SUGAR BLACKSLAVE HISTORY

15713054607238903501092629203849.jpgBlack History Month October celebrates abolition of slaves whose wealth enrich G7 Western Europe and America but deprived slaves of their dignity and long life so slaves became traumatized. 15713056029367773464045337576003.jpgTriangular trade from Europe on ships to Africa to Carribean to America back to Europe. G7 member nations enslaved Africans. Belgian King Leopold invited them jointly to divide and own Africa.15713055252467866924691785551731.jpg Almost a thousand years black slavery continued despite official abolition law. Slavery produced sugar, cocoa, coffee, cotton for “triangle merchants” of slave trade in Britain, Africa and West Indies. 15713054895557916154530721927074.jpgTriangle trips carried guns, goods from England to Africa for slaves from Africa to Caribbean. Sugar, coffee, cotton and rum to England for commercial slavery by supply and demand on plantations. 1571305574491870094090532857700.jpg15714076486934305525943298638509.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0021.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0011.jpgAtlantic crossing from Africa Middle Passage shows cruelties of plantations in the British Caribbean. Africans were herded on slave ships and branded with irons labels people property of owners.15713033917892027579692775521469.jpgPortuguese also built sugar plantations in 1550’s off the coast of their Brazilian settlement colony, located on the island Sao Vincente. Portuguese and Spanish colonial presence in Caribbean Iberian Peninsula wealth cultivated cash crops.15713030689847713844378615539055.jpgThe economic boom of these plantations began colonizing remaining American territories to capitalize on the lucrative cultivation and trade of native’s natural resources. Sugar is the most important crop in Caribbean but other crops such as coffee, indigo, and rice also grown. 1571303161531508320018965015780.jpg15712992630563548705097506481294.jpgThe coastal sugae cane was best grown on the flat land near coastal waters as the soil was naturally yellow and fertile. The mountainous parts of islands were used for sugarcane cultivation industry. IMG-20191017-WA0010.jpg15712987137944748591809211620677.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0004.jpg348s.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0020.jpgThe coastal placement of commercial ports gave imperial states a geographic advantage to ship the crop throughout the transatlantic world. Sugar Slavery  trading of the Africans highly profitable not paying slaves for enforced labour. downloadfile-1.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0014.jpgSlave-Ship-pic-4-Wikipedia.jpg15714064266664307134901227462768.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0015.jpg15713038953617219558390950064672.jpg15713037481496759185923572241666.jpg15713036678907107097446613800368.jpgSlaves lived in appalling conditions but masters indulged in excessive luxury by toils of slaves. Triangular trade profits  prospered the West but underdeveloped blacks made poor despite the hardwork. 15713035569197275545111601093952.jpgwp-1571322668408.jpgManufactured goods were traded to the West African coast for slaves, who were shipped to the sugar colonies by middle passage. Sugar, molasses, rum, shipped from these islands back into England.15713038363315671248783757607047.jpg15713038628448686754927140878564.jpg15713036996912748769302716101649.jpg15713036364091737502484623690543.jpgSugar was the main crop produced on  plantations throughout Caribbean in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Most of the islands were covered with sugar cane fields and mills for refining sugar. IMG-20191017-WA0003.jpg15713001247174007076067301082629.jpg15713002203195667591899451618769.jpg15713001854538734211621372862312.jpg15713001504746913528570416798187.jpgwp-1571311816344.jpg15713002724015553289083152949101.jpgThe main source of labour was enslaved Africans. After the abolition of slavery, indentured labourers from IndiaChina, Java migrated to Caribbean to work on sugar plantations. Plantations produced 80 – 90% sugar used in Western Europe.15712995770488034116736118045599.jpg15712996195613941216406783616691.jpg15712997447027764109633942991300.jpg15712995281323834808765635583176.jpgSugar enabled slave labour for profits with tragic consequences in Caribbean. Imperial powers forced West Africans to cultivate sugar by slaves. Exploited labour, natural world created imperial conflicts in these Caribbean regions.IMG-20191017-WA0002.jpg15713029223757577184974282763473.jpg 157130286531419080874850560467.jpg15713027760246994249402391806889.jpg15713028101291278500655225486775.jpg15712977059634715966485674610399.jpgUse political and economic control they create to divide and rule people policy of animosity. Conflicts among English, Spanish, French and various indigenous people was used for territorial gain.15712964787331552835795446583723.jpg15712950696973492756233402938394.jpg15712972087976309023403494269657.jpg15712989701492300170279122619503.jpg 15712973826202918078063655814609.jpg15712954764466783854135368343091.jpgEuropean states exploited environment, resources so sugar production began to stagnate. Due loss of trees for timber in the sugar refinement process, European imperial powers competed and fought over Caribbean in middle 17th century.15712948461163990403389790355463.jpg15712948817835962190680372982605.jpg15712953753492679276778321664742.jpg15712961917284396878281626055702.jpg1571294941734562424695867162323.jpg15712950360621362782314632360478.jpgEuropean settlers’ entry into Caribbean world caused changes. The indigenous populations died due to influx of world diseases of colonists. Population losses from 8.4 – 112.5 millions of these native populations cleared way for plantation industry and less conflict for Europeans and all these indigenous peoples too15712965493371578408370674417736.jpg15712966476488592384520750409745.jpgColonial arrival of sugar cane culture impact societie’s economy in Caribbean. Increased ratio of slaves to freemen and increased the sizes of slave plantations. Sugar plantation use of slaves affected cash crop economies in cultivation. The large plantations with the slaves Africa  imported worked on plantations. 15712956357681865740619933022642.jpg15712955869055477780312402713803.jpgPrior to 1650 three-quarters of island’s population was of European descent. In 1680 plantation in Barbados increased to about 60 slaves. So sugar plantations expanded transatlantic trade prospers. In 1832, plantation in Jamaica had 150 slaves one in four lived with 250 slaves. 