COUNT ALL YOUR BLESSINGS

IMG_20200730_46567God’s blessings in Deuteronomy 28 says obey the LORD God and observe HIS commandments and the LORD God will set you high above all nations on earth. 2 God’s blessings will come upon you to overtake you if you obey the LORD your God. 3 You will be blessed in the city and blessed in the country. 4 God will bless fruit of your body, produce of your ground, increase your herds, increase your cattle and flocks. 5. God will bless your basket and kneading bowl. 6 Bless you when you come in and bless you when you go out. 7 The LORD will cause the enemies who rise against you to be defeated before your face they will come against you one way, flee seven ways. 8 The LORD will command HIS blessing on your storehouses and on all you set your hand to do. God will bless you in the land the LORD God gives you. 9 The LORD will establish you as a holy people to HIMSELF sworn if you do you keep HIS commandments and walk in HIS ways. 10 All people on earth will see you are called by the name of the LORD, and be afraid of you. 11 The LORD will grant you plenty goods and fruit of your body, increase of your livestock and the produce of your ground in the land God gave your forefathers. 12 The LORD will open to you His good treasure in heaven to give rain to your land in season and bless the work of your hands. You will lend to many nations but not borrow. 13 The LORD will make you the head not the tail; you will be above not beneath if you obey commandments of the LORD God and observe them. And do not turn aside from the words commanded you this day to the right or left to go after other gods to serve them.IMG_20200730_0704

Disobeying God’s Commands 

15 But it shall come to pass if you do not obey the voice of the LORD your God, to observe all HIS commandments and HIS statutes these curses will come on you to overtake you. 16 Cursed in city and in the country. 17 Cursed in your basket and kneading bowl. 18 Cursed the fruit of your body and produce of your land, increase of your cattle and offspring of your flocks. 19 Cursed when you come in and when you go out. 20 The LORD will send curses, confusion and rebuke all you set your hand to do until you are destroyed and perish quickly because of the wickedness of your doings forsaking ME. 21 The LORD will send plagues until HE consumes you from the land. 22 The  LORD will strike you with disease, fever, burning, the sword, sunscorch, mildew pursued you till you perish. 23 Heaven will be as bronze and earth as iron. 24 The LORD will change rain of your land to dust. Heaven will come down on you till you are destroyed. 25 The LORD will cause you to be defeated by enemies so you go one way against them, flee seven ways before them; You will be troubled all the kingdoms of the earth. 26 Your carcass will be food for birds of the air and beasts of earth no one will frighten them away. 27 The LORD will strike with boils of Egypt not healed. 28 The  LORD will strike with madness,  blindness and confusion. 29 Grope in the day as blind gropes in darkness; you will not prosper in your ways oppressed plundered no one shall save you. 30 You will marry a wife but another man lie with her; you will build a house but not dwell in, plant vineyard but not gather grapes. 31 Your ox slaughtered before your eyes but not eat it; your donkey taken from you but not restored to you; your sheep given to your enemies and you will have no one to rescue them. 32 Your sons and your daughters given to other people, eyes fail longing for them all day long and no strength in your hand. 33 A nation you do not know will eat fruit of your land and produce of your labour, oppressed. 34 Driven mad because of things seen. 35 The LORD will strike your knees and legs with boils not healed from soles of your feet to top of your head. 36 The  LORD will bring a king set over you in a nation you or your fathers not know to serve their gods of wood and stone. 37 You will be scorned proverb among all nations where the LORD will drive you. 38 You will sow seed in fields but gather little for the locust will consume it. 39 You will plant vineyards but not drink  the wine or gather grapes worms will eat them. 40 Your olive trees will not anoint you with oil so without olives. 41 You will have sons and daughters but they shall not be yours; they will go into captivity. 41 Locusts will consume your trees and produce of your land. 43 The stranger among you will rise above you.54d5bf5499c6ff6c44a9dc9b41fc552d44 He will lend to you but you will not lend to him; he will be the head and you will be the tail. 45 All these curses will come on you, pursue and overtake you, until you are destroyed because you do not obey the voice of the LORD God to keep His commandments and statutes commanded you. 46 They will be upon you for a sign and wonder and on your descendants forever. 47 Because you do not serve the LORD God with joy and gladness or for God’s abundant supply. 48 You will serve enemies the LORD will send against you, hunger, thirst, naked in need of everything. God will put yoke of iron on your neck to destroy you. 49 The LORD will bring nations against you from far ends of earth as eagles. Nations whose language you do not understand. 50 Nations fierce don’t respect elders or favour their young. 51 They will eat the increase of your livestock and produce of your land until you are destroyed not leave your grain or new wine, oil or the increase of your cattle or offsprings of your flocks until they destroy you. 52  They will attack you at your gates until your high fortified walls you trust, come down in the land; They will besiege you at your gates in the land the LORD God gave you. 53 You will eat fruits of your own body, flesh of your sons and your daughters the LORD God gives you in a siege in desperate times enemy distress you. 54 The refined among you will be hostile towards his brother, wife and to the rest of his children he leaves behind 55 He will not give them the flesh of his children he eats because he has nothing left to eat. 56 So delicate woman among you will not set soles of her feet on the ground will refuse her husband, son and daughter 57 She will eat placenta after birth. 58 If you do not observe the words of the laws written in this book, to fear the LORD GOD 59 The LORD will bring on you and your descendants the plagues and sickness 60 God will bring on you diseases of Egypt to cling to you. 61 Sickness and plagues not written in the Book of the Law the LORD will bring on you until you are destroyed. 62 You will be left few in number though once as stars of heavenly multitude, because you do not obey the voice of the LORD your God. 63 It shall be as the LORD God rejoiced to do you good to multiply you, the LORD will rejoice to destroy you to bring you to nothing plucked from land possessed. 64 The LORD will scatter you among all people from one end of earth to the other to serve gods, you or your fathers don’t know, wood and stone. 65 Among those nations you will find no rest or sole of your foot rest. The LORD will give you a trembling heart, failing eyes and anguish of soul. 66 Your life sin before you; fear day and night. 67 In the morning you wish its evening and in the evening wish its morning!’ because fear terrifies your heart because what seen. 68 The LORD will take you into Egypt in ships not see your land again. You will be sold to enemies as slaves but no one will buy you. Israel was sold into Egypt when Titus took Jerusalem in 70 AD/CE all Jews over seventeen years old, men and women were sent by ships to Egypt to work in the mines. They were sold as slaves there but since the slave market was too full no one wanted to buy them many perished. The poor, disabled and elderly were left behind to till the land. Diaspora slavery and spiritual bondage without redemption of God means some people perish. Jehovah says MY people perish for lack of knowledge in perilous times count your blessing for breathing, eating, talking, walking, shelter. Thank God for your loved ones in Jesus Name. 

