survey in U.S. shows patients with SCD younger than 40 years old had higher discharge diagnosis of pulmonary embolism than African Americans without SCD (0.44% vs 0.12% the prevalence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was similar. National In-patient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, from 2000 to 2001, reported SCD is a significant risk factor for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism, with an odds ratio of 6.7 (95% confidence interval: 4.4–10.1. The thrombophilic status in SCD has been well documented as multifactorial, involving hemostatic changes, activation of the coagulation cascade and endothelial activation as shown by elevated levels of endothelial adhesion proteins (ICAM-1. ELAM-1,VCAM-1, von Willebrand factor [VWF] and thrombomodulin). Intimal hyperplasia was found in a variety of vascular beds, including pulmonary, renal, splenic, and placental vessels, and in arterioles adjacent to leg ulcers of patients with SCD. Most SCD-related complications said to be caused by the microvascular occlusion and ischemic tissue necrosis following adhesion of erythrocytes (RBCs) and other cellular elements to vascular endothelium. So clinical series describe occurrence of DVT, pulmonary embolism and portal vein thrombosis in patients with β-thalassemia major and β-thalassemia intermedia. In a recent survey of 8860 patients with β-thalassemia in the Mediterranean region and Iran, the overall prevalence of various thrombotic events was 1.65%, precisely 0.9% in thalassemia major and 4.0% in thalassemia intermedia. Was common in SCD, stroke was reported in patients with β-thalassemia major from Greece and Italy an incidence of 20% and 2%,  patients with β-thalassemia hemoglobin E (HbE) disease. Complication occurs commonly in the patients not regularly transfused. Evidence of asymptomatic brain damage reported by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with β-thalassemia intermedia and is inversely correlated with Hb level and increasing age. PAH is increasingly recognized as part of the clinical spectrum for adult β-thalassemia patients, with a frequency ranging from 10% to 74%; the overall higher rate in thalassemia intermedia. Regular transfusions thought to reduce the risk of thrombosis in thalassemia. In recent study, Singer et al found PAH in transfused patients with thalassemia major, most of whom splenectomized, suggesting regular transfusion does not prevent PAH, thrombotic complications. Several factors implicated pathogenesis of the hypercoagulable state, specific changes in lipid membrane composition of abnormal RBCs increased expression negatively charge phosphatidylserine outer surface. Postsplenectomy thrombocytosis, cardiac dysfunction, liver dysfunction lead to protein C and protein S reduction. Suggest inefficient spleen, hematologic hemolytic diseases contribute to an increased propensity to thromboembolic complications. Both β-thalassemia or sickle cell anemia, have a high proportion of patients without splenic function due to surgical splenectomy or due to functional hyposplenism. In a series of 83 patients with β-thalassemia intermedia followed for 10 years, 29% developed pulmonary embolism, DVT of lower extremities and portal vein thrombosis. Development of complications attributed to presence of high platelet counts after splenectomy. Moderate thrombocytosis in the older children, adults with SCA a consequent loss of splenic sequestration autosplenectomy in patients. Literature on relationship between splenectomy or autosplenectomy and thrombosis in SCA is scant. Specific features of thrombotic complications in patients with SCD and thalassemia share similar pathogenesis. Intravascular hemolysis is a common feature of both SCD and thalassemia. Recent evidence associates chronic intravascular hemolysis with a state of endothelial disfunction.

Red Blood Cells

The major stimulus to red blood cell (RBC) production erythropoetin, which is produced in the kidney. Anaemia is decrease in number or concentration of red blood cells amount of concentration of haemoglobin as a common inducer of erythropoetin production. It is not the number or concentration of RBCs that stimulates erythropoetin production, but decreased oxygenation of the blood. The number of red blood cells increase in chronic hypoxia as occurs in those who live at high altitudes. Effectiveness of the red blood cell in carrying oxygen depends on oxygen supply, number of red blood cells and health of red cells:

1) In aplastic anemia, the marrow as a whole is suppressed, by radiation or drugs. Red cells and other blood cells decrease in number (pancytopenia) in aplastic anemia.

2) Anaemia develops from significant blood loss.

3) If iron, an important ingredient of the haemoglobin molecule is deficient in the diet, the patient develops an iron deficiency anaemia. Iron is transported in blood by plasma protein transferrin, stored intracellularly on the protein, ferritin. Deficiency of transferrin results in an iron deficiency anaemia.

4) Vitamin Bu and folic acid important in synthesis of DNA, in development of RBCs from their precursor cells in the marrow. A deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid leads to megaloblastic anaemia in which the RBCs are large, fragile and short-lived. Intrinsic factor, produced by parietal cells in the gastric mucosa, normally combines with vitamin B12, protecting it from gastric digestion, and facilitates its transport across intestinal mucosal membrane. Lack of intrinsic factor, results in a megaloblastic anaemia (pernicious anaemia by failure of B12 absorption.

5) Defects in structure of haemoglobin may be responsible for the anemia. In sickle cell anemia, a recessive gene results in abnormal haemoglobin, which distorts the red cells into a sickle shape in states of low oxygenation. The RBC becomes very fragile, is short-lived, and can clog blood vessels. About 8% of the black population carries the gene. Individuals with the heterozygous state typically are normal, although sickling can occur in marked states of hypoxia. True sickle cell anemia, the homozygous state, occurs in about 0.3% of blacks.

Read more about treatment guidelines »

Hand-Foot Syndrome

Swelling in the hands and feet usually is the first symptom of SCD. This swelling, often along with a fever, is caused by the sickle cells getting stuck in the blood vessels and blocking the flow of blood in and out of the hands and feet. One is at a higher risk of developing blood clots when blood pools in the lower extremities. Elevating the feet and legs will allow veins to return blood to the heart more efficiently and thus reduce the chances of clotting. Those who expect to be bedridden for a long time, such as after surgery or an illness, should put blocks under the foot of a bed to elevate the legs, keeping them slightly higher than heart. Alternatively, placing pillows under one’s lower half will give the same result.

Treatment

The most common treatments for swelling in hands and the feet are pain medicine and an increase in fluids, such as water. Those going on long flight planning for surgery, or other actions that put them at risk for blood clotting, drinking plenty of water can reduce the chance of developing subsequent clots. Proper hydration prevents blood clots in a variety of ways; it increases fluid in blood vessels, diluting the ratio of blood cells and reducing viscosity, lowering risk of clotting. Additional liquid washes away irritants in bloodstream damaging endothelium and blood cells. Blood clot is natural response to damage, washing away toxins significantly lowers risk. Choose water over juices and sodas high sugar liquids leads to dehydration.

Do You Use the Emergency Department for Care of SCD?

Pain “Episode” or “Crisis”

Pain is the most common complication of SCD, and the number 1 reason that people with SCD go to the emergency room or hospital. When sickle cells travel through small blood vessels, they can get stuck and clog the blood flow. This causes pain that can start suddenly, be mild to severe, and can last for any length of time.

Prevention

There are simple steps that people with SCD can take to help prevent and reduce the number of pain crises, including the following:

  • Drink plenty of water.
  • Try not to get too hot or too cold.
  • Try to avoid places or situations that cause exposure to high altitudes (for example, flying, mountain climbing, or cities with a high altitude).
  • Try to avoid places or situations with exposure to low oxygen levels (for example, mountain climbing or exercising extremely hard, such as in military boot camp or when training for an athletic competition).
  • Adults with severe SCD can take a medicine called hydroxyurea to help reduce the number of pain crises.
    • People taking hydroxyurea are checked often by a doctor to prevent complications, including an increased risk of infections.
  • Research shows that babies and children with SCD can also benefit from hydroxyurea therapy.
Treatment

Most pain related to SCD can be treated with over the counter pain medications such as ibuprofen and aspirin. Some people who have severe pain are given opioid (i.e. morphine) medications daily, with additional pain medication. Some people may be admitted to the hospital for intense treatment.

Fast Fact

Taking iron supplements will not help people with sickle cell disease. This type of anemia is not caused by too little iron in the blood; it’s caused by not having enough red blood cells. In fact, taking iron supplements could harm a person with sickle cell disease because the extra iron builds up in the body and can cause damage to the organs.

Anaemia

Anaemia is very common complication of SCD. With SCD, the red blood cells die early. This means there are not enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout body. When this happens, a person might have:

  • Tiredness
  • Irritability
  • Dizziness and lightheadedness
  • A fast heart rate
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Pale skin color
  • Jaundice (yellow color to the skin and whites of the eyes)
  • Slow growth
  • Delayed puberty
Treatment

Blood transfusions are used to treat severe anemia. A sudden worsening of anemia resulting from infection or enlargement of the spleen is a common reason for a transfusion. Multiple blood transfusions, however, might cause health problems because of the iron content of blood. Iron overload, called hemosiderosis, can damage liver, heart, pancreas and other organs, leading to diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Iron chelation therapy should be started in patients with SCD receiving regular blood transfusions to reduce excess iron levels. 

Nurse giving a little girl an immunization.

Infection

People with SCD, especially infants and children, are more at risk for infections, especially those due to bacteria with capsules because of damage to the spleen. Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in infants and young children with SCD.

Prevention

Vaccines can protect against harmful infections.

  • Washing your hands is one of the best ways to help prevent getting an infection. People with SCD, their family, and other caretakers should wash their hands with soap and clean water many times each day.
  • Because bacteria in some foods can be especially harmful to children with SCD, food should be prepared safely.
  • Vaccines can protect against harmful infections. Children with SCD should get all regular childhood vaccines, plus a few extra. Adults should have the flu vaccine every year, as well as the pneumococcal vaccine and any others recommended by a doctor.
  • Take penicillin (or other antibiotic prescribed by a doctor) every day until at least 5 years of age.

See a tip sheet on how to help prevent infection »

Treatment

Infections are treated with antibiotic medicines and sometimes blood transfusions. At the first sign of an infection, such as a fever, it is important to see a doctor right away as this may represent a medical emergency for people with SCD. Early treatment of infection can help prevent problems.

Chest x-ray

Acute Chest Syndrome

This can be life-threatening and should be treated in a hospital. Symptoms and signs are similar to pneumonia. Signs and symptoms include chest pain, coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. Blood clot travels to lungs doctors call pulmonary embolism. Clots reach lungs if small is non-life threatening but smaller clots causes substantial damage to lungs. If clot is large, can stifle proper blood flow and become deadly, so quick treatment is essential. So most common symptom to look for is sudden shortness of breath; if individual is short of breath or lacks physical movement is suffering from pulmonary embolism. A condition causes patient to experience chest pain, breathing problems, heart palpitations. In some cases, a pulmonary embolism causes one to cough up blood as well.

Prevention

Adults with severe SCD can take a medicine called hydroxyurea to help prevent acute chest syndrome. People taking hydroxyurea monitored closely with regular blood testing and dose adjustments to prevent complications. A person on bed rest or recent surgery can use an incentive spirometer, also called “blow bottle,” to help prevent acute chest syndrome.