15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15712947049235987567928405600593.jpgAbout 100 years, Barbados was richest European colony in Caribbean region. Then sugar cane production expanded to larger colonies Saint-Domingue and Jamaica. Mass sugar industry sugarcane processed commodities: rummolasses, and falernumWest India Interest was formed in 1740s by British merchants to West Indian sugar planters. 15712969933543584698609408312672.jpg157129755509656600633346701060.jpg15712963455442945155011821550429.jpg15712962302017147386549329208022.jpgwp-1571322746426.jpgBritish and West Indies shared profits or costs. needs. This first sugar-trading company was powerful in Parliament. In 1740s Jamaica and Saint Domingue or Haiti world’s main sugar producers. IMG-20191017-WA0000.jpgIncreased production in St. Domingue used irrigation system French engineers built. Reservoirsdiverted dam levees  aqueducts and canals. Improved mills and varieties of cane and grasses helped increase profits. St. Domingue in 19th century Haiti and Cuba sugar plantation Caribbean did better than British island.1571297025702538564298899779586.jpgIn the 19th century, sugar dominated  MartiniqueGrenadaJamaicaSaint CroixBarbadosLeeward IslandsSaint DomingueCuba, and other island run by FrenchBritish, or Spanish owners. During late 19th and 20th centuries the sugar cane industry dominated Puerto Rico‘s economy by colonial rule of Spain and under United States. 1571294727684996436954631513550.jpgAfter slavery, sugar plantation labour was workers imported from colonial India, Southern China. In 20th century, large-scale sugar production using wage labour continued in many parts of the region. Sugar cane industry’s negative impact affected the environment as this industry grew in Caribbean countries. 15712951825801502632195092917389.jpgThese include the destruction of forests, water pollution, loss of fertility, erosion of soils. These problems on a different scale in Dominican Republic in the 16th century; Lesser Antilles in 17th century; Jamaica, Haiti in 18th century, Cuba and Puerto Rico in 19th century. The nations impacted by sugar on the environment.15712952542173744336540029352835.jpgThe deterioration natural environment, had socio-economic consequences. And took its toll on Africans an integral part to cultivation, production of sugarcane. Slaves toiled in fields, boiling houses to supply huge amounts of labour sugar required. Four million slaves survived  Caribbean sugar plantations. wp-1571330195777.jpgConditions were harsh, mortality rates high through all stages of slaves’ lives. Some sugar colonie’s slave population ten times less than the European slave uprisings ever-present fear of planters. Slave trading highly profitable triangle of trade of Atlantic manufactured goods traded to West African coast for slaves shipped to sugar colonies of the middle passage and sugar, molasses, and rum were shipped from islands to England.wp-1571330138914.jpgSlavery in England  deemed illegal since 1772. The slavery in sugar colonies was vigorously pursued in Parliament and publication throughout last quarter of eighteenth century to time of abolition of trade in 1807, emancipation in 1833.15712977450102090396760846491987.jpg wp-1571330017603.jpgwp-1571330075100.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0001.jpg15712970952265673717702786919787.jpg15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15713021011131294159836164367675.jpg15712969306591487070998245117838.jpgdownloadfile-2.jpg12355_2014_311_Fig1_HTML.jpgAbolitionists arguments against slavery was support in England and in America. Abolitionist movement boycotted slave-grown sugar by protests is celebrated as key component of abolition’s success.15712979796166770357711539697198.jpggettyimages-919491468-612x612.jpg15712985345335906738950765594570.jpg1571300771153191415282151247452.jpg15713004757394126936251265247884.jpg15713005171167919886088148258374.jpg15713007268423280865825419848256.jpgBoycott from writings to educate sugar is derived from blood, sweat and tears of slaves pollutes the body. The planters by prospect of abolition emancipation, attack on their financial interests, place in empire argued in favour of slavery.15713009777485298377118240667583.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0006.jpg15712980902104280568193144664796.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0005.jpg15713003436563749568168188652437.jpg15713014110543316473429243866261.jpg15713013089491042850157734430430.jpg15713011469935621723745379844781.jpgWilliam Beckford, large-scale Jamaican planter wrote about the island unable to inherited plantation debt. Plantations profit dwindled by later plantation era so planters were compensated for their loss of earnings. Slaves never received compensations, restitution or apology. 15712989421675147982996667160052.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0009.jpg15713018236223543718958756404016.jpg15713016238362599330973898756795.jpg20191018_194544.jpg15712991574789124671528049609976.jpg15713015641859068275661653780133.jpg1571301463714798903122388001392.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0008.jpg15713014963618985587415087318746.jpg1571301334033345284614607997855.jpgInstead suffer racism from the people who sent ships thousand of miles to drag them from their homeland into strange lands. Many slaves after the wars were sent from America to Liberia and Sierra Leone in western Africa.20191017_095342.jpgIt was a problem their roots could not be traced having been renamed by force despite protests of Kunta Kinte. Natives discriminated against them because they were not indigenous citizens. And residue from slavery and colonialism is institutional racism still directed black people today.20191017_095707.jpgInvincible chain of slavery, colonialism racism hatred propaganda promote the harassment of black people. Western countries built by slave labour, natural resources usurped controlled by West. African economies are still owned by Western nations exploiting resources. Yet conqueror parasites play the victim despite depending on African slavery and ccolonialism. Kings like Prempeh exiled to Sierra Leone and Seychelles for resisting slavery and colonialism. So was Nelson Mandela incarcerated with others who fought back. Some toppled by coup detat directed from the West were replaced by stooges put in place. The Africans enslaved or colonised both victims of a system that exploited them. Africa’s resources of gold from Ghana, Guinea,  Mali, Songhai empires, Mansa Musa had supersized gold tied to horse taken by whites. Gold was so abundant it was dished out freely to loyal citizens. Gold taken over as diamonds. Africans did not gain from slavery to enrich the kings as people claim. But were stripped of natural resources owned by Western countries. Africa never has economic so still controlled by the Western nations today.