OUR EYES ON YOU JEHOVAH

tumblr_ptfy1xYOS61tjj2sjo1_500In 2 Chronicles 20:2-30 great multitudes came against Israel beyond the sea and Syria in Hazazon Tamarn En Gedi. 3 So Jehoshaphat scared seeks the LORD and proclaimed a fast in Judah. 4 Judah got  together to seek the LORD so all cities of Judah came. 5. Jehoshaphat, Judah and Jerusalem in house of the LORD said, 6 “O LORD God of our fathers You are God of heaven and ruler over all kingdoms and nations. In Your hand is POWER and MIGHT no one can withstand You. 7 You God drove out inhabitants of this land before Your people Israel given to descendants of Abraham Your friend 8 to dwell built Temple in Your name. You said, If disaster comes sword, judgment, pestilence famine, affliction cry You will hear and save. 10 Ammon, Moab, Mount Seir You did not let Israel invade from land of Egypt did not destroy them 11 Reward us by attacking us out of Your possessions given to inherit. 12 O God, will You not judge them? We have no power against a great multitude against us or know what to do but our eyes are on You.” 13 Judah, with the little ones, wives, children all before the LORD. The Spirit on Jahaziel son of Zechariah of Benaiah of Jeiel Mattaniah, Levite of Asaph in assembly. 15 He said, Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem and King Jehoshaphat The LORD says, ‘Don’t not be afraid of the great multitude the battle is the LORD’S. 17 Go tomorrow to Ascent of Ziz to find them by brook  in wilderness of Jeruel. 17 You do not need to fight in the battle, stand still and see the salvation of the LORD who is with you, Judah and Jerusalem!’ Don’t fear or be dismayed the LORD is with you.” 18 Jehoshaphat bowed his head and face to the ground, Judah and Jerusalem bowed before the LORD to worship the LORD. 20 Levites, children of Kohathites and Korahites praised the LORD with loud voices. 20 The morning in wilderness of Tekoa, Jehoshaphat said, “Hear me, Oh Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem: Believe in the LORD your God to be established so believe His prophets to prosper.” They appointed singers to the LORD to praise the beauty of HIS holiness, went before army sang, “Praise the Lord, HIS mercy endures forever.” 22 Sang praises to the LORD ambushed Ammon, Moab, Mount Seir defeated, made end of Seir so they destroyed one another. 24 Judah came to wilderness looked at the multitude of dead bodies. 25 Jehoshaphat and people took spoil, abundant valuables, precious jewelry in three days had so much. 26. On fourth day in Valley of Berachah so blessed the LORD in place called Valley of Berachah valley of Blessings valley of Jehoshaphat for Jehovah God’s victory over Moab and Ammon main road from Hebron to Jerusalem. 27 All returned to Judah and Jerusalem with Jehoshaphat in front, with joy the LORD made them rejoice over enemies. 28 In Jerusalem they played stringed instruments harps, trumpets in house of LORD. Fear of God fell on nations who heard the LORD has destroyed Israel’s enemies. 30 God gave Jehoshaphat REST OF GOD. We pray in agreement Father God gives you REST OF GOD in VICTORY in Jesus Name. We praise you LORD, thank you Jesus thank you Holy Spirit for comforting us daily.