Treatment

Depending on cause, treatment might include oxygen, medicine to treat an infection, medicine to open up airways to improve air, and blood transfusions. Cut down on salts and fatty cholesterol because salt irritates endothelium or inner lining of veins and arteries. The blood vessels do not work efficiently in moving blood around body. This leads to blood pooling in lower extremities, where it is more likely to clot. Damage to endothelium makes blood cells more to stick to walls of vessels, increasing the risk of clots. Excessive salt intake is harmful to the cardiovascular system in a variety of ways, with blood clots one of the more significant risks. Decreasing salt intake, cutting out all canned and processed foods significantly reduces the risk of blood clots.

Splenic Sequestration

This can be life-threatening and should be treated in a hospital. It happens when a large number of sickle cells get trapped in the spleen and cause it to suddenly get large. Symptoms include sudden weakness, pale lips, fast breathing, extreme thirst, abdominal (belly) pain on the left side of body, and fast heartbeat.

Parents of a child with SCD should learn how to feel and measure the size of their child’s spleen and seek help if the spleen is enlarged.

Prevention

For those who have had a very severe, life-threatening episode of splenic sequestration or who have had many episodes in the past, it might be necessary to have regular blood transfusions or the spleen can be removed (called splenectomy) to stop it from happening again.

Treatment

Treatment typically is a blood transfusion. This should be done in consultation with a blood specialist as patients sometimes become overloaded with fluid when the blood is released from the spleen. Removal of blood may be necessary to prevent this happening.

Young girl getting eyes checked at the eye doctor

Vision Loss

Vision loss, including blindness, can occur when blood vessels in the eye become blocked with sickle cells and the retina (the thin layer of tissue inside the back of the eye) gets damaged. Some patients develop extra blood vessels in the eye from the lack of oxygen.

Prevention

People with sickle cell disease should have their eyes checked every year to look for damage to retina. If possible, this should be done by an eye doctor who specializes in diseases of the retina.

Treatment

If the retina is damaged by excessive blood vessel growth, laser treatment often can prevent further vision loss.

Leg Ulcers

This usually occurs on the lower part of the leg. They happen more often in males than in females and usually appear from 10 through 50 years of age. A combination of factors cause ulcer formation, including trauma, infection, inflammation, and interruption of the circulation in the smallest blood vessels of the leg.

Treatment

Leg ulcers can be treated with medicated creams and ointments. Leg ulcers can be painful, and patients can be given strong pain medicine. Management of leg ulcers could also include the use of cultured skin grafts. Treatment is provided in specialized centers. Bed rest and keeping leg or legs raised to reduce swelling helpful though not always possible.

Stroke

A stroke can happen if sickle cells get stuck in a blood vessel and clog blood flow to the brain. About 10% of children with SCD will have a symptomatic stroke. Stroke can cause learning problems and lifelong disabilities.

Prevention

Children who are at risk for stroke can be identified using a special type of exam called, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). If the child is found to have an abnormal TCD, a doctor might recommend frequent blood transfusions to help prevent a stroke. People who have frequent blood transfusions must be watched closely because there are serious side effects. For example, too much iron can build up in the body, causing life-threatening damage to the organs.

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and Pulmonary Embolism (PE)

Sickling of red cells can increase blood coagulation and induce an increased risk of blood clot in a deep vein (DVT), or in the lung (PE) if the blood clot moves from the deep veins. People with SCD have a high chance of developing DVT or PE. DVT and PE can cause serious illness, disability and, in some cases, death.

Prevention and Treatment

Medication is used to prevent and treat DVT and PE. PE requires immediate medical attention. For more information on DVT and PE visit https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dvt/index.html.

Other Possible Complications

  • Damage to body organs (like the liver, heart, or kidneys), tissues, or bones because not enough blood is flowing to the affected area(s).
  • Malnutrition and growth retardation among adolescents can cause a delayed onset of puberty and, in males, infertility.
  • Gallstones.
  • Painful erection of the penis, called priapism, can last less than 2 hours or more than 4 hours. If it lasts more than 4 hours, the person should get urgent medical help. It can lead to impotence.
  • A very rare form of kidney cancer (renal medullary carcinoma) has been associated with sickle cell trait.

Links to Other Websites

Sickle Cell Disease Association of America

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Clinical Trials

Be The Match – Bone Marrow Transplantation

Reblogged as previously published

GOD’S PASSIONATE LOVE

God’s passionate love requires marital affection and intimate attention beyond the highest quality of human love. God’s love still needs to be embraced as given to believers to indulge in intimate love as the bride of God. Human marriages are celebrated with pomp and grandeur to impress the guests to have something to talk about forever. Preparations are made as families become preoccupied with all exquisite details for perfection. Until the day of a wedding the impeding ceremony takes the priority top spot of all activities, projects, resources, funds, communication, travel plans, visits to and fro for preparation. The details are often checked again and again to ensure nothing is forgotten, overlooked, missed out on. Many people involved help in various ways until that special day all the people meet together to celebrate. And yet despite all that goes into the process of preparing it is only a means to a long-term marriage itself. A couple live together to consummate the marriage and produce children if they want to do so. Without physical intimacy marriage is dissolved if a spouse feels neglected so is spiritually marriage. The Covenant marriage with God’s bride is similarly compared to first love deep relationship of affection, devotion and attention. The honeymoon stage of relationship means couple joined at hip literally do things together. Both cannot stand being apart for even few moment’s separation from each other. Continues calling, texting or meeting as quickly as possible and back to work. God’s reminds bride to prepare as the bridegroom is coming quickly. A bride knows exact day set so prepares for a wedding day. Unlike earthly brides groom “don’t tell the bride” TV program, God is ONE who prepared venue, plans and organised everything to surprise the bride. The bride is told to be ready day or night for the marriage supper of the Lamb of God Jesus Christ. The bride is told to be ready joyfully waiting for the groom to arrive. So question is does the bride feel ready to meet her groom? Is there joyful looking forward to the groom’s arrival or wants other ‘more important’ things in life like, eating, drinking, buying, selling being married and given in marriage as world does. It seems this life though sad, miserable or full of challenges is preferred to God’s plans for humanity. The love of Jesus is misunderstood so some ignore him but those who accept Jesus take Him for granted. Doing mundane routines in His Name yet missing the spiritual intimate of love celebration with His bride. The church expresses love publicly however God demands private connection love with His bride to be reciprocated. Love is two-way street of giving and receiving so God wants to feel loved by His bride too. It is exhausting to shower affection, gifts and love on a spouse who ignores you completely and shows no love to you even though verbally says so. In the same way church bride of God needs to let God into the most intimate spiritual love of expressing adoration, fellowship with God in a personal level.

DARKCHOCOLATE MOODLIFT

dark-chocolate-768x480A team of researchers from Loma Linda University have revealed that eating the dark chocolate with a 70 per cent cocoa content has positive effects on the stress level, mood, memory and immunity. Dr Lee Berk, who led the study, said: “For years, we looked at influence of dark chocolate on neurological functions from the standpoint of sugar content that more sugar makes people happier. This is first time we looked at impact of large amounts of cocoa in doses of small regular-sized chocolate bar in humans over short or long periods of time and are encouraged by the findings. The studies show higher concentration of cocoa has more positive impact on cognition, memory, mood, immunity or other beneficial effects. Researchers carried out two studies to test the effect of eating dark chocolate. In a first study, the team looked at the impact of eating 70 percent cocoa in chocolate on human immune system, and found the treat set off cascade of reactions in turn reduced inflammation. A second study analysed brain health benefits of eating the dark chocolate, and found snack enhanced neuroplasticity in turn boosted memory. Team suggests benefits lie in a chemical flavonoid found in cocoa, plan to carry out follow-up studies to understand the mechanism behind these effects. A dark chocolate made from cocoa plant means it contains many of the health benefits of dark vegetables. These benefits from flavonoids which act as antioxidants.PROD-Dark-chocolateEndorphins bind receptors in the brain leading to feelings of euphoria, like the kind joggers get from runner’s high. The dark chocolate is a top dietary source of tryptophan amino acid like a serotonin neurotransmitter of happiness positive mood. Health benefits of chocolate often endorsed by Reader’s Digest and others recommend eating the dark chocolate for health wellness. This dark chocolate stimulates the production of endorphin chemicals in the brain to create feelings of pleasure. Dark chocolate contains the serotonin antidepressant that elevates mood,” says Scritchfield. Flavanols are believed to play a role in chocolate’s mood enhancing effects. Dark chocolate benefits your brain to improve memory for good moods. Even the single doses of high-flavanol dark chocolate shown to improve performance of cognitive tests including memory test in healthy adult. Contentment is noticed in just 30 Days as new study reveals the dark chocolate with a high percentage of cocoa benefits mood so reduces anxiety. Cocoa benefits eaters due to the root compound called polyphenol shown to positively improve mood and enhance calmness. And those without any clinical depression, anxiety, mood swings gain good mood boost.

FOOD AND MENTAL HEALTH

dieta-alzheimer-272x300Whenever it comes to taking care of your mental health one of the first things to consider if you’re feeling down in the dumps, stressed, unfocused, or anxious is the food you eat. Yes, that’s right what you eat, how clean or well-oiled food is so to speak affects stomach and bowels and has a lot to do with your moods and how you feel on top of doing things in life. Shauna Faulisi, holistic nutritionist and founder of a Soul Wellness Method told Elite Daily the stomach is a second brain of your body with relationship to serotonin production neurotransmitters in the body that regulates moods and overall immunity. Faulisi adds this idea is one of the first things tackled when she meets with new clients. Foods eaten will either feed the good or bad bacteria affecting mental health. And nourishing food diets by taking probiotics noticed a major improvement in own emotional well-being when she started doing both of these things. It seems obvious, at least in some way how food affects mood but truly science exists behind it all experts, say not something to be ignored when it comes to taking care of mental health. In fact, it might be one of the first things to consider if you’re feeling down in the dumps, stressed, unfocused, or anxious.pic Sugar is often snuck into foods eaten so feeds the bad bacteria and wreak havoc on good. Alcohol, refined carbohydrates and processed food Faulisi recommends focusing on foods feeding good bacteria, above-ground vegetables or bone broth, sauerkraut examples. Concentrating on incorporating kinds of such foods into your diet, means “your body and mind thank you,” says Faulisi. Dr. Michael Wald, MD, DC, dietician and board certified nutritionist breaks down this whole food and mood idea more for us. The direct link between the health of intestinal tract and brain,” he tells Elite Daily is essential. Gut’s more serotonin than brain is a chemical responsible for good feelings important intestinal tract and nervous system functions. It’s anti-inflammatory helps to promote better sleep. Neuroscience says the healthier your gut is it shows result of foods you eat. The better chance your body has to produce feel-good chemicals to improve your overall mood.logicas_cerebrais_podem_pesar_na_balanca_1__2015-04-23160411