COFFEE’S HISTORY & ORIGINS

20191014_110716.jpg15710468834321102168724083807666.jpg15710437345183676338762388191799.jpgCoffee global originated from Ethiopia as earliest evidence of coffee drinking and knowledge of the coffee tree spread from early 15th century. Africans grow coffee harvested, grounded and drank by families as tropical crops. Coffee spread as commodity for trade from Ethiopia Horn of Africa to Yemen Arabia Felix monks monasteries spreading into Mecca and Cairo. Goats were seen hyper stimulated inspired coffee concoction born long ago in the mountains of Ethiopia. Legend says that Kaldi saw his excited herd dancing after eating coffee cherry berry, 16th century reached rest of Middle East, South India (Karnataka), Persia, Turkey to rest of Horn of Africa and northern Africa. Coffee spread to Balkans, Italy, the rest of Europe, Southeast Asia and Americas despite ban imposed in the 15th century by religious leaders in Mecca and Cairo, and later by the Catholic Church.15710460124356859565088160134012.jpg15710436855935512932863149678515.jpg15710447815743466109153844499277.jpgCoffee spread from Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Kaffa Province name of coffee, the first to recognize energizing effects of native coffee plant. So the tribesmen consumed as hunters on days-long treks benefitting from coffee plant’s ability to quell hunger and provide more energy. Studies of genetic diversity of Coffea arabica varieties retained the residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica. Oral history direct evidence has indicated Africans coffee grow among other crops natives used as stimulant so known earlier spread into seventeenth century. Original domesticated coffee plant from Harar, native population use derived from Ethiopia distinct is found populations in Sudan and Kenya.1571043405765699259889766813539.jpg15710434270053024933810851534611.jpg15710436277878114956373217936851.jpg15710435846402047751185959458711.jpg15710434925723954462411793900624.jpgCoffee is native to tropical Africa but its Brazil that is the world’s largest coffee producing country. Vietnam, Colombia are second and third biggest producers. Coffee was traded through Middle East, Asia and Europe before its taken to the Americas by European colonizers. The crop’s success there depended on slave trade. The history of coffee recognizes racism and the role of colonialism. The history of coffee has a dark side of the exploitation of Western countries taking advantage of the African countries. And multibillion multinational corporations making so much profit but don’t invest in these countries of the supply chains. 15710433560353172288782735507670.jpg15710440983255412735373397344862.jpg15710445900461747951835999486447.jpg15710441400893604583404307719482.jpg15710439366083654047546056266942.jpg15710440294184227315937896153147.jpg15710444445985513000575336350508.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.1571044828283157220128130682346.jpgwp-1571137280306.jpgdownloadfile.pngwp-1571007286187.jpgIMG-20191014-WA0001.jpgwp-1571136784509.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.15710478444701786177490462436469.jpg15710456532011356605169476525987.jpg15710456143886626766098078755663.jpg15710455659128566144229800899532.jpg15710448803383604231430384290796.jpg15710449771794187086487037815745.jpg15710450656392204661356868672582.jpg15710451149853942328613469727459.jpgBarbados and Jamaica were some of the earliest British colonies as slave traders provided outposts with human labour from Africa to work on sugar and coffee plantations. Goods and people moved in a triangle between West Africa, colonies in Caribbean and Americas and Europe.wp-1571143326145.jpg15710465101715420187119285288633.jpg1571046665177784825754492463044.jpg15710465806261383212562540144503.jpgwp-1571143230605.jpgwp-1571143279802.jpg15710462101437150544227229786142.jpgSan Domingo in French-occupied Haiti was supplying half of the world’s coffee in 1788 as a direct result of slave labour. Living conditions was appalling, slaves underfed, overworked and housed in the windowless huts. The African slaves were beaten, tortured or killed by their white European rulers.15710466183022452900408860596017.jpgwp-1571142356971.jpgwp-1571138218332.jpgwp-1571142304784.jpg15710467716452899072847031383823.jpg15710449165545412649823065829850.jpg15710450356353051306629389501833.jpg1571046353063816915106442229309.jpg15710432352042400621271070553203.jpgNapoleon tried to regain Haiti in early 1800s led to decline in coffee production prompted the Dutch to fill the gap with coffee produced in their own colony of Java, Indonesia. But has rigid hierarchy between the native Javanese and their colonial overlords. Laziness and apathy of Dutch landowners forced Javanese natives to harvest coffee for a pittance, whole villages died of starvation.15710462360581092218315998157921.jpg15710463381055154496466313978760.jpgwp-1571136892649.jpg15710470158994600447489546368637.jpg15710433079216012543656666705158.jpgUK drinks 95 million cups of coffee day with 500,000 tonnes of waste coffee grounds a year. Some business’s small waste coffee grounds customers to take home as garden fertiliser or homemade exfoliant. Wet coffee grounds waste into landfill in UK tax £88.95/tonne to £94.15 from 1st April 2020 levy operators cost to collection fee. Waste management companies charge for contaminated dry mixed with recycling. 15712234953994380269245425115741.jpgLandfill harmful greenhouse gases such as methane 34 times more potent than carbon dioxide over a 100 year period causing climate change. The wet coffee grounds in an anaerobic digestion plant absent of oxygen microorganisms break down biodegradable material managing waste or producting fuel but grounds sink to bottom in ‘belly’ inhibit rate of biomethane production. Waste grounds incinerated energy generation, not best usel. Bio-bean utilise wet coffee grounds waste recycled bio-products by disposal recycling service generate savings for businesses saving emission as bio-fuel.15710432727097757498507419898001.jpgCoffee declined in the West Indies but it thrived in Latin America. So first coffee bush in Brazil was planted by Francisco de Melo Palheta in Pará in 1727. Brazil became a coffee superpower under the rule of the Portuguese and continued to after independence. By the 1830s, coffee became Brazil’s largest export is around 30% of world coffee production.15710461315717905217574155760681.jpg15710452158122014500876146091126.jpgBrazilian coffee plantations used black or indigenous slave labour. Indentured labourers worked and lived in horrific conditions. Plantation owners treated their labourers as dispensable imported new slaves as they died from overwork. Did not treat existing slaves with any compassion most slaves last seven years from initial bondage.wp-1571142201640.jpg15710455063321556057087774078740.jpgBrazil made slavery illegal in 1888, but four million slaves had been brought from Africa. In Latin America, coffee industry depended on the indigenous labour. Black people not used as slaves in Central American countries anymore, Mayans and other native peoples served as semi-slaves.15710451884962273506023802601097.jpg15710452671042518442429950312232.jpgThe Mayans occupied best fertile lands for growing coffee and so increasingly became disenfranchized by colonial governments. Violently evicted by the military as the demand for coffee grew, forced to work land for the oppressors. Revolts and rebellions common during that time government brutality and the oppression was response.15710454680217849189674356110640.jpg20191015_133547.jpgThe coffee industry in Latin America explaining why the world is dominated by their coffee production. Slave labour no longer but paved the way for today’s industry. Many regions of Brazil and Colombia are now traditional coffee-growing areas with farming as main resource. Legacies of colonialism affect coffee supply chain in Latin America racial divide between farm owners and labourers.15710464500078699002128982820492.jpgMillions of blacks in Latin America Asia, and Africa live in poverty producing the affordable coffee for Western markets. African coffee is the best in the world as Tropical Africa origin of coffee. But that continent not treated on same level of Latin America. Colonialism by former European colonies in Africa left without infrastructure or stable political system. Structural racism economic oppression exists in supply chain. Inequality in the coffee production, baristas, economics. Education, politics of coffee-producing regions of the community in producing countries must contribute to improving sustainability, working conditions, and quality of life for people globally.tree-goat-morocco.jpg15712272641128742041996406789531.jpgObviousTimelyAlligatorsnappingturtle-size_restricted.gifThe Argan coffee like Ethiopian Coffee, Nepal coffee grown on Himalayan climate is ideal for coffee growing. The aroma of brewed coffee fragrance, coffee’s global recognition beans, grown in Nuwakot, a scored 90 points on a scale of 50 to 100 in Coffee Review, California-based trade magazine. In first-ever blind assessment Nepali coffee in Lekali is “savoury sweet in structure with gentle acidity; crisp, satiny mouthfeel.” Concluded the coffee is worth seeking its confident savoury-sweet cup. In 2016, coffee produced by Greenland Organic Farm scored an 89 Specialty Coffee Association of America, California trade group Nepali coffee producers elevate quality of country’s beans to international standards.Workers sort cherries for processing at Lekali Coffee Estate’s farm in Nuwakot in central Nepal. Nepali coffee’s in 2014, Banjara became Nepal’s first Q-grader trained in Xining in China. The West are calling coffee aficionados value beans’ from exotic origin to local cafe. Coffee companies create market for vacuum packed cans of coffee grounds and jars of instant coffee kitchens in the world,  Nepal’s high-end market export coffee. Some claim goat eaten berry coffee also exist like Luwak kopi coffees. Coffee farm in Mauja district of Kaski, view to the Annapurna mountain range Nepal’s first national coffee cupping as Q-graders identify characteristics and flavour, quality of coffee beans. Eight of the world’s 10 highest peaks like Mount Everest Nepal ideal climate high-quality beans. Nepal’s Arabica variety Bourbon and Typica coffee grow on rolling, misty mountain slopes at altitudes from 800 meters to 1,600 meters. First introduced to the country by a monk in the middle of 20th century the crop supports 32,000 farmers in 40 of country’s 77 districts. It exports coffee but Coffee Review rating recognition gives them a much-needed boost in the international market.15712209071994545813192981911343.jpgThe world’s most expensive is Coffee alamid highly sought-after brew among coffee aficionados is “caviar” of coffee. Odour-free coffee alamid aroma, syrup texture, chocolate hint, coffee alamid’s clean aftertaste and flavour is processed by acid from stomach of animals eating coffee cherry berries. The coffee seeds remain intact undigested excreted as a faecal material collected, washed and is grounded as premier luxury coffee sells U$500 -U$1000 per pound. Kopi luwak one of most expensive coffees in world. Vietnamese weasel coffee collecting coffee beans eaten by wild civets in India. Luwak coffee kopi luwak of Java Indonesia is second best.  But traders of this type of coffee exploit animals by caging, feeding them solely on coffee beans instead on an enriched variety of diets in wild more suitable to thrive. The tourists travel to see caged animals in action oblivious to animal rights issues involved in most expensive coffee processs. A cup of coffee cost $80 per cup in the tourist epic centres.