GOD’S DIVINE GRACE MERCY

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FAMINES IN BIBLE HISTORY

IMG-20200401-WA0002In 2 Chronicles 7:13-14 God says If I shut heaven so there is no rain, send locusts to devour the land or pestilence among my people; 14 If my people called by my name humble themselves, pray, seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; I will hear from heaven, forgive their sin and heal their land. Pray and ask God to have mercy to forgive you. Pray loudly: Dear Father, Creator of heavens, earth, and universe we come humbly before you LORD in your Majesty, Sovereignty over all creation. We repent of all sins against you or others by rejecting Godly truth, counsel, we walked in wicked and deceit. Almighty God of all creation we bow our heads and submit to you LORD in agreement with the whole world we pray forgive us all in the Name of Jesus your dear Son. LORD God have MERCY on us. Let your compassion flow to us in Jesus blood shed to cleanse us from sin  wash and heal us from plagues. Forgive us LORD, PLEASE SHORTEN evil days to send Jesus in cloud in Rapture. Draw us to you to eternity in Jesus’ Mighty Name, Amen. Thank you LORD for your Grace, Mercy and Covenant of Abraham to all nations. Jehovah Jireh provider of needs thank you for supplying all our needs.slide5-l15686371235835954419660177108723.jpgFamine in Canaan Israel led Abraham to Egypt in Genesis 12:8-13:2. Severe food  shortages caused hunger, lack of basic resources and hard times. Challenging circumstances affects people in history. In Proverbs 12:11; Proverbs 28:19, food harvested by working the land is ruined by bliss, drought pestilence, enemy raid, suffered by Gideon God intervened and saved his family. Current global events affects abundant food supply, resources and basic necessities. Those who chased fantasies to waste time produce nothing and are poor. Proverbs 12:11 says tilling land satisfies with food, so do not follow vain people, who lack understanding of real life chase worthless pursuit without sense to ruin lives. In Genesis 12:10, that famine sent Abram to Egypt as Genesis 12:8-13:2 says Abraham tried in vain to find solution. Genesis 12:8-9 economic conditions forced him to Egypt. On their way Abraham’s wife Sarai attracted the attention of kings who gave them great wealth. Abraham lived in Canaan from 2100 B.C.E.-1875 B.C.E with Isaac, Jacob. On return to Canaan in Genesis 15:1, the LORD appeared to Abraham in a vision said: ‘Ten years passed since you lived in Hara for two years and seven years in Egypt. Its one year since your return from Egypt after age 75 Abram left Iraq Ur to Canaan Israel. Then to Egypt back to Canaan Israel. In Genesis 26:1 second famine occurs in the days of Abraham. So Isaac in Gerar went to Abimelech the king of Philistines. The LORD appeared to Isaac and said, “Do not go into Egypt but live in this land I told you to live in so Isaac stayed in Gerar. After Abraham, for 430 years Israel is enslaved in Egypt from 1875 to 1445 B.C.E. Moses, Aaron in 1 Chronicles 5 are fourth-generation descendants of Levi son of Jacob. So 430 year’s slavery is generations of Isralites in Egypt new Pharaohs didn’t treat well.journeys_of_abraham_isaac_jacob-old_testament_map_1downloadfile-29In Genesis 26:12-33 Isaac sowed in the land in time of famine and same year he got hundredfold reward because the LORD blessed him. 13 He had riches so expanded his territory. 14. He possessed flocks, herds, servants Philistines envied him. 15 The wells his father’s servants dug in Abraham’s days the Philistines filled with earth. 16 And Abimelech told Isaac to leave as too strong in their land. 17 Isaac left pitched tent in the valley of Gerar and dwelt there. 18 So Isaac dug another well as Abraham’s was filled by Phillistines after the death of Abraham. Isaac called wells by name his father calls them. 19 Isaac’s servants found water in well 20 But herdsmen of Gerar told Isaac’s herdsmen, the water is theirs. So Isaac left Esek well, because they fought with him. 21 Isaac dug new well but Phillistines fought too so calls it Sitnah. 