Whatever food is put into your mouth, she explains, is going to spend the next three days traveling through digestive tract, permeating intestinal walls to be absorbed into your body’s circulatory system and tissues. “Your overall health is significantly affected by what you eat, she tells Elite Daily. Dr. Trattner says the research really shows our guts are so sensitive and filled with impressionable nerves they are, indeed, as Faulisi said, often referred to as our second brain. “The digestive system doesn’t think for us, but it does play a key role in certain diseases and communicates with brain,” Dr. Trattner explains. So, along with the foods you eat, Dr. Trattner recommends making probiotics a regular part of your daily routine, avoid refined foods with lots of sugar, estrogens and fat. mental-health-and-nutrition-1-638 downloadTherefore keep away from all processed foods or at least make it a point to snack on them in moderation. You will notice boost in your mood and mind as result. The body of evidence linking diet and mental health is growing at a rapid pace as reports show level of mental health problems of eating fewer healthy foods. Fresh fruits, vegetables, organic foods and meals made from scratch are more healthy foods than the chips and crisps, chocolate, ready meals and takeaways. Food and mood, mind the mental health charity helps those with mental health problems to eat better good mood foods. Vegetables and fruit contain a lot of the minerals, vitamins and fibre we need to keep us physically and mentally healthy. Eating variety of the different coloured fruits and vegetables every day means you will get a good range of nutrients. Eating well for mental health says Royal College of Psychiatrists in health advice. Food-and-Mood-tips-for-your-mental-healthModern user-friendly evidence-based information on eating well, nutrition and mental health is produced by the Royal College of Psychiatrists. The link between food and mental health by the Psychological Association recommends good nutrition to improve your mental health. So put all this newfound foodie knowledge to the test next time you’re shopping for groceries, and pop a few of the recommended foods like fermented coconut yogurt, sauerkraut along with probiotics, into your basket. Growing research literature answers Western-style dietary habits in particular under special scrutiny. The modern high rate of depression says what you eat affects mental health. A large body of evidence existing confirms diet is as important to mental health as it is to physical health,” says Felice Jacka, the president of the International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry Research. “A healthy diet is protective and unhealthy diet is risk factor in depression anxiety.” So pay more attention to the food you eat to improve your mood and mental health.

 

NOBODY KNOWS EXACT DAY


Numerous predictions of world apocalyptical eschatological events described in Bible on Christian Rapture, Great Tribulations, Last Judgement, Christ’s Second Coming details people trying to read mind of God. There are those who believe Rapture is imminent and will happen any moment so people must be ready. The sense of urgency in the past was so hyped that people sold belongings then it did not happen. This swung Rapture pendulum the other way so postponed for fear of false alarm.

As various dates contradict others yet each one claims to be accurate. This led many to complain about why Rapture and Second Coming of Jesus did not happen so give up hope of expectations. They live life with attitude of Rapture is delayed so a long way of so make merry, enjoy life, eat, drink, marry, be married, do business as usual. The two extremes are due to discrepancies of calculations of differences in Gregorian or the other calendars confusing some people.

Based on various calendars used times vary concerning exact event ONLY GOD KNOWS. Some argue they do not predict the times or the seasons but pointing guideline clues given to help prepare for Rapture and Second Coming of Jesus. Predictions of the end of world contradict each other because God said NOBODY KNOWS EXACT, DAY OR TIME OR THE HOUR ONLY GOD KNOWS

NOT even Jesus, Saints or angels knows time so why do people claim to know day or time as the following past dates reveal. So datesetting is not the most important thing for Christian believers, it is rather their heart dedicated to God, loving all people and also devoted to Jesus Christ serving and waiting ready for God’s Timing.