Mark Pendergrast: Uncommon Grounds, History of Coffee & How It Transformed Our World.

Sprudge.com, The Question of Racism

GOD GIVES PERFECT PEACE

GOD keeps in PERFECT PEACE the MIND kept on GOD because of TRUSTING GOD says Isaiah 26:3. A man declared FAITH in God that if GOD slays him he STILL LOVES AND TRUSTS GOD. In Job 13:15, Job’s faith in GOD was tested yet TRUSTS God and maintains his ways before God.15710500170627782202892357446392.jpgJesus Disciples said, they have nowhere else to go because Jesus has the WORDS OF ETERNAL LIFE. In John 6:68, Simon Peter answered Jesus, Lord to whom do we go? No matter their fate, challenging circumstances of life they had nowhere to go but run to LOVING ARMS OF GOD.1571049947069757816999684027485.jpgJesus asked His twelve disciples “Do you want to leave too like Judas Iscariot for greedy love of money, for pleasures of the world etc betrayed Jesus? They said absolutely not because he who has the Son has life. No matter the issues of life Jesus warned of these perilous times.D.15710498484774482450719129202222.jpgThe Have CONFIDENCE in GOD to see you through life in Jesus Name. GOD says do not fear those who kill flesh but cannot kill the soul in Jesus Name FEAR GOD who kills soul. Bible says in John 16:2 they will put you out of synagogues or kill thinking they are DOING GOD a favour. The day is coming they will face WRATH of GOD on DAY of the LORD.wp-1571053184636.jpgJESUS COMES TO GIVE LIFE EVEN LIFE MORE ABUNDANTLY IN JESUS NAME. As citizens of heaven THE REAL LIFE ETERNAL IN ETERNITY IS YET TO COME to reunite LOVED ONES as devil burns in hell for attacking GOD’S people globally. Example of faith is testimony of Horatio Spafford’s faith in GOD in his time of adversity. Weeping may endure  but joy comes in the morning for those who MOURN with HOPE in Christ.15710499640867255745608443986295.jpgOn being notified of tragedy at sea and the loss of his children, Horatio Spafford immediately set sail for Wales to reunite with his heartbroken wife. Once at sea, Spafford asked the captain to point out exactly where the Ville du Havre sunk.
As he crossed fateful spot grief-stricken father sat with pen in hand and wrote what become one of Christendom’s most beloved song of HOPE and TRUST in GOD ELOHIM JEHOVAH in CHRIST.wp-1571053218214.jpgChristian believer’s salvation is in Christ alone because there is no other name given among men by which to be saved. In Psalm 139:8 Bible says, “If I ascend to the heavens GOD is there; if I descend in Sheol GOD is there. GOD’S WORD does not go void so achieves GOD’S purpose for sending word. In Psalm 139:9 If rise on wings of dawn or settle by farthest sea GOD is there. There is nowhere to go to escape wrath of God its a futile desire to run from the LORD so RUN to GOD. 15710853891056583687574779996534.jpgPhilippians 4:7 says the PEACE OF GOD which passes all human understanding will keep your HEART and MIND SAFE in UNION with CHRIST JESUS. Its GOD’S Grace, Mercy and Compassion that gives Strength to endure in adversity to cope with grief, sorrow, pain, loss. GOD is still on the Throne so in Control of your life. 

PERFECT PEACE FOR ALL WHO TRUST GOD.

When peace, like a river, attendeth my way, When sorrows like sea billows roll;
Whatever my lot, Thou has taught me to say, It is well, it is well, with my soul.

Though satan should buffet, though trials should come,
Let this blest assurance control,
That Christ has regarded my helpless estate,
And hath shed His own blood for my soul.
(Refrain)
It is well, with my soul,
It is well, it is well, with my soul.

GROUNDNUT & PEANUT/OILS

15707845127156653663316207345954.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0012.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0029.jpg15707893333604641602646104343632.jpg15707896148261001852730444443006.jpg15707893682718735345993973328976.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0010.jpg15707833934723802533458068315326.jpg15707832578189072966147542290648.jpg15707834239151848095670456445962.jpgwp-1570802098371.jpgwp-1570802035747.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0008.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0009.jpg15707834472307571853684531947568.jpg1570786851350875126761037075326.jpg15707954609231414742855137602773.jpgwp-1570803375931.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0025.jpg15707901880905044044258918245073.jpg15707896521495228368066690777655.jpg15707898431401260540910340766071.jpg15707824257912488918800919497494.jpg20191011_093013.jpg15707832203775243425012921934175.jpgwp-1570797906437.jpg15707916951867421611568665103796.jpg15707891823613489701966672795046.jpg15708085319268121818133374276907.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0022.jpg20191011_122801.jpg20191011_123114.jpg20191012_104224.jpg1570786970887877213663425578385.jpg15707945096213046886711061607208.jpgwp-1570799108967.jpg15707897063131288720652032018631.jpg15707903779064676578966512394624.jpg15707894111295276134005257790577.jpgwp-1570799638636.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0018.jpg15707956443157809948054158681191.jpgwp-1570800121779.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0028.jpg15707938539414257574867589042332.jpg15707938071606235172391918911728.jpg15707939369261663485003269948842.jpg1570794013493934164119149072580.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0021.jpg1570792032491391043010104295969.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0023.jpg15708169551153682810323296415724.jpg15708166402168148294109269088985.jpg15708167281037730136986375426020.jpg15708166865724722342520839818077.jpg15708165532348064204112588561454.jpgPeanut oil processed mixed with nitrous oxide in a truck massive diesel engine. V6 engine run on regular diesel fuel to reach 220-degree before switching over to peanut oil. Nitrous oxide plus plenty of air turns turbo charger supercharger forced air in cylinders. The engine gets a spray of alcohol for cooling purposes.15708165028113999895232126876639.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0030.jpg15708167512272893762172321424145.jpg15707941137685681028702372552463.jpgGroundnut, Peanut oil and vegetable oil wastes converted into biodiesel. Gallons of oil or grease from dining services are converted to 100% biodiesel used, sold to motor vehicles. Chemical additive is mixed into the biodiesel enhances their performance in cold winters. Biodiesel under various conditions was compared to traditional petroleum diesel analysed and modified to improve the production process. The by-product of the biodiesel production glycerin is valuable material used in soap-making.