Date (CE) Claimant(s) Description Ref.
66–70 Simon bar Giora, Jewish Essenes The Jewish Essene sect of ascetics saw the Jewish uprising against the Romans in 66–70 in Judea as the final end-time battle which would bring about the arrival of the Messiah. By the authority of Simon, coins were minted declaring the redemption of Israel. [1][2]
365 Hilary of Poitiers This early French bishop announced the end of the world would happen during this year. [3]
375–400 Martin of Tours This French bishop stated that the world would end before 400 AD, writing, “There is no doubt that the Antichrist has already been born. Firmly established already in his early years, he will, after reaching maturity, achieve supreme power.” [4][5]
500 Hippolytus of Rome, Sextus Julius Africanus,Irenaeus All three predicted Jesus would return in this year with one of the predictions being based on the dimensions of Noah’s Ark. [6][7]
793 Apr 6 Beatus of Liébana This Spanish monk prophesied the Second Coming of Christ and the end of the world on that day in front of a large crowd of people. [6]
800 Sextus Julius Africanus This Christian historian revised the date of doomsday to 800. [8]
799–806 Gregory of Tours This French bishop calculated the end would occur between 799 and 806. [9]
848 Thiota Declared that the world would end during this year. [10]
992–995 Various Christians Good Fridaycoincided with the Feast of the Annunciation; this had long been believed to be the event that would bring forth the Antichrist, and thus the end-times, within three years. [11]
1000 Jan 1 Pope Sylvester II The Millennium Apocalypse at the end of theChristian Millennium. Various Christian clerics predicted the end of the world on this date, including Pope Sylvester II. Riots occurred in Europe and pilgrims headed east toJerusalem. [12][13]
1033 Various Christians Following the failure of the January 1, 1000, prediction, some theorists proposed that the end would occur 1000 years after Jesus’ death, instead of his birth. [6][14]
1200–1260 Joachim of Fiore This Italian mystic determined that the Millenniumwould begin between 1200 and 1260. [15]
1284 Pope Innocent III Pope Innocent III (died 1216) predicted that the world would end 666 years after the rise ofIslam. [4]
1290
1335
Joachimites After his 1260 prediction failed, the followers of Joachim of Fiore rescheduled the end of the world to 1290 and then again to 1335. [16]
1346–1351 Various Europeans The black plaguespreading across Europe was interpreted by many as the sign of the end of times. [17][18]
1370 Jean de Roquetaillade The Antichrist was to come in 1366 and theMillenniumwould begin either in 1368 or 1370. [19]
1378 Arnaldus de Villa Nova This Joachitewrote that the Antichrist was to come during this year. [20]
1504 Sandro Botticelli Believed he was living during the Tribulation, and that theMillenniumwould begin in three and a half years from 1500. Wrote into his painting The Mystical Nativitythat the Devil was loose and would soon be chained. [21][22]
1524 Feb 1 London astrologers A group of astrologers inLondonpredicted the world would end by a flood starting in London, based on calculations made the previous June. 20,000 Londoners left their homes and headed for higher ground in anticipation. [23][24]
1524 Feb 20 Johannes Stöffler A planetary alignment inPisces was seen by this astrologer as a sign of theMillennium. [23]
1524–1526 Thomas Müntzer 1525 would mark the beginning of theMillennium, according to this Anabaptist. His followers were killed by cannon fire in an uneven battle with government troops. He died under torture and was beheaded. [14][25]
1528 May 27 Hans Hut This GermanAnabaptistpredicted the end would occur on this date. [26]
1528 Johannes Stöffler Revised date from Stöffler after his 1524 prediction failed to come true. [27]
1533 Oct 19 Michael Stifel This mathematician calculated that Judgement Day would begin at 8:00 am on this day. [28]
1533 Melchior Hoffman This Anabaptist prophet predicted Christ’s Second Coming to take place this year in Strasbourg. He claimed that 144,000 people would be saved, while the rest of the world would be consumed by fire. [29]
1534 Apr 5 Jan Matthys Predicted that the Apocalypse would take place on this day and only the city of Münsterwould be spared. [30]
1555 Pierre d’Ailly Around 1400, this French theologian wrote that 6845 years of human history had already passed, and the end of the world would be in the 7000th year. [31]
1585 Michael Servetus In his book The Restoration of Christianity, the Spanish born reformer claimed that the Devil’s reign in this world had started in 325 AD, at theCouncil of Nicea, and would last for 1260 years, thus ending in 1585. [32]
1588 Regiomontanus Predicted the end of the world during this year. [33]
1600 Martin Luther Predicted the end of the world would occur no later than 1600. [34]
1624 Feb 1 London astrologers The same astrologers who predicted the deluge of February 1, 1524, recalculated the date to February 1, 1624, after their first prophecy failed. [23][24]
1648 Sabbatai Zevi Using thekabbalah, this rabbi fromSmyrna, Turkey, proclaimed that the Messiahwould come during that year. [33]
1651 Unknown author fromLübeck,Germany The apocalypse maps tell of an Antichrist, the rise of Islam and other events following Judgement Day that was predicted to occur in 1651. [35][36]
1654 Helisaeus Roeslin This physician made a prediction that the world would end this year based on a novathat occurred in 1572. [37]
1656 Christopher Columbus In his Book of Prophecies(1501), Columbus predicted that the world would end during this year. [38][39]
1655–1657 Fifth Monarchists This group of radical Christians predicted that the final apocalyptic battle and the destruction of the Antichrist were to take place between 1655 and 1657. [40]
1658 Christopher Columbus Columbus claimed that the world was created in 5343 BC, and would last 7000 years. Assuming no year zero, that means the end would come in 1658. [41]
1660 Joseph Mede Mede claimed that the Antichrist had appeared in 456, and the end would come in 1660. [42]
1666 Sabbatai Zevi Following his failed prediction of 1648, Zevi recalculated the end of the Earth for this year. [33]
Fifth Monarchists The presence of666 in the date, the death of 100,000Londoners tobubonic plague, and the Great Fire of Londonled to superstitious fears of the end of the world from some Christians. [43][44]
1673 William Aspinwall This Fifth Monarchistclaimed theMillenniumwould begin by this year. [45]
1688 John Napier This mathematician calculated the end of the world would be this year based on calculations from the Book of Revelation. [46]
1689 Pierre Jurieu This prophet predicted that Judgement Day would occur this year. [47]
1694 John Mason This Anglican priest predicted the Millenniumwould begin by this year. [48]
Johann Heinrich Alsted Predicted theMillenniumwould begin by this year. [49]
Johann Jacob Zimmermann Believed that Jesus would return and the world would end this year. [50]
1697 Cotton Mather This Puritan minister predicted the world would end this year. After the prediction failed, he revised the date of the end two more times. [30]
1700 John Napier Following his 1688 prediction, Napier recalculated his end of the world prediction to 1700 in A Plaine Discovery, a book published in 1593. [51]
Henry Archer In his 1642 work, The Personall Reigne of Christ Upon Earth, Archer predicted the Second Coming of Jesus would occur in approximately this year. [52]
1705–1708 Camisards Camisard prophets predicted the end of the world would occur in either 1705, 1706 or 1708. [47]
1716 Cotton Mather Revised prediction from Mather after his 1697 prediction failed to come true. [30]
1719 Apr 5 Jacob Bernoulli This mathematician predicted a comet would destroy the Earth on this day. [37]
1700–1734 Nicholas of Cusa This cardinal predicted the end would occur between 1700 and 1734. [53]
1736 Oct 16 William Whiston Whiston predicted acomet colliding with the Earth this year. [54]
1736 Cotton Mather Mather’s third and final prediction for the end of the world. [30]
1757 Emanuel Swedenborg Swedenborg claimed that theLast Judgementoccurred in the spiritual world this year. [55][56]
1780 May 19 Connecticut General Assemblymembers, New Englanders The sky turning dark during the day wasinterpreted as a sign of the end times. The primary cause of the event is believed to have been a combination of smoke from forest fires, a thick fog, and cloud cover. [57]
1789 Pierre d’Ailly The year 1789 would bring the coming of the Antichrist, according to this 14th-century cardinal. [58]
1792
1794
Shakers Predicted the world would end in both 1792 and 1794. [30]
1795 Nov 19 Nathaniel Brassey Halhed While campaigning forRichard Brothers‘ release, Halhead proclaimed that the world would end on this day. [59]
1793–1795 Richard Brothers This retired sailor stated theMillenniumwould begin between 1793 and 1795. He was eventually committed to an insane asylum. [53]
1805 Christopher Love This Presbyterian minister predicted the destruction of the world by earthquake in 1805, followed by an age of everlasting peace when God would be known by all. [60]
1806 Mary Bateman In Leeds, England, in 1806 a hen began laying eggs on which the phrase “Christ is coming” was written. Eventually it was discovered to be a hoax. The owner, Mary Bateman, had written on the eggs in a corrosive ink so as to etch the eggs, and reinserted the eggs back into the hen’soviduct. [61][62]
1814 Oct 19 Joanna Southcott This 64-year-old self-described prophet claimed she was pregnant with the Christ child, and that he would be born on October 19, 1814. She died later that year having not delivered a child, and an autopsy proved she had not been pregnant. [63]
1836 Johann Albrecht Bengel In the 1730s he proclaimed that, based on a careful study of the prophecies of the Bible, Judgment Day would come in 1836, with the pope as the anti-Christ and theFreemasonsrepresenting the “false prophet” of Revelations. [64]
1836 John Wesley Wesley, the founder of theMethodistChurch, foresaw the Millenniumbeginning this year. He wrote that Revelation 12:14 referred to 1058 to 1836, “when Christ should come”. [61][65]
1843 Apr 28
1843 Dec 31
Millerites Although it was not officially endorsed by their leadership, many Millerites expected the Second Coming to occur on April 28 or at the end of 1843. [66]
1843 Harriet Livermore The first of two years this preacher predicted the world would end. [67]
1844 Mar 21 William Miller Miller predicted Christ would return on this day. [68]
1844 Oct 22 Millerites After Christ did not return on March 21, 1844, the Milleritesthen revisedWilliam Miller‘s prediction to October 22, 1844, claiming to have miscalculated Scripture. The realization that the predictions were incorrect resulted in theGreat Disappointment. [68][69]
1847 Aug 7 George Rapp Rapp, the founder of theHarmony Society, preached that Jesus would return in his lifetime, even as he lay dying on August 7, 1847. [70]
1847 Harriet Livermore The second prediction of the end of the world from this preacher. [67]
1853–1856 Various Many people[who?]thought theCrimean Warwas the Battle of Armageddon. [71]
1862 John Cumming This Scottish clergyman stated it was 6000 years since Creation in 1862, and that the world would end. [72]
Joseph Morris An English convert toMormonism, Morris had revelations to gather his followers and wait for theSecond Coming, through successive prophesied days. [73]
1863 John Wroe The founder of the Christian Israelite Churchcalculated that the Millenniumwould begin this year. [63]
1873 Jonas Wendell In 1870, Wendell published his views in the booklet entitledThe Present Truth, or Meat in Due Seasonconcluding that the Second Advent was sure to occur in 1873. [74]
1874 Charles Taze Russell Predicted the return of Jesus to occur in 1874, and after this date reinterpreted the prediction to say that Jesus had indeed returned in invisible form. [75][76]
1875-1925 Wilford Woodruff Apostle of theChurch of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “[…] the Lord has not revealed to man the day or the hour, but he has revealed the generation […] It is my faith that hundreds and thousands of the children that have been given to us will be alive in the flesh when Christ comes in the clouds of heaven in power and great glory.” Historical life expectancy for Americans in 1875 was 50 years. [77]
1881 Mother Shipton(attrib.) This 15th-century prophet was quoted as saying “The world to an end shall come, In eighteen hundred and eighty one” in a book published in 1862. In 1873 it was revealed to be a forgery; however, this did not stop some people from expecting the end. [78]
1890 Wovoka The founder of the Ghost Dancemovement predicted in 1889 that theMillenniumwould occur in 1890. [79]
1901 Catholic Apostolic Church This church, founded in 1831, claimed that Jesus would return by the time the last of its 12 founding members died. The last member died in 1901. [80]
1908, Apr 23 Michael Paget Baxter The last of numerous apocalyptic predictions by this Anglicanevangelist and author; this being published in Future Wonders of Prophecy(1894). [81]
1910 Camille Flammarion Flammarion predicted that the 1910 appearance of Halley’s Comet“would impregnate that atmosphere and possibly snuff out all life on the planet”, but not the planet itself. “Comet pills” were sold to protect against toxic gases. [69][82]
1892–1911 Charles Piazzi Smyth Thispyramidologistconcluded from his research on the dimensions of the Great Pyramid of Giza that the Second Coming would occur somewhere between 1892 and 1911. [83]
1914 Charles Taze Russell Russell said “…the battle of the great day of God Almighty… The date of the close of that “battle” is definitely marked in Scripture as October 1914. It is already in progress, its beginning dating from October, 1874.” [84]
1915 John Chilembwe This Baptist educator and leader of a rebellion in the British protectorate ofNyasalandpredicted theMillenniumwould begin this year. [79]
1918 International Bible Students Association “Christendom shall be cut off and glorification of the Little Flock (The Church) in the Spring of 1918 A. D.” [85]
1920 International Bible Students Association In 1918, Christendom would go down as a system to oblivion and be succeeded by revolutionary governments. God would “destroy the churches wholesale and the church members by the millions.” Church members would “perish by the sword of war, revolution and anarchy.” The dead would lie unburied. In 1920 all earthly governments would disappear, with worldwide anarchy prevailing. [86]
1925 Feb 13 Margaret Rowen According to this Seventh-Day Adventist, the angelGabrielappeared before her in a vision and told her that the world would end at midnight on this date. [87]
1926 Spencer Perceval Son of theformer Prime Minister of Britain and one of the 12 apostles of theCatholic Apostolic Church. He believed that the world was growing nearer and nearer to the Apocalypse due to what he viewed as the rampant immorality of the times in Europe. [88]
1935 Sep Wilbur Glenn Voliva This evangelist announced that “the world is going to go ‘puff’ and disappear” in September 1935. [89]
1936 Herbert W. Armstrong The founder of the Worldwide Church of Godtold members of his church that the Rapture was to take place in 1936, and that only they would be saved. After the prophecy failed, he changed the date three more times. [90]
1941 Jehovah’s Witnesses A prediction of the end from the Jehovah’s Witnesses, a group which branched from the Bible Student movement. [91]
1943 Herbert W. Armstrong The first of three revised dates from Armstrong after his 1936 prediction failed to come true. [90]
1947 John Ballou Newbrough The author ofOahspe: A New Bible foresaw the destruction of all nations and the beginning of post-apocalyptic anarchy in this year. [78]
1954 Dec 21 Dorothy Martin The world was to be destroyed by terrible flooding on this date, claimed this leader of a UFO cult calledBrotherhood of the Seven Rays. The fallout of the group after the prediction failed was the basis for the 1956 bookWhen Prophecy Fails. [92]
1959 Apr 22 Florence Houteff The second prophet of theBranch Davidianspredicted the apocalypse foretold in theBook of Revelationwould proceed on this date. The failure of the prophecy led to the split of the sect into several subsects, the most prominent led by Benjamin and Lois Roden. [93]
1962 Feb 4 Jeane Dixon, various Indian astrologers Dixon predicted a planetary alignment on this day was to bring destruction to the world. Mass prayer meetings were held inIndia. [94][95]
1967 Aug 20 George Van Tassel This day would mark the beginning of the third woe of the Apocalypse, during which thesoutheastern USwould be destroyed by a Soviet nuclear attack, according to this UFO prophet, who claimed to have channeled an alien namedAshtar. [96]
1967 Jim Jones The founder of the People’s Temple stated he had visions that a nuclear holocaust was to take place in 1967. [97]
1969 Aug 9 George Williams The founder of the Church of the Firstbornpredicted the Second Coming of Christ would occur on this day. [98]
1969 Charles Manson Mansonpredicted that an apocalypticrace war would occur in 1969. [99]
1972 Herbert W. Armstrong The second of three revised dates from Armstrong after his 1936 and 1943 predictions failed to come true. [90]
1974 Jan David Berg Berg, the leader of Children of God, predicted that there would be a colossal doomsday event heralded byComet Kohoutek. [100]
1975 Herbert W. Armstrong Armstrong’s fourth and final prediction. [90]
Jehovah’s Witnesses From 1966 on, Jehovah’s Witnesses published articles which stated that the fall of 1975 would be 6000 years since man’s creation, and suggested thatArmageddoncould be finished by then. [101]
1976 Brahma Kumaris The Brahma Kumaris founder, Lekhraj Kirpalani, has made a number of predictions of a global Armageddon which the religion believes it will inspire, internally calling it “Destruction”. During Destruction, Brahma Kumari leaders teach the world will be purified, all of the rest of humanity killed by nuclear or civil wars and natural disasters which will include the sinking of all other continents except India. [102]
1977 John Wroe The founder of the Christian Israelite Churchpredicted this year forArmageddon to occur. [78]
William M. Branham This Christian minister predicted the Rapture would occur no later than 1977. [103]
1980 Leland Jensen In 1978 Jensen predicted that there would be a nuclear disaster in 1980, followed by two decades of conflict, culminating inGod’s Kingdombeing established on Earth. [104]
1981 Chuck Smith The founder ofCalvary Chapelpredicted the generation of 1948 would be the last generation, and that the world would end by 1981. Smith identified that he “could be wrong” but continued to say in the same sentence that his prediction was “a deep conviction in my heart, and all my plans are predicated upon that belief.” [105][106]
1982 Apr–Jun Tara Centers Full-page ads in many newspapers April 24 and 25, 1982, stated that “The Christ is Now Here!” and that he would make himself known “within the next two months”. [107]
1982 Mar 10 John Gribbin, Stephen Plagemann Predicted in their 1974 bookThe Jupiter Effect that combined gravitational forces of aligned planets would create a number of catastrophes, including a great earthquake on the San Andreas Fault. [108][82]
1982 Jun 21 Benjamin Creme Creme took out an ad in the Los Angeles Timesstating that the Second Coming would occur in June 1982 with the Maitreyaannouncing it on worldwide television. [109]
1982 Pat Robertson In late 1976 on his 700 Club TV programme, Robertson predicted that the end of the world would come in this year. [110]
1985 Lester Sumrall This minister predicted the end in this year, even writing a book about it entitled I Predict 1985. [111]
1986 Apr 29 Leland Jensen Jensen predicted thatHalley’s Cometwould be pulled into Earth’s orbit on April 29, 1986, causing widespread destruction. [112]
1987 Aug 17 José Argüelles Argüelles claimed thatArmageddonwould take place unless 144,000 people gathered in certain places across the world in order to “resonate in harmony” on this day. [113]
1988 Sep 11–13, Oct 3 Edgar C. Whisenant Whisenant predicted in his book 88 Reasons Why the Rapture Could Be in 1988that the Rapture of the Christian Church would occur between September 11 and 13, 1988. After his September predictions failed to come true, Whisenant revised his prediction date to October 3. [114]
1989 Sep 30 Edgar C. Whisenant After all his 1988 predictions failed to come true, Whisenant revised his prediction date to this day. [114]
1990 Apr 23 Elizabeth Clare Prophet Prophet predicted a nuclear war would start on this day, with the world ending 12 years later, leading her followers to stockpile a shelter with supplies and weapons. Later, after Prophet’s prediction did not come to pass, she was diagnosed withepilepsy andAlzheimer’s disease. [115][116]
1991 Sep 9 Menachem Mendel Schneerson This Russian-born rabbi called for the Messiah to come by the start of theJewish New Year. [117]
1991 Louis Farrakhan The leader of the Nation of Islam declared that the Gulf War would be the “War of Armageddon which is the final war.” [118]
1992 Sep 28 Rollen Stewart This born-again Christian predicted the Rapture would take place on this day. [119]
1992 Oct 28 Lee Jang Rim(이장림 or 李長林) Lee, the leader of the Dami Mission church, predicted the rapture would occur on this day. [120]
1993 David Berg Berg predicted the tribulationwould start in 1989 and that the Second Coming would take place in 1993. [121]
1994 May 2 Neal Chase This Bahá’í sectleader predicted that New Yorkwould be destroyed by a nuclear bomb on March 23, 1994, and the Battle of Armageddon would take place 40 days later. [122]
1994 Sep 6/29, Oct 2 Harold Camping Camping predicted the Rapture would occur on September 6, 1994. When it failed to occur he revised the date to September 29 and then to October 2. [123][124]
1995 Mar 31 Harold Camping Camping’s fourth predicted date for the end. This would be Camping’s last prediction until 2011. [123]
1996 Dec 17 Sheldan Nidle Californian psychic Sheldan Nidle predicted that the world would end on this date, with the arrival of 16 million space ships and a host of angels. [125]
1997 Mar 26 Marshall Applewhite Applewhite, leader of theHeaven’s Gate cult, claimed that a spacecraft was trailing theComet Hale-Bopp and argued that suicide was “the only way to evacuate this Earth” so that the cult members’ souls could board the supposed craft and be taken to another “level of existence above human”. Applewhite and 38 of his followers committed mass suicide. [126]
1997 Aug 10 Aggai The 1st-century bishop ofEdessapredicted this date to be the birth date of the Antichrist and the end of the universe. [127]
1997 Oct 23 James Ussher This 17th-century Irish archbishop predicted this date to be 6000 years since Creation, and therefore the end of the world. [128]
1998 Mar 31 Chen Tao(陳恆明) Hon-Ming Chen, leader of the Taiwanese cultGod’s Salvation Church, or Chen Tao – “The True Way” – claimed that God would come to Earth in a flying saucer at 10:00 am on this date. Moreover, God would have the same physical appearance as Chen himself. Chen chose to base his cult inGarland, Texas, because he thought it sounded like “God’s Land.” On March 25, God was to appear on channel 18 on every TV set in the US. [129]
1999 Jul Nostradamus A quatrain by Nostradamus which stated the “King of Terror” would come from the sky in “1999 and seven months” was frequently interpreted as a prediction of doomsday in July 1999. [130]
1999 Aug 18 The Amazing Criswell The predicted date of the end of the world, according to this psychic well known for predictions. [131]
1999 Sep 11 Philip Berg Berg, dean of the worldwideKabbalah Centre, stated that on this date “a ball of fire will descend, destroying almost all of mankind, all vegetation, all forms of life.” [132]
1999 Charles Berlitz This linguist predicted the end would occur in this year. He did not predict how it would occur, stating that it might involve nuclear devastation, asteroid impact, pole shift or other Earth changes. [133]
Hon-Ming Chen The leader of the cult Chen Tao preached that a nuclear holocaust would destroy Europe and Asia in 1999. [134]
James Gordon Lindsay This preacher predicted the great tribulation would begin before 2000. [135]
Timothy Dwight IV This president of Yale Universityforesaw Christ’sMillenniumstarting by 2000. [136]
Nazim Al-Haqqani Predicted that the Last Judgmentwould occur before 2000. [137]
2000 Jan 1 Various During and before 1999 there was widespread predictions of aY2K computer bug that would crash many computers on midnight of December 31, 1999, and cause malfunctions leading to major catastrophes worldwide, and that society would cease to function. [82]
Credonia Mwerinde,Joseph Kibweteere An estimated 778 followers of this Ugandanreligious movement perished in a devastating fire and a series of poisonings and killings that were either agroup suicide or an orchestratedmass murder by group leaders after their predictions of the apocalypse failed to come about. [138][139]
Jerry Falwell Falwell foresaw God pouring out his judgement on the world on this day. [140]
Tim LaHaye,Jerry B. Jenkins These Christian authors stated that the Y2K bug would trigger global economic chaos, which the Antichrist would use to rise to power. As the date approached, however, they changed their minds. [141]
2000 Apr 6 James Harmston The leader of the True and Living Church of Jesus Christ of Saints of the Last Dayspredicted the Second Coming of Christ would occur on this day. [142]
2000 May 5 Nuwaubian Nation This movement claimed that the planetary lineup would cause a “star holocaust”, pulling the planets toward the Sun on this day. [143]
2000 Peter Olivi This 13th-century theologian wrote that the Antichrist would come to power between 1300 and 1340, and the Last Judgement would take place around 2000. [144]
Isaac Newton Newton predicted that Christ’s Millennium would begin in 2000 in his bookObservations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John. [145]
Ruth Montgomery This self-described Christian psychic predicted the Earth’s axis would shift and the Antichrist would reveal himself in this year. [146]
Edgar Cayce This psychic predicted the Second Coming would occur this year. [147]
Sun Myung Moon The founder of the Unification Churchpredicted the Kingdom of Heaven would be established in this year. [148]
Ed Dobson This pastor predicted the end would occur in his book The End: Why Jesus Could Return by A.D. 2000. [149]
Lester Sumrall This minister predicted the end in his book I Predict 2000. [150]
Jonathan Edwards This 18th-century preacher predicted that Christ’s thousand-year reign would begin in this year. [151]
2001 Tynnetta Muhammad This columnist for the Nation of Islam predicted the end would occur in this year. [152]
2003 May 27 Nancy Lieder Lieder originally predicted the date for theNibiru collisionas May 2003. According to her website, aliens in the Zeta Reticuli star system told her through messages via a brain implant of a planet which would enter our solar system and cause a pole shift on Earth that would destroy most of humanity. [153]
2003 Oct 30–Nov 29 Aum Shinrikyo This Japanese cult predicted the world would be destroyed by a nuclear war between October 30 and November 29, 2003. [154]
2006 Sep 12 House of Yahweh Yisrayl Hawkins, pastor and overseer of The House of Yahweh, predicted in his February 2006 newsletter that a nuclear war would begin on September 12, 2006. [155]
2007 Apr 29 Pat Robertson In his 1990 bookThe New Millennium, Robertson suggests this date as the day of Earth’s destruction. [156]
2010 Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn This order predicted the world would end during this year. [157]
2011 May 21 Harold Camping Camping predicted that the Rapture and devastating earthquakeswould occur on May 21, 2011, with God taking approximately 3% of the world’s population into Heaven, and that the end of the world would occur five months later on October 21. [158]
2011 Sep 29 Ronald Weinland Ronald Weinland stated Jesus Christ would return on this day. He prophesied nuclear explosions in U.S. port cities by July 2008 as the blowing of the Second Trumpet of Revelation. After his prophecy failed to come true he changed the date for the return of Jesus Christ to May 27, 2012. [159]
2011 Oct 21 Harold Camping When his original prediction failed to come about, Camping revised his prediction and said that on May 21, a “Spiritual Judgment” took place, and that both the physical Rapture and the end of the world would occur on October 21, 2011. [158]
2011 Aug–Oct Various There were fears amongst the public thatComet Elenintravelling almost directly between Earth and the Sun would cause disturbances to the Earth’s crust, causing massive earthquakes and tidal waves. Others predicted that Elenin would collide with Earth on October 16. Scientists tried to calm fears by stating that none of these events were possible. [160]
2012 May 27 Ronald Weinland Ronald Weinland stated that Jesus Christ would return and the world would end on this day. [161]
2012 Jun 30 José Luis de Jesús José Luis de Jesús predicted that the world’s governments and economies would fail on this day, and that he and his followers would undergo a transformation that would allow them to fly and walk through walls. [162]
2012 Dec 21 Various The 2012 phenomenonpredicted the world would end at the end of the13th b’ak’tun. The Earth would be destroyed by an asteroid, Nibiru, or some other interplanetary object; an alien invasion; or asupernova.Mayanistscholars stated that no extantclassic Maya accountsforecasted impending doom, and that the idea that the Long Count calendar ends in 2012 misrepresentedMaya historyand culture. Scientists fromNASA, along with expert archeologists, stated that none of those events were possible. [163][164]
2013 Aug 23 Grigori Rasputin Rasputin prophesied a storm would take place on this day where fire would destroy most life on land and Jesus Christ would come back to Earth to comfort those in distress. [165]
2014 Apr – 2015 Sep John Hageeand Mark Biltz The so-calledblood moon prophecy, first predicted by Mark Blitz in 2008 and then by John Hageein 2014. These Christian ministers claim that the tetrad in 2014 and 2015 may represent the beginning of the Messianicend times. [166]
2017 Sep 23 – Oct 25 David Meade Author and conspiracy theorist David Meade predicted that Nibiru would become visible in the Earth’s sky and that said planet would then “soon” destroy the Earth and Armageddon would take place during this date. [167]

Future dates

Date (CE) Claimant(s) Description Ref.
2020 Jeane Dixon This American psychic claimed that Armageddon would take place in 2020, and Jesuswill return to defeat the unholy trinity of the Antichrist,Satan, and theFalse prophetbetween 2020 and 2037. She had also previously predicted the world would end on February 4, 1962. [168]
2021 F. Kenton Beshore This American pastor bases his prediction on the prior suggestion that Jesus would return in 1988, i.e., within one biblical generation (40 years) of the founding of Israel in 1948. Beshore argues that the prediction was correct, but that the definition of a biblical generation was incorrect and was actually 70–80 years, placing the Second Coming of Jesus between 2018 and 2028 and the Rapture by 2021 at the latest. [169]
2026 Messiah Foundation International Members predict that the world will end in 2026, when an asteroid would collide with Earth in accordance withRiaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi‘s predictions in The Religion of God. [170]
2060 Isaac Newton In an unpublished manuscript, Newton gave a date of 2060 which was falsely reported as a date for the end of days.[171] He was against date setting. Rather, he gave it as a date before which it could not happen. He later revised this date to 2016.[172][173] [174]
2129 Said Nursî According to abjadinterpretation of ahadith, this Sunni Muslim theologian who wrote the Risale-i Nur Collection, which expects the end in 2129. [175]
2239 Talmud,Orthodox Judaism According to an opinion about the Talmud in mainstream Orthodox Judaism, the Messiah will come within 6000 years of the creation of Adam, and the world may be destroyed 1000 years later. This would put the beginning of the period of desolation in 2239 CE and the end of the period of desolation in 3239 CE. [176]
2280 Rashad Khalifa According to this Egyptian-American biochemist’s research on the Quran, the world will end during that year.