IMG-20191011-WA0020.jpg15707918379366187952333098579364.jpg15707897516731822209118521371780.jpg15707918672977561337316864789643.jpg15707942725704074541176172665757.jpg15707896753411943906213943994298.jpg15707861260083217097681549421737.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0019.jpg15707899885583395131550866276363.jpgwp-1570801560976.jpgwp-1570804977365.jpgwp-1570805904040.jpg15707865343805938331849088517070.jpg15707865076046968741383729131526.jpg20191011_165752.jpg20191011_170402.jpg20191011_170502.jpg15707861615434940562508229367045.jpg15707900412686015519140365993731.jpg15707863520022331644753159231197.jpg15707866997814256024496153506108.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0017.jpgIMG-20191011-WA0015.jpg1570784338912391897543158955471.jpg15707844767705823169762498920012.jpgwp-1570807249353.jpg15707837413753795066225819851121.jpg15707837951405774004450382794856.jpg15707841358293780069339794391942.jpg15707841832527927266157318354567.jpg15707840173723791896886614422660.jpg15707840490417891453167929486610.jpg

GOD/BIBLE ON WITCHCRAFT

25 Important Bible Verses About WitchcraftWitchcraft is from the devil and anyone who practices it will not enter Heaven because it is abomination to God. Don’t dabble in witchcraft to open yourself up to demons and demonic influences that can harm you. And satan is crafty so we must never let him take control of your lives. Don’t get involved in wicca so help them to save their life but if they refuse help stay away from them. Christians do not need to fear satan’s power to stop evil things of the occult. Bible warns on witchcraft so repent, get help, get rid of any occultic items fast, pray, ask Christ to break bondage to witchcraft. If you practices witchcraft you will not enter Heaven.IMG-20191008-WA0003.jpg

1. Revelation 21:27 Nothing impure will enter heaven no shameful or deceitful, only those whose names are written in the Lamb’s book of life.

2. Revelation 21:8, Cowards, unbelievers corrupt, murderers, immoral, practices of witchcraft, idol worshipers, liars is in fiery lake burning sulfur second death.”

3. Galatians 5:19-21 The actions of flesh sexual immorality, impure, promiscuity, and idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, rivalry, jealously, outbursts of anger, quarrels, conflicts, envy, murder will not inherit the kingdom of God.

4. Micah 5:11-12 I will tear down your walls, demolish your defenses, put end to witchcraft, no more fortune-tellers.  In Acts 19:8-22 Christian reject sorcery after Paul Bible taught God’s words.15705835466792352920556105854708.jpg5. Micah 3:7 Seers will be put to shame, all who practice witchcraft disgraced to cover faces for God won’t answer them.

6. 1 Samuel 15:23 Rebellion is like sinful of witchcraft, stubbornness as worship idols. Because you rejected command of the LORD HE rejected you as king.”

7. Leviticus 19:26  “Do not eat meat not been drained of blood. “Do not practice fortune-telling or witchcraft.

8. Deuteronomy 18:10-13 Don’t sacrifice your son or daughter as burnt offering. Do not practice fortune-telling, sorcery, interpret omens, engage in witchcraft, cast spells as mediums or psychics, call forth spirits of the dead. All who does these things detestable to the LORD. All nations doing these things the LORD your God will drive them out ahead of you. Be blameless before the LORD God.15705837095392703637720246138116.jpg9. Revelation 18:23 The light of a candle shine no more in thee; the voice of the bridegroom and bride heard no more in you, your merchants great men of earth by your sorceries all nations deceived.

10. Isaiah 47:12-14 “Use your magical charms and spells to do you good. Call your astrologers, stargazers to save you and let them save you from burning in a fire; they cannot save themselves or you from the flame. You will get no help and their hearth is no place for warmth.

11. Isaiah 8:19 Some say to you, “Let’s ask mediums and consult the spirits of the dead. Their whispering mutterings to tell you what to do.” But should not a people ask God for guidance? Should the living seek guidance from the dead?15705842640341436067494928143008.jpg12. Leviticus 20:26-27 Be holy because I, the LORD, am Holy. I set you apart from other people to be my own. “Men and women among you who act as mediums or consult spirits of the dead must be put to death by stoning.”

13. 1 Chronicles 10:13-14 Saul died for he was unfaithful to the LORD. He failed to obey the LORD’s command, consulted a medium instead of asking the LORD for guidance. The LORD killed him and gave kingdom to David son of Jesse.

14. 1 John 5:18-19 Whosoever is born of God sins not he that is begotten of God keeps himself so the wicked one cannot touch him. We know we are of God and the whole world lies in wickedness.

15. 1 John 4:4 You God’s little children so overcomes them. Greater is HE that is in you than he in the world.15705841878074711401650381653562.jpg16. Ephesians 5:11 Take no part in deeds of evil of darkness expose it publicly. So MANY BELIEVED CONFESSED TO SHOW THEIR DEEDS In Acts 19 MANY WHO USED CURIOUS ARTS BROUGHT THEIR BOOKS TOGETHER AND BURNED THEM BEFORE ALL MEN PUBLICLY.

17. 3 John 1:11 Dear friend, don’t imitate what is evil so do what is good. Anyone who does what is good is from God but all who do evil don’t know or seen God.

18. 1 Corinthians 10:21 You can’t drink Cup of the LORD and cup of demons at  table of the LORD and table of demons.

19. Galatians 6:7 Don’t be deceived God is not mocked what one sows, will reap.15705843002564576363613375458595.jpg20. 1 John 3:8-10 One who sins is of the devil because devil sins from beginning. The Son of God came to destroy devil’s work. None born of God continues to sin because God’s Spirit in them cannot go on sinning born of God. This is how we know Children of God and children of devil. All who do what is right are God’s children so love their brother or sister.

21. 1 John 4:1-3 Dear friends, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, many false prophets have gone into the world. This is how you to recognize the Spirit of God: Every spirit that acknowledges Jesus Christ came in the flesh is of God every spirit that does not acknowledge Jesus is not from God. This is the spirit of the antichrist, which you heard is coming and is already in the world.