JEWS & GENTILES IN CHRIST

jezus-christusJews and Gentiles are one in Christ Jesus grafted together in covenant with the God of Abraham as a promise to bless all nations on earth. Old and New Testament shows Jews and Gentiles called to live as disciples of Lord Jesus. In Christ there is no Jew, Gentile, slave, free male or female only brethren in the Kingdom of God. During Passover and Easter this unity in Christ is celebrated to reaffirm the Messiah’s death burial and Resurrection. As earth’s population celebrate the Passover or Resurrection Sunday miraculous event’s redemption remind us of the close spiritual bond of Jews and Christians. Celebrations are God’s deliverance from despair of slavery and from despondency of sin. The Passover and Resurrection Sunday shed light on deep roots of Judaism and Christianity representing Supernatural hope in God in Christ’s love for His people. Celebrate this sacred season with family, friends, as Christians United for Israel together share Godly love with joy and peace. So our unity is a sign of our unconditional love for God and each other. Israel’s GREAT COMMISSION Blesses all nations of earth by freewill. All who bless Israel are blessed but all who curse Israel cursed in GENESIS 12:1-3. So 1 Now the Lord said to Abram,“Go forth from your country, from your relatives from your father’s house, To the land which I will show you; 2 And I will make you a great nation, And I will bless you, And make your name great; And so you shall be a blessing3 And I will bless those who bless you, And the one who curses you I will curse. And in you all the families of the earth will be blessed” in Genesis 12:1-3.1 God Chose to bless Abraham and all his descendants2 above other nation,3 not because of prominence or powerful pious4 or faithful after being chosen.5 God Chose to bless Abraham’s seed as testimony of His grace to bless and channel blessing to “all families on earth in Genesis 12:3. God’s blessings gifts of HIS grace not earned. Blessings belong first to Israel as a gracious gift shared with others. The stewardship of God’s gift than matter ownership.6 God made it clear the land of Canaan did not belong to Israel but BELONGS to God: So Land reclaimed because Land Belongs to ME you are foreigners residing with me in Leviticus 25:23God removed the Canaanites from the land because of sin He does the same to Israelites if defiled the land by committing the same sins.7 God’s blessings poured out on Abraham and his descendants so that His chosen people could be instrument God blesses the world through. This blessing comes to through nation Israel as blessings to Gentiles. The Israelites relate to other nations through blessing to them. But do not confuse Canaanites and Gentiles. Distinction between Gentiles Canaanites is important as Israelites possess land of Canaan God commands HIS people to annihilate them: 14 Israel is blessed beyond all peoples with no barrenness among them or livestock after 60 CE/AD 60,000 Roman soldiers obliterated once thriving Jewish towns, none allowed to escape the Roman sword except two men. In 60 CE/AD 60,000 Roman soldiers led by General Vespasian destroyed this Jewish towns. The untouched ruins are the awful price paid in human terms of Magdala, Gamla, in north suffered same fate as Jerusalem prophesied by Jesus, and Masada. Th commander of Jewish Resistance in Galilee Yosef Bar Mattityahu escaped slaughter in Yodfat became historian Flavius Josephus. He wrote 4 books to fill in historical gaps from 0-100 CE/AD like New Testament. Standard text of His Antiquities XV111, 63 contains the most famous passage:06850-2

“About this time lived Jesus, a wise man, if indeed one ought to call him a man achiever of extraordinary deeds was a teacher of those who accept the truth gladly. He won over many Jews and many of the Greeks as Messiah. Indicted by principal men and Pilate condemned Him crucified, who came to love Him did not cease to do so; for He appeared on third day restored to life, as prophets of God foretold these countless marvelous things about Him. Tribe of Christians named after Him did not disappear to this day. At Passover we rehearse Exodus 12. “And   they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and on lintel of the houses where they eat it. I will pass through the land of Egypt that night and will strike all the first born in the land…Now the blood shall be for you a sign……when I see the blood, I will pass over you…Keep it as a feast to the LORD throughout your generations…Exodus 12:7,12,13. Those believe instructions of Moses obeyed and took action by putting blood of the lamb on door posts and lentils of their humble homes, not all did. Obedience of God after long journey, nation of Israel was born at Sinai and given her Charter of Rights; The Ten Commandments. Let all Christians who say they worship Jesus, LISTEN and OBEY his warnings and admonitions. Remember when you are blessed, you are blessed through Israel, chosen and called to walk  before you. Christians are grafted into Christ true olive tree. Israelis saved love God and Jesus’ truth revealed. Jesus returns their first born son and Messiah. “And I will pour on the house of David and on inhabitants of Jerusalem Spirit of grace and supplication: so they shall look upon Me whom they pierced. Yes they will mourn for Him as grieving for a firstborn…Zechariah 12:10. No one can say to the other’ I have no need of you…1 Corinthians 12:21. So Christians pray for willingness to see Jesus through His roots in Jewish people and in His home-Land, Israel. Do not be high minded but fear God …Romans 11;19  Jews and Christians pray for each other so grateful for the millions of dear believing Jews and Christians. Jew and Gentiles grow in wisdom understanding and favour with God and man. So pray and ask LORD God to help during season of Jesus’ Sacrifice. 15 The LORD protects from sickness and will not experience the terrible diseases known in Egypt instead God inflicts it on all those who hate you. 16 You must destroy all people whom the LORD your God is about to deliver over to you so do not pity them or worship their gods for that is snare to you in Deuteronomy 7:14-16. Book of Deuteronomy talks of treatment of Gentiles and of Canaanites by God. To distinguished Gentiles from Canaanites HIS instructions to Israel is to confront people and cities possessing the land of Canaan. Canaanites lived in the nearby cities but Gentiles lived at a distance: 10 When you a approach city to wage war against it, offer it terms of peace. 11 If it accepts terms and submits to you all the people in it become your slaves. 12 If do not accept terms of peace to make war with you lay siege to it. 13 The Lord God will deliver it over to you and you must kill every single male by the sword. 14 The women, little children, cattle all else in city plunder for yourselves as a spoil. Take from enemies so plunder what the LORD your God gives you. 15 You are to deal with all cities located far from you that do not belong to the nearby nations. 16 Cities the LORD God gives you as inheritance do not allow a single living thing to survive. 17 Instead you utterly annihilate them, the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, Jebusites as the LORD your God commands you, 18 So not to teach you abhorrent ways to worship gods so causing you to sin against the LORD God in Deuteronomy 20:10-18God ordered annihilation of Canaanites not for living nearby but because of idolatory. Those Canaanites contaminated them with sin so had to be exterminated. Idolatry sin plunged them into depths of depravity like Sodom and Gomorrah so children, animals contaminated to be destroyed.8 Jews after victory became complacent, arrogant, self-righteous, despising the Gentiles. Eager to see all Gentiles perish, as Jonah wanted Ninevites destroyed so opposed extension of God’s grace to the Gentiles an attitude that persisted in the New Testament times:israele-today“We are Jews by birth and not Gentile sinners in Galatians 2:15. This is not attitude of unbelieving Jews, its deeply embedded in the hearts of the apostles, seen from Peter’s resistance to Gentile’s home in Acts 10 and reaction of fellow-apostles to preach gospel to them.9. The Old Testament, New Testament Gospels, Acts, Jews made no distinction between Canaanites pagan or Gentiles. The Jews lumped Gentiles as not deserving God’s blessings. Self-righteous arrogance the Pharisee in Jesus’ parable in Luke 189 Jesus told parable to some confident more righteous so look down on others. 10 “Two men in the temple prayed, one a Pharisee and other a tax collector. 11 The Pharisee: ‘God, I thank you I am not like other people: extortionists, unrighteous people, adulterers or like this tax collector. 12 I fast twice a week; I give tenth of everything I get.’ 13 The tax collector, stood far off, would not look up to heaven beat his chest and said, ‘God be merciful to me a sinner. 14 I tell you this man went home justified than the Pharisee. All who exalt self will be humbled, but who humbles self is exalted in Luke 18:9-14. Jew and Gentile must acknowledge they are unworthy sinners made righteous by salvation in Christ. Paul’s words in Romans 2 says Jews more responsible and accountable to God because of greater knowledge of Old Testament Scriptures. And so Paul’s attitude after conversion on the road to Damascus changes his pride, arrogance in Philippians 3:1-6 to humility, sinner, saved by grace alone: 12 Grateful to God strengthening him in Christ Jesus our Lord, because considered faithful as put in ministry, 13 though once blasphemer persecutor, arrogant treated with mercy acted ignorantly in unbelief, 14 LORD’S grace abundant, brings faith and love in Christ Jesus. 15 Trustworthy so deserves full acceptance for Christ Jesus came in the world to save sinners and the worst of them! 16 Was treated with mercy: so as the worst, Christ Jesus demonstrates His utmost patience, as an example for those going to believe in Him for eternal life in 1 Timothy 1:12-16Paul himself as chosen vessel for salvation he a devout Jew and example as “chief of sinners,” completely unworthy of salvation. God saved him to show ones like him could be saved. No one is beyond the reach of God’s grace. Paul is a trophy, not of self-righteous works but divine grace. God arranged Abraham and his descendants be a blessing to the whole world.img_2436-01

Law Provides: Gentile Converts

In law of Moses, God made provision for foreigners who embraced Israel’s faith to worship with the Israelites. So before Israelites left Egypt, God’s instructions says foreigner could participate in the observance of the Passover: 48 “When a foreigner lives with you and wants to observe Passover to the LORD, all his males must be circumcised, approach and observe it, and he will be like one born in the land but no uncircumcised person may eat of it. 49 This law applies to native-born or foreigners living with you in Exodus 12:48-49.10 The foreigner wants to participate in celebration of Passover can be circumcised to enter a covenant relation with Israel’s God. It is not physical circumcision an issue it is a circumcised heart that matters most to God. It is important to distinguish God’s inclusiveness to draw unbelievers to church inviting them to participate in worship and ministry. God provides a way Gentiles enter Israel’s worship but participation requires Gentiles to fully embrace by faith the God of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Jesus as the one TRUE God, the Creator of all things, God alone. One cannot participate in Israel’s worship without first embracing Israel’s faith in God. It is not surprising God permitted foreigners to participate in celebration of Jewish holidays as Feast of Booths:9 Moses wrote down law given to the Levitical priests, who carry ark of the Lord’s covenant, and all Israel’s elders. 10 He commanded them: “At the end of 7 years appointed time of cancellation of debts, at Feast of Temporary Shelters, 11 when all Israel appears before the LORD your God in the place HE chooses, you must read law before them to their hearing. 12 Gather the people – men, women, and children, the resident foreigners in your villages so they hear and learn to fear the LORD your God and carefully obey all the words of this law. 13 Their children, who have not known this law will hear and learn to fear the LORD your God for as long as you live in land by crossing the Jordan to possess in Deuteronomy 31:9-13. The foreigners invited together with Israel hear reading of law learn to fear God. In the law, God instructs Israel concerning sacrifices, sin offering, atonement of sin for unintentional sins of Israel and for unintentional sins of the foreigners who embraced Him as their God: 22 “‘If you sin unintentionally and do not observe commandments spoken to Moses 23 all the LORD commands by the authority of Moses from day the LORD commanded Moses and your future generations 24 if anything done unintentionally without knowledge of the community, the whole community must prepare a young bull burnt offering for pleasing aroma to the LORD with grain and drink offering, a male goat for purification offering. 25 The priest makes atonement for whole community of Israel to be forgiven, if it was unintentional brought offering, an offering made by fire to the LORD, their purification offering before the LORD, for their unintentional offense. 26 And whole community of Israelites, the resident foreigner who lives among them will be forgiven, since all people involved in unintentional offense’” in Numbers 15:22-26Contact with people of God results in faith of Gentiles.11 For some of Egyptians believed and entered into God’s blessings with Israelites. At the time of the exodus, some Egyptians feared word of Moses, saved their cattle, and midwives saved the male born sons while others did not.12 Some attached themselves to Israelites, accompanying them to the Promised Land. Jesus is the Ultimate Sacrifice for sin superceding the annual sacrifice of sheep and goats.hqdefault (1)