22. Revelation 9:20-21, The people who did not die in plagues refused to repent of evil deeds to turn to God. Continued to worship demons and idols of gold, silver, bronze, stone, and wood, idols that neither see, hear nor walk! They did not repent of evil witchcraft.15705843431747121818676164556388.jpg23. 2 Kings 9:21-22 Get my chariot ready King Joram commanded. King Joram of Israel and King Ahaziah of Judah rode in their chariots to meet Jehu. They met him at plot land belonging to Naboth of Jezreel. 22 King Joram demanded, “Do you come in peace, Jehu?” Jehu replied, “How can there be peace as long as the idolatry and witchcraft of your mother, Jezebel is all around us?”

24. 2Chronicles33:6 Manasseh sacrificed his sons in fire in valley of Ben-Hinnom. Practiced sorcery, divination, witchcraft, consulted with mediums and psychics. Did evil in LORD’S sight for HIS anger.

25. Nahum 3:4-5 Because of multitude of whoredoms of the harlot of witchcrafts, who sold nations, families to witchcraft. I am against you says the LORD of hosts; I will uncover your skirts on your face to show the nations your nakedness and kingdoms your shame.15706062383126221656731411984810.jpgJesus cast out evil spirits in people takes authority over evil powers. Others take the law into their own hands to attack the perceived witches seen as enemies against greater good of society. Causes of witch huntings include abject poverty epidemics, social crises and the lack of education. The leader of witch-hunt is prominent figure in community or “witch doctor” who gains from economic benefit charging for exorcism or selling body parts of the murdered. Agendas or motives of witch hunters are complex grievances against the victim targeted, blamed, shamed for death, misfortunes accused of. Despite literal obvious cause of disease natural causes, death is blamed on another person. The consequences are revenge attacks unauthorised by any proper legal procedure. Years later victim declared innocent as evidence shows vendetta set up central figure seeking vengeance manipulating others to eliminate them. Vengeance belongs to God and witchcraft spirits cast out of a person in bondage sets them free in the Name of Jesus. Deliverance is available if there is goodwill for solutions rather than anger vendetta against enemies. A witch hunter is accountable to God for the human life and blood shed of others by the judgement of God. It is important to repent to be saved in Christ Jesus for eternal life in God’s Kingdom.

Courtesy: Images & Excerpts Reblogged

GOLD/GEM’S BLACK HISTORY

15703599427795849490005497582097.jpgDiamonds and golds are a variety of the precious fine elegant jewellery items of everyday or special occasion celebrated. Western Europeans value diamonds as investment of great significant interest to them. Gold and diamond gemstones exhanged plus slaves sold for cowries or empty bottle glass beads during slave trade in Africa. Europeans travelled to the Maldives to harvest cowries filled with ships to West African Coast as currency for trade. The glass bottles are shipped to West Africa, grinded for making beads in exchange for the diamonds, gold and the slaves.15703593971038371000270296116611.jpg IMG-20191006-WA0004.jpg15703596092627729972377068231247.jpg15703594510032028393125005315779.jpgIMG-20191006-WA0003.jpgA bizarre exchange took place whereby two waste products as cowrie shells and empty glass bottles recycled to Africa in exchange for gold,  diamond and slaves. A deeper reflection of precious priceless treasures of gold, diamond and slaves in unfair exchange of cowry, glass bottles.15703601079021629804224632030148.jpgIMG-20191006-WA0005.jpg15703600189287282435431865502778.jpg15703598531044087406023553158766.jpg15703596674004412191520517798868.jpgThe slave traders shipped thousands of barrels of glass, crystal and coral beads to Venice in Italy into West and Central Africa. Broken glass bottles melted used to make beads for exchange of African captives. English East India Company imported millions of the cowry shells to Europe sold in Africa by slave traders. 15703595479508843222281945377230.jpg15703594724334800070438091881338.jpg15685440748807277633702931880292.jpgSlave traders exchanged gold shells of certain species historically used their currency in several parts of the world. Used in the past is presently extensively used in jewelry and other decorative or ceremonial purposes. Cowry shell is most used worldwide as a shell money.  Liverpool controlled 80% British slave trade and over 40% of glass bottle beads from Italy, cowries from Indian Ocean.15703654416986799591359005112019.jpgShell money medium of exchange is like coin money or other commodity money  used in many parts of the world. Shell money consisted of whole or partial sea shells worked into beads by shapes. Use of shells traded by commodity exchange valued body ornaments. The distinction between beads, commodities as money debated by economic anthropologists.Africa+Before+Europeans.jpgwp-1571498295453.jpgposter,840x830,f8f8f8-pad,750x1000,f8f8f8.u2.jpgasantwea-1-680x365_c.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0025.jpgashantikingdom-768x299.jpgIMG-20190808-WA0006.jpgimage.jpgMore than 1 billion tonnes of ivory has been taken by Western countries over a thousand years from Africa. But after independence they ban Africans from benefitting from ivory trade destroy by burning or crushing high-profile events in 21 countries around the world. Kenya and others forced to burn ivory in each country destroy 105 tonnes (231,000 lb) of ivory by fire so not funding projects.021639A3-6D15-48F6-83C1-18C0B93154C9_w640_s.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0022.jpg15714104985158493773424962768652.jpg15713056029367773464045337576003.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0012.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0009.jpg15714099074491660731594248591932.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0013.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0024.jpgIMG-20190918-WA0010.jpgSome kings recruited women of Agoji to fight as an army of 4,000 women who battled against Europeans. West African Yaa Asantewaa in Ashanti, Gold Coast now Ghana and Kingdom of Dahomey between 17th and 19th centuries fought. These brave women who fought against slavery and colonialism. Lupita Nyongo went to Benin to explore army’s legacy.15703583848418688805040572864609.jpgShell money in exchange for glass beads in AmericaAsiaAfrica and Australia. The most familiar the wampum created by the indigenous peoples of East Coast,  North America. Ground beads cut from purple marine bivalve shells. The shell used worldwide as currency is the shell of Cypraea moneta money cowry. 15703584223038067271825762797665.jpg15703585606134465096612475839878.jpg15703585357865249895412656567623.jpg15703585026025926365042799769893.jpg15703584687476343591616701578432.jpgBeads exchanged for gold and slaves or diamonds and cowries. Cowry species abundant in Indian Ocean was collected from the Maldive Islands, in Sri Lanka, along the Malabar coast in Borneo and other East Indian islands and African  coasts from Ras Hafun or Mozambique.  Cowry shell money traded by networks of Africa, South Asia, and East Asia.IMG-20191006-WA0000.jpg15703573743066753630029787445541.jpg15703574141542657800047709871768.jpg20191006_112007.jpg20191006_112058.jpg15703577026686191533060876311596.jpg15703574929207567621432847011562.jpg15703575513795785535363368352890.jpgThe first European nation in Transatlantic Slave Trade was Portugal in mid to late 1400’s. Captain John Hawkins made first English slaving voyage to Africa 1562 reign of Elizabeth 1. Hawkins made three journeys in six years. He captured over 1200 Africans sold as goods in Spanish colonies in Americas. British traders supplied slaves for Spanish, Portuguese colonists in America. British settlements in Caribbean North America grew in wars with European countries as Holland, Spain, France, British slave traders supplied British colonies. The British ships took part in the Slave Trade in the 245 years between Hawkins voyage or abolition of Slave Trade in 1807. British merchants despatched over 10,000 trips to Africa for slaves. Merchants in other parts of British Empire sent out a further 1,150 voyages. Portuguese, British, France, Spanish, Dutch Netherlands, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Norway all sold slaves as the Arabs sold slaves for centuries. The  Arabs used cowry as Cypraea moneta. IMG-20191006-WA0006.jpg15703656922301612021566349132130.jpg15703666082696824174557729869127.jpgd984d85d60ae0ec484903eecd261119b.jpgA print from 1845 shows cowry shells used as money by Arab traders. And in  Western Africa shell money legal tender until mid 19th century. Before abolition of slave trade, large shipments of cowry shells sent to English port’s reshipment to the slave coast. The shells of Olivella nana a sparkling dwarf olive sea snail harvested from Luanda Island used as currency in Kingdom of Kongo. Al-Idrisi in mid-twelfth century described a King of Ghana tethering his horse to the huge gold in his palace taken by whites like a similar but lesser size gold in Australia. Abundant gold in South Africa cause the apartheid the bad treatment of blacks in their own motherland. Gold Coast now Ghana became finished because of gold. Black history deals with injustice issues of African suffering despite gold riches.15705320153876161750733975044943.jpg1570530133933986560778091953603.jpg15705302340738369641996290500847.jpgMansa Musa I from 1280 – c. 1337 was the tenth Mansa, translated as “sultan” “conqueror” or “emperor” of a wealthy West African Ghana, Guinea, Songhai Mali Empires. Mansa Musa, the Malian emperor was richest person in history with so much gold he is noted in ancient maps. He caused inflation in Egypt by giving away too much gold with 60,000 people entourage each carried gold bars he gave as gifts on his journey to Mecca.

20191006_105616.jpgThey were traded north in the Kingdom of Benin. In Kongo called nzimbuzimbo  or eli in Ghana. The value of the cowry was much greater in West Africa than in the regions from which supply obtained so trade extremely lucrative. Some cases of gains said to be 500%. Use of cowry currency spread inland Africa. About 1850 German explorer Heinrich Barth said widespread in Kano, Kuka,  Gando and Timbuktu. Barth said in Muniyoma one of ancient divisions of Bornu, king’s revenue estimated at 30,000,000 shells, with adult males paying annually 1,000 shells for himself 1,000 for each pack-ox, 2,000 for each slave in his possession.IMG-20191006-WA0001.jpgCountries on the coast fastened together shells in strings of forty or one-hundred each twenty strings represents a dollar. In interior laboriously counted one by one or, if the traders were expert, five by five. The districts mentioned above received supply of kurdi, as called, from the west coast. The regions to north of Unyamwezi, where they were in use under the name of simbi, dependent on Muslim traders from Zanzibar. The shells were used in remotest parts of Africa until early 20th century now use modern currencies. So other shells of large land snail Achatina monetaria cut i circles with open center used as coin in Benguella, Portuguese West Africa.IMG-20191006-WA0002.jpgCowry shell served as their medium of exchange in the early to mid-nineteenth century slave trade. With neighbouring regions trading beads worn locally and sold abroad. It is the strange monetary value of cowry and empty glass bottles compared to slaves, gold and diamond. Reycled bottles from Western world is now a problem with tons of waste that is no longer shipped as much to Africa. As Africs us an extension of European markets now has tons of bottle waste so not all used in making glass beads15703589345984661777063266130447.jpgThe debate continues why the European slave traders duped the Africans with a cowry and empty glass bottles for gold, diamonds, gems. And above all humans created by God worth of priceless value commoditized and dehumanised. Black history month focuses attention on this past treatment of black slaves and then abolishing slavery. Modern slavery and past issues of retribution, reparations, compensation for slave descendants is pending for justice. Bible says, Eye has not seen, ear heard or entered heart of man things God prepared for those who love Him in 1 Corinthians 2:9. God says HE will deal with injustice. Seek God in Christ Jesus to help supply your needs.