13Israelites first entered land of Canaan, along with foreigners worshiping God in 2 groups: half on Mount Gerizim half on Mount Ebal as Moses instructed in Deuteronomy 27:1-8:30. So Joshua built altar LORD God of Israel on Mount Ebal, 31 as Moses, LORD’s servant commands Israelites. Moses said, make altar with uncut stones untouched by iron tool, offered burnt sacrifices and sacrificed tokens of peace. 32 In the presence of Israelites, Joshua inscribed on stones a duplicate of the law written by Moses. 33 All the people, rulers, leaders, judges standing on either side of the ark, in front of Levitical priests who carried the ark of the covenant of Lord. Both resident foreigners, native Israelites were there. Half the people stood in front of Mount Gerizim, other half in front of Mount Ebal, as Moses LORD’s servant instructed to do for a blessing ceremony. 34 Joshua read aloud all the words of the law, including blessings or curses, written in law scroll. 35 Joshua read commandments Moses gave before whole assembly of Israel, women, and children, resident foreigners who lived among them in Joshua 8:30-35. Temple built to facilitate prayers and worship of both Israelites and Gentiles. I find it interesting Solomon dedicated temple to facilitated prayers and worship of the Israelites. A place of prayer for Gentiles to worship God of Israel: 41 Foreigners who do not belong to your people Israel, will come from a distant land because of your reputation. 42 When they hear great reputation and ability to accomplish mighty deeds, they will come and direct prayers towards this temple. 43 God listened from heavenly dwelling place and answer all prayers of foreigners and all nations of earth acknowledge your reputation, obey you do to people of Israel recognize this temple I built belongs to you in 1 Kings 8:41-43. Old Testament prophets spoke of Coming of Messiah as a source of blessing for the world, and not just for Jews alone: No foreigner who is a follower of the Lord should say, ‘The Lord will certainly exclude me from His people.’ Eunuch should not say, ‘Look, I am like dried-up tree. 4 This is what the Lord says: “The eunuchs who observe MY Sabbaths and chooses to please ME and faithful to MY covenant, 5 I will set up in MY temple as MY walls monument better than sons, daughters. I set up permanent monument for them that remains. 6 As foreigners become followers of the LORD and serve HIM, love name of the LORD as HIS servants, observe Sabbath so not defile it, faithful to MY covenant 7 I will bring them to MY Holy Mountain make them happy in temple where people pray to ME. Their burnt offerings and sacrifices accepted on MY altar, for MY temple known as the temple all nations pray in Isaiah 56:3-7. Our Lord was disturbed by way temple misused in His time to exclude Gentiles: 12 Jesus enters temple area and drove out all those who selling and buying in the temple courts, and turned over tables of money changers and the chairs of those selling doves. 13 And He said, “It is written, ‘My house is called house of prayer but turned into den of robbers Matthew 21:12-13. And Isaiah and prophets said salvation of all Gentiles is through Coming Messiah: 1 “Arise! Shine! As your light arrives! The splendour of the LORD shines on you! 2 For, look, darkness covers the earth and deep darkness covers nations the LORD shines on you; HIS splendour appears over you. 3 Nations come to your light, kings to your bright light in Isaiah 60:1-318 “I hate deeds thought, so coming to gather nations, ethnic groups will come witness My splendour. 19 I will perform a mighty act among them send all who remain to nations to Tarshish, Pul, Lud, Tubal, Javan distant coastlands who did not hear or see my splendour. To tell nations of my splendour. 20 They will bring all your countrymen from all nations as offering to the LORD. They will bring them on horses, in chariots, in wagons, on mules, on camels to MY HOLY Hill Jerusalem,” says the LORD, as Israelites bring offerings to the LORD’s temple in pure containers. 21 And I will choose some as priests and Levites,” says the LORD. 22 “As the new heavens and the new earth I am about to make will remain standing before me,” says the Lord, so your descendants and your name will remain. 23 From one month to next, from one Sabbath to next, all people will come to worship me,” says the LORD (Isaiah 66:18-2321 Divide land for yourselves among the tribes of Israel. 22 Allot it inheritance among yourselves and for foreigners who reside among you who fathered sons among you. Treat them as native-born among people of Israel; they will be allotted inheritance with you among tribes of Israel. 23 Whatever tribes the foreigner resides in there you give him his inheritance,” declares the sovereign Lord in Ezekiel 47:21-23.img_2436-01

Jews A Light to Gentiles, World

Abrahamic Covenant in Genesis 12:1-3 says nation Israel is a source of blessing to Gentiles. Israel is called to be a “light to the Gentiles but because Israel failed to accomplish this mission so our Lord came in the flesh to fulfill that mission. Israel’s purpose is to be a “light to the Gentiles in definition in Isaiah 58. So 6 this is kind of fast God wants to remove sinful chains, to tear away ropes of the burdensome yoke, to set free oppressed, to break burdensome yokes. 7 To share food with the hungry to provide shelter for homeless, oppressed people. When you see someone naked, clothe him! Do not turn back on own flesh and blood! 8 Then your light will shine like sunrise; your restoration quickly arrives; your Godly behavior will go before you, and the LORD’s splendour will be your rear guard. 9 Then you will call out, and the LORD will respond; you will cry out and he will reply, ‘Here I am.’ Remove the burdensome yoke from you and stop pointing fingers and speaking sinfully. 10 You must help the hungry and feed the oppressed so your light will dispel the darkness, and your darkness will be transformed to noonday. 11 The LORD will continually lead you; HE will feed you in parched regions. He will give you renewed strength like a well-watered garden a spring continually producing water. 12 Your perpetual ruins will be rebuilt; you will reestablish the ancient foundations. You will be called, ‘The one who repairs broken walls, the one who makes the streets inhabitable again in Isaiah 58:6-12.14

Israel’s “fasting” ritualistic observances an offense to God because heart of true worship was lacking. First chapter of Isaiah said Israel continued to perform religious rituals practiced and failed to defend orphans or care for widows.15 True fasting not a temporary period of self-denial unbridled self-indulgence, true fasting is love for God and love for one’s neighbour. True fasting seeks the liberation of those in bondage including oppression by men and bondage to sin. True fasting not denying self food for a time without bread given to someone in desperate need of it. Its to deny oneself empty self for Holy Spirit of God to take over.16 Sabbath is kind of fast set aside the pursuit of personal pleasure to have time to delight in the LORD.17 Caring for poor and oppressed not Old Testament obligation: Pure and undefiled religion before Father God is to care for orphans and widows in misfortune, keep oneself unstained by the world in James 1:27.

Old/New Testament Evangelism

Evangelism in the Old Testament from evangelism and New Testament is: Old Testament evangelism says, Come and New Testament evangelism says, “Go.” 3 Nations come to your light kings to your bright light in Isaiah 60:318 Jesus came up and said to them, “All authority in heaven and on earth is given to Me. 19 Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, 20 teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. Remember, I am with you always to the end of age in Matthew 28:18-20. In the New Testament Jesus invites sinners to come to Him for their salvation.18 in Old Testament, Jonah is commanded to go preach to Gentiles. In Old Testament Gentiles joined Israelites as Rahab and Ruth did by prophets in Israel as Naaman the leper did, came to Jerusalem and temple Solomon built in 1 Kings 8:41-43. Old Testament lesson, is Gentiles drawn to land of Israel, blessed find favour with God. So Old Testament law facilitated Gentile evangelism by making Israel the haven for foreigners.

Law Says Israel’s Light Bearing

Old Testament law includes foreigners among Israelites shown charity. When you gather in the harvest of your land, you must not completely harvest the corner of your field, and you must not gather up the gleanings of your harvest. You must leave themfor the poor and the foreigner. I am the Lord your God in Leviticus 23:22In Leviticus 19, the Israelites were instructed to love their fellow-Israelites: “You must not take vengeance or bear a grudge against the children of your people but you must love your neighbor as yourself. I am the Lord in Leviticus 19:18. In Leviticus 19, Israel commanded to love foreign neighbours as themselves: 33 When a foreigner resides with you in your land,you must not oppress him. 34 The foreigner who resides with you must be to you like a native citizen among you; so you must love him as yourself, because you were foreigners in the land of Egypt. I am the Lord your God in Leviticus 19:33-34. The parable of the Good Samaritan in Luke 10 in the light of both of these texts. The lawyer seeks to put Jesus to the test by asking what he must do to inherit eternal life. Jesus responded by asking this lawyer what the law required, to which he replied, “Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind, and love your neighbor as yourself” in Luke 10:27. The lawyer ill at ease seeks way out asking Jesus to define term “neighbour as Leviticus 19:18 but Jesus pressed further, to the definition of Leviticus 19:33-34. So his neighbour was in need, or a foreigner like Samaritan. Fellow-Jews in great need so act neighbourly to enemies so Old Testament allowed Israelites to minister to needy Gentiles as required. The foreigner is vulnerable members of society, widows and orphans so widow without husband so defend, protect her, provide for her and orphans, parents, and foreigner with no legal standing or rights, vulnerable in distant lands. Old Testament law, this should not have been the case for a foreigner who lived in Israel. The law assured foreigners the same legal standing as the Israelite:

Both a foreigner and native citizen, I am the LORD your God says Leviticus 24:22. 19.16 You judges pay attention to issues of fellow citizens, judge fairly with one citizen or another resident foreigner. 17 Do not discriminate in judgment, but hear lowly and great not intimidated by human beings, for judgment belongs to God. If matter adjudicated too difficult bring to me for hearing in Deuteronomy 1:16-17Gentiles come to faith “coming,” to Israel Old Testament draws Gentiles to faith not drive away as unworthy heathens. If obeyed, draws Gentiles to Israel and to faith if people of God live in obedience to God’s law so prosper: 1 “If you indeed obey the LORD your God and careful to observe commandments given you today the LORD your God will elevate you above all the nations of the earth. 2 All these blessings will come to you in abundance if you obey the Lord your God: 3 You will be blessed in the city and blessed in the field. 4 Your children will be blessed, as well as the produce of your soil, the offspring of your livestock, the calves of your herds, and the lambs of your flocks. 5 Your basket and your mixing bowl will be blessed. 6 You will be blessed when you come in and blessed when you go out. 7 The LORD will cause your enemies who attack you to be struck down before you; they will attack you from one direction but flee from you in seven different directions. 8 The LORD will decree blessing in your barns and in everything you do, HE will bless you in the land HE is giving you. 9 The LORD designates HIS Holy people as promised you, if you keep HIS commandments to obey HIM. 10 Then all the peoples of the earth will see you belong to the LORD, and they will respect you. 11 The LORD will greatly multiply your children, the offspring of your livestock, and produce of your soil in the land HE promised your ancestors to give you. 12 The LORD will open HIS good treasure house, the heavens, to give you rain for the land in its season and to bless all you do; you will lend to many nations but you will not borrow from any. 13 The LORD will make you the head and not the tail, and you will always be up at the top and not at bottom, if you obey commandments urging you today to be careful to do. 14 Do not turn from all commandments I am giving you today, to the right or left or pursue other gods to worship them in Deuteronomy 28:1-14.