CASSAVA IN BLACK HISTORY

15700999806043825768664414506827.jpgCassava plays a major role in black history as a valuable subsistence cash crop in many countries. Cassava farming is made popular in agricultural endeavours for its durability and longevity as a crop and processed food.15701000221464867956713913357522.jpg 157012424161541310914407740074.jpg15701243065766467411996274915613.jpgThe processed cassava lasts very well for its storage and in transit. This is why it was fully exploited by slave masters who used it to feed slaves. Cassava said to be introduced in Africa in sixteenth century by Portuguese slave traders. 15700998237728739612559767715343.jpgThe Portuguese began to import slaves from Africa from 1550 and used cassava in the form of meal farinha to provide food to sustain the slaves. Its cultivated in Africa for hundreds of years and also processed in a variety of ways. 15700981491587221729125657570359.jpg1570124619932904628965496065059.jpgIMG_20191004_23505.jpg15701259791047400650882647545777.jpg15701260356521499747372103173655.jpg15701261092411378454319017863669.jpg15701230328683420556536533851367.jpg15701231082225387273312182487086.jpg
Safe processing destroys cyanide poison causing Konzo deformity deficiency by lack of vitamin in body. Dried cassava is grinded to flour. In drought emergency eaten raw to sustain life if safe variety. 15700989697897450658739552856085.jpg15700985028274978919304327532155.jpg15700986196777326550185249568168.jpg15700985396945033385490985002606.jpg15700986499171048318423939864404.jpg15700986846781036881210689403379.jpg15701170043108400465710040480247.jpgGarifuna ereba or cassava bread made from grated cassava root yucca as the Garifuna’s from Caribs “Karifuna” or cassava clan. “Garifuna” means cassava-eating African people arrived in 1675 by wreck of slave ship from Bight of Biafra. Survivors members of Mokko people of Nigeria Ibibio. British sailors reached a small island of Bequia, Carib took them to Saint Vincent and intermarried with them, supplying the men with wives, as it was taboo in their society for men to go unwed. Grated cassava is put into a large cylindrical woven bag “ruguma” hung from tree weighted at bottom with heavy rocks squeeze out the poisonous liquid starch from grated pulp. Weight pierce bottom of “ruguma” tree branch one or two Garifuna women sit on the branch to drain starch and dry dough.15701302840986870671403231638660.jpgThe Garifuna cassava is made into flour, the rest of pulp dried overnight sieved through flat rounded basket hibise flour baked as pancakes on large iron griddle ComalEreba eaten with a fish machuca  pounded green and ripe plantain, gravy lasusu with fish soup “hudutu.” Or dish  bundiga green banana lasusu, mazapan, bimecacule sticky sweet rice or coconut rice with red beans. Nigerians eat “eba,” “gari,” “fufu” from dried grated cassava flour dishes “ewuro” or egusi” are eaten with melon seeds soup. Alcoholic drink called gifiti is rum bitters made soaking roots, herbs. Cassava dough fermented dry is roasted gari and eaten with soup.IMG-20191004-WA0003.jpgIMG_20191004_42340.jpg15702020387975466995755152923365.jpg15701295966361576106819538589512.jpgIMG-20191004-WA0005.jpg15701293352654780439362192279750.jpg15702015902053537057114595303431.jpgIMG-20191004-WA0004.jpg15702016623514957994804075773008.jpg1570201568070910860951730314518.jpgWild cassava plants or taller larger than normal cassava and is toxic not advised to eat unless properly processed so the toxins removed. And after is prepared by draining its poison thiamine cyanide thrown away as yellow top liquid layer.15700990930616221314849729254632.jpg The white starchie soft velvet is dredged as a dough after draining its pressed by weight to extract the pure farina starch used for tapioca. Less starchy dough is bagged or stored in baskets to dry out.1570116662697460291419114319383.jpg15700994651302555562733309869833.jpgIMG_20191004_57328.jpgwp-1.jpgThe spread out detangled flaked dough is roasted as gari. Gari eaten as savoury or sweetened by sugar, milk with nuts, coconut pieces etc. Cassava is eaten for centuries but was domesticated globally and fuelled by the slave trade. 15700993375697322468602728789524.jpgGariba, Bami, yakeyake are eaten with sauce in many places daily. It is almost always available in Africa and Central or South America, Caribbean countries plus other places in Western world. 15700994936636529658242956518731.jpg15701305158058006745810737442447.jpg15700982858818817695744191059975.jpg15700984080884419915385874955338.jpg15700967182378510289728036609210.jpgThe southern border of Brazil has wild cassava among other places. Toxicity of cassava is removed to stop the presence of cyanogenic glucosides compounds of cyanide and glucose, hydrogen cyanide HCN potent toxin plant tissue damaged.15700984440246136830838925534693.jpg Cyanogenic glucosides is removed from all the varieties of cassava. The varieties referred to as ‘sweet’ low-cyanide have low levels of cyanogenic glucosides in the flesh of the root. And can be peeled and cooked like other root vegetables.15700983554834610658471765710192.jpg The bitter or high-cyanide higher level cyanogenic glucosides in the root peeled and the flesh requires their extensive processing before are safer to be eaten. Different cassava processing techniques to grate, peel tube, ferment and sun dry.15700993820442721571294578208250.jpg 15700990085591779173120637929485.jpg15700984722484822652591740495530.jpgreuters-goma-woodbike.jpg15702720804197723159071665385846.jpgIMG-20191005-WA0006.jpg20191003_114040.jpg Then adding water to some masticated roots and allowing mixture to ferment. High-cyanide varieties prepared from manicuera cooked juices and thin bread, masticated, cooked root tubers and gari.15700991570941049642023886601092.jpg15702721360284604438417127342920.jpgIMG-20191005-WA0007.jpgIMG-20191005-WA0004.jpgProcessing removes the damaged plant tissue toxin makes it safe to eat. Chicha  mild alcoholic beer made from the low-cyanide and high-cyanide cassava. Low-cyanide variety is prepared by peeling, cooking, mashing roots or making gari. 20191003_145317.jpgIts a national cuisine of South America, low-cyanide cassava used vegetable and boiled, or boiled, fried. In Brazil farinha is part of their traditional dishes and in Colombia breads made with fermented starch of high-cyanide cassava or gari. 20191003_150128.jpgCassava is the second most important food crop in sub-Saharan Africa. So the majority of cassava-based foods made in Africa by fermentation products. 20191003_130703.jpg 20191004_201152.jpg20191004_194333.jpgGranular meal farinha, cooked cassava pounded fufu; grated fermented roasted gari; leaves cooked eaten. A raw cassava is frozen; kept underground and grated cassava dough is steamed as yakeyake.20191004_210655.jpg20191003_114730.jpgCassava products include chikwange or baton de manioc, a steamed boiled paste from the soaked roots, and lafun, a flour from the soaked roots. 20191003_150244.jpgCassava roots are prepare similar to the Asian countries by boiling, baking, frying, peeled, sliced, sun dried.20191003_130819.jpg The roots grinded as flour used to make porridge, traditional food chappatis and dosas India, bibingka rice-like landong  Philippines. 20191003_165054.jpgCassava starch is exported sold in shops as tapioca eaten with milk and sugar plus fruits added.20191003_140100.jpgCassava chips are eaten globally and is in different flavours from plain to spicy ones depending on taste. Cassava dough mixed with corndough makes banku.20191003_164749.jpg Dried cassava is pounded, grinded in mill as kokonte cooked, eaten with peanut butter, palmfruit okra soup.20191003_141254.jpg Semi dried dough made as agbeli kaklo fried and served with coconut pieces. Its important to realise global connection. 20191003_164700.jpgCassava spread by slavery and culture of retained food in black history month celebrations to bring awareness. Agbeli,  ‘agbe’- life + ‘li’ – exists = life exists is the Ewe name for cassava sustaining life.20191003_165800.jpg 15700987250555808220578403239938.jpgIMG-20191004-WA0001.jpgFrom 1525 to 1866, 12.5 million Africans were forcibly transported across Middle Passage to serve as slaves in the New World. Documents detail cuisines of the Africans by English and Dutch explorers in 1400’s depict gari essential ingredient in dishes including spinach leaves with palm oil. West African Palm Oil is still used in dishes in Nigeria, Congo, Sierra Leone, Guinea Gold Coast and Angola. The slaves in 1530’s forced to improvise used on their plantations coconut oil for cooking. The flavours between palm oil different coconut oil and palm kennel is clear but used.  Life aboard ships was a brutal experience, many died in transit due to harsh conditions. Lack of healthy nutritious food caused death and the dead thrown overboard into the sea but slave traders claimed insurance for loss of property and loss of earnings.15702848867455727850678033769823.jpg15702869526787599744170919682563.jpgSo slaves were barely fed during Middle Passage. The best slave ships fed slaves beans, corn, yams, rice, palm oil dregs. But slaves were not always fed daily. If there was not enough food for all sailors and slaves the sailors eat first and so the slaves did not get any food. Conditions on board ships during Middle Passage were appalling. The men were packed together below deck and were secured in the ship’s hold. Slaves were chained ankle to wrist, with no place to move so dehumanised as cargo and humiliated.15702868630696748270198992347843.jpg The captains try to cut Middle Passage voyage as short as possible. But despite efforts tragedy of slavery killed many. It the heritage of rich foods and enriched culture retained by the indigenous slave descendants that preserved these foods. Cassava roots, gari, cassava, leaves, rice, and beans eaten globally by Africans or African descendants. These foods links continents by cultural food celebrations, festival that bring people together. Care must always be taken if one processes cassava. Check with experienced person to ensure a correct, safer processing of cassava products. Many people suffer from effects of the cassava not properly processed as Konzo leg or fatal cases. It is interesting the variety of the products made from cassava with various names. The fresh and dried cassava peels and leaves are eaten by goats and sheep.