If Israel lived in obedience to God’s law, He promised to bless them greatly. An obedient people means a prosperous land. In the law, God commanded the Israelites to set aside some abundance to minister to needs of poor, Gentiles foreigners poor. Gentiles will be safe, secure in land of Israel not oppressed or victimized, as immigrants in the world. The law required Israel treat foreigners with respect and as people with same civil rights. Israel like all nations to be a place of prosperity, generosity, safety to Gentiles gravitated. Those who “came” to Israel and found salvation like Rahab, the harlot, believed God was with Israel. She joined Israel not own people saved physically and spiritually.20 Ruth too came to faith in the God of Israel, and thus attached herself to Naomi and her people.21And then there was Naaman, the leper, who was also the commander of the Syrian army. He came seeking a cure for leprosy and left believer in God of Israel.22  Naaman did not remain in Israel but returned to Syria, took some Israelite soil with him.23 Gentiles who attached themselves to David like Uriah the Hittite in Israel, married an Israelite woman, one of David’s most competent and trusted warriors.24 Other Gentiles attached themselves to David.25One is favourite one Ittai the Gittite:.19 Then the king said to Ittai the Gittite, “Why should you come with us? Go and stay with new king, for you are a foreigner and exile from your own country. 20 It seems you arrived yesterday, today should I make you wander around by going with us? I go where I go. But you go back and take your men with you. May genuine loyal love protect you!” 21 But Ittai replied to king, “As surely as the Lord lives and as my lord the king lives, wherever my lord king is, whether dead or alive I will be as well!” 22 So David said to Ittai, “Come along.” So Ittai the Gittite went along, accompanied by all his men and dependents with him (2 Samuel 15:19-22.

Like Ruth, Ittai the Gittite remains with David not desert him. David made Ittai the Gittite commander of one-third of his forces going out against Absalom.26. A Gentile came to Israel as queen Sheba, recorded in 1 Kings 10, not poor and not oppressed woman of great means heard of Solomon’s wisdom and wealth drawn to Israel into Jerusalem: The queen of Sheba heard fame of Solomon and his relation to the name of the LORD, she came to test him with hard questions in 1 Kings 10:1Solomon an exceedingly wise man, whose wisdom came from the LORD.27 Queen of Sheba presented difficult questions to Solomon, wisdom in responss surpassed reports that drew her to Jerusalem in the first place, she acknowledged work of God in his life: 6 She said to the king, “The report I heard in my own country about your wise sayings and insight was true! 7 I did not believe these things until I came and saw them with my own eyes. Indeed, I didn’t hear half the story! Your wisdom and wealth surpass report to me. 8 Your attendants, who stand before you at all times and hear your wise sayings, are truly happy! 9 May the Lord your God be praised because he favored you by placing you on the throne of Israel! Because of the Lord’s eternal love for Israel, he made you king so you could make just and right decisions.” 10 She gave the king 120 talents of gold, a very large quantity of spices, and precious gems. The quantity of spices the queen of Sheba gave King Solomon has never been matched (1 Kings 10:6-10).

Conclusion

God set Abraham and offspring Israel apart for blessing so a source of blessing to the nations. God did not set Israel apart to save Jews but send them to rest the world. Israel sey apart is blessed so in turn become a channel of blessing to the nations. Salvation of Gentile, Rahab, Ruth, Naaman, and other Gentiles not meant to be viewed exception. Drawing Gentiles to Israel to faith is the rule not exception. God did not call Israel into existence to be a “reservoir”of all God’s blessings, to store it for themselves and share sparingly at their discretion. So Israel is a “river” of God’s blessings to pass through His chosen people to the other nations. Jesus condemns all those purposed to build bigger barns to hoard God’s blessings; so become distribution channels for gospel to be conveyed to those perishing. 16 He told a parable: “The land of certain rich man produced an abundant crop, 17 so he thought to himself, ‘What should I do, for I have nowhere to store my crops?’ 18 Then he said, ‘I will do this: I will tear down my barns and build bigger ones, and I will store all my grain and my goods. 19 And I will say to myself, “You have plenty of goods stored up for many years; relax, eat, drink, celebrate!”’ 20 But God said to him, ‘You fool! This night your life will be demanded from you, but who will get what you prepared yourself?’ 21 So it is with all who stores up riches for self, but not rich toward God in Luke 12:16-21.28 Like Israel of old, we are not owners of God’s blessings but stewards of God’s blessings. Do not hoard God’s blessings,29 bury them,30 or sell them for profit.31 We are to give freely.32 To do otherwise of all God entrusts to us is deceive ourselves we are blessed so we are better deserving than others. God’s blessings are the manifestation of His grace not of our goodness. The Christian life is relay race to pass the baton on in order to win. A runner sprinting ahead of his competitors passes baton to next member of his team. The only way to win race is to pass on blessings God has entrusted to us. The blessings of God are not for the elite, but for those who are in great need and know it. Jesus was criticized for associating with sinners than catering to elite, His response was simple and direct: 11 When Pharisees saw this they said to his disciples, “Why does your teacher eat with tax collectors and sinners?” 12 When Jesus heard this he said, “Those who are healthy do not need a physician, but those who are sick do. 13 Go and learn what this means: ‘I want mercy and not sacrifice.’ For I did not come to call the righteous, but sinners in Matthew 9:11-13. Queen of Sheba was drawn to Israel to observe wisdom of Solomon for herself, most came to Israel in desperate need.and they knew it. God’s law made special provision for weakest, neediest, most vulnerable segment of society: widows, orphans, and foreigners. Focus on the foreigners is a matter of heated debate in countries displacing them. Millions of dollars raised in America and elsewhere to foreign missionaries to places so they proclaim the gospel. If leading to faith in Christ lead fellow-countrymen too to faith as well and the foreign students. If those who came to the U.S. as students met Jesus Christ as Saviour through the witness of faithful Christians who reach out during their stay tudents separated from home, families and culture often curious learn about American culture, and religious beliefs. Open door families in our church with volunteers working with International Students. There are opportunities for many more to build relationships with foreign students. So Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, states near Mexico after destruction of twin towers in New York City on 9/11, feelings run strong about problem of immigrants. No simple political or legal solutions for problem but confident the vast majority of visitors, peace-loving people wish to provide a livelihood for themselves and their families, greatest need is a Saviour. Foreigners in our country are a field “ripe for harvest,”33  Old Testament law instructs we should respond to them and needs. As light to our neighbours involves sharing good news of Jesus Christ. Need for a Saviour is man’s greatest need so meeting this need, address physical needs of those hungry or poorly clothed. Care for their physical needs open door for meeting greatest need. Jesus preached gospel; He fed hungry and healed sick. We should do no less. We pray God strengthens us to obey Him and help our neighbours in Jesus Name to Glory of God. Gentiles in turn bless Israel applying golden rule of loving one another. The Jews and Arabs living side by side in Israel since 1978 as a small community of Wahat al-Salam, Neve Shalom – meaning “oasis of peace” was founded by 4 families of Jews and Arabs on a hill-top between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. In pioneering experiment peaceful co-existence within long-term Middle East conflict. Four decades on, it is now home to more than 60 families. 2 long-standing residents, are called Nava Sonnenschein and Daoud Boulus, spoke to share their experiences.


1 Genesis 12:1-3

2 Descendants of Abraham is modern Israel, share Bible, print unlimited copies, give free to others. It is available on the Internet at: www.netbible.org.

3 Deuteronomy 7:14. & Romans 9:6-29, Paul emphasizes the fact that God did not choose to bless all of Abraham’s descendants, but only some of those children of promise.

4 See Deuteronomy 7:6-8; 9:4-6; 26:1-10; Joshua 24:14-15; Amos 5:25-26; 2 Kings 17:40.

5 See Deuteronomy 9:7-29.

6 See this same principle applied in 1 Corinthians 4:6ff.

7 See Genesis 15:12-17; Leviticus 18:24-28;Deuteronomy 9:4-6.

8  Isaiah 28:21 God’s delight, seeks to save lost sinners Exodus 34:6-7; 1 Timothy 2:1-4; 2 Peter 3:9). Compassion on children and animals (Jonah 4:11).

9 See Acts 11:1-3 and note their apparent surprise that God was now “suddenly and unexpectedly” saving Gentile sinners (11:18).

10 See also Numbers 9:14.

11 Rahab, Ruth, and Naaman are some of the most obvious.

12 See Exodus 9:20-21.

13 See Exodus 12:38; Numbers 11:4.

14 I have dealt with Isaiah 58 in much greater detail in this message on bible.org:http://www.bible.org/node/3451

15 See Isaiah 1:10-17.

16 See Isaiah 58:7, 10.

17 See Isaiah 59:13-14.

18 See Matthew 11:28.

19 In the context, this refers to offenses against God or society such as cursing, blasphemy, murder, and personal injury.

20 See Joshua 2; Hebrews 11:31; James 2:25.

21 See Ruth 2:15-18.

22 2 Kings 5:1-19; see also Luke 4:27.

23 2 Kings 5:17.

24 2 Samuel 12:9, 10, 15; 2 Samuel 23:39.

25 Zelek the Ammonite, for example; see 2 Samuel 23:37.

26 2 Samuel 18:2.

27 1 Kings 3:5-13; 4:29-34.

28 I believe “being rich toward God” is, in this context, being rich toward those in need.

29 Luke 12:15-21.

30 Luke 25:18, 24-28.

31 Acts 8:14-24.

32 Matthew 10:8.

33 See John 4:35.

Copyright © 2007 by Community Bible Chapel, 418 E. Main Street, Richardson, TX 75081. This is the edited manuscript of Lesson 13 in the Following Jesus in a Me-First World series prepared by Robert L. Deffinbaugh on January 21, 2007. Anyone is at liberty to use this lesson for educational purposes only, with or without credit. The Chapel believes the material presented herein to be true to the teaching of Scripture, and desires to further, not restrict, its potential use as an aid in the study of God’s Word. Publication of this material is a grace ministry of Community Bible Chapel. Related Topics: Spiritual Life