22 He moved to dig another well Rehoboth, the LORD made us fruitful in the land. 23 But moved to Beersheba 24 The LORD appears to him at night said, I AM God of Abraham your father so fear not I AM with you to bless and multiply your seed for Abraham’s sake. 25 Isaac built an altar to the LORD and pitched his tent there so his servants dug a well. 26 Abimelech went from Gerar to Isaac with Ahuzzath, Phichol chief captain of his army. 27 Isaac said to them Why did you come to me since you hate me and sent me away? 28 They said, The LORD is with you let us make an oath between us to make covenant with you 29 Do not hurt us for we have not touched you but did good by sending you away in peace. 30 You are blessed by LORD. Isaac made a feast so they ate and drunk together. 31 They left in the morning after oath so Isaac sent them away in peace. 32 Same day Isaac’s servants told him they found water in the sixth well dug. 33 Called city Sheba now Beersheba.jacob_map_15686470728505025652900209887770.jpgJacob took his family to Egypt in famine. Joseph interpreted famine of Pharaoh’s dream in Genesis 41:53-57 so promoted Prime Minister. Built silos in Egypt for harvests stored seven years to prepare for seven year’s famine God in a dream. Egypt tilled the land, stored grain, cured meat, prepared in advance. Egypt sold grains to nations and brought Joseph’s siblings to Egypt to buy grains despite jealousy hatred of his dreams and coat of many colours from Jacob their father. Jacob’s family moved into Egypt due to famine in 215 years after God’s promise to Abram. Israel descendants multiplied rapidly increasing their Jewish presence in Egypt, centuries. Toiled to built grand designs of Egypt, prospered at Goshen. Their hardwork built  nation but envy, jealousy of Pharaoh told midwives, kill boys. Some refused, blessed by God with houses in Egypt. Israel cried to God to save them sent Moses to deliver them. 1 Chronicles 7 Joshua is Moses’ successor is 12th generation descendant of Joseph Jacob’s son and Pharaoh’s vizier. And in 1 Chronicles 7 Israel’s 3rd to their 11th generations lived in Egypt since Abram, Isaac, Jacob left rich in Exodus of Moses and Joshua out of Egypt into wilderness. They borrowed gold and silver to repay them 430 years of slavery without pay, gave them abundant wealth to be used to build the tabernacle and provide for their families in a time of need. Instead, they made golden calf a god from gold God provided, many died except Levites who refused to join golden calf idolatry.20200402_224755bible-archeology-exodus-kadesh-barnea-water-from-rock-moses 20200329_123354In Exodus 15:22-17:7 the LORD God had to provide water in the desert for Israel at Shur after crossing the red sea. Moses was told to hit the rock after three days without water in the wilderness. Marah is bitter fountain of Israelites in Exodus 15:23, 24; Numbers 33:14 no water to drunk. Moses asked God Yahweh’s help shown piece of wood Moses threw into bitter in Exodus 15:23,24 to make water sweet and fit to drink. Moses by God’s divine direction made the water safe to drink. two times Moses threw stick into the water good to drink at Marah. The LORD in Exodus 17:6 said, Behold, I will stand before you by a rock in Bible and you will bring water from the rock to provide drink for the people and the livestock.” In Numbers 20:10 Moses  hit two rocks to produce water instead of doing what God asked him to do. Moses grieved loss of Miriam so in pain but the Israelites complained more instead of showing him compassion. His followers faced challenges of desert so not Moses fault but blamed him anyway. Its Moses who bore brunt of their anger of change of location after they CRIED TO GOD TO DELIVER them from slavery in Egypt. It was their choice to leave Egypt so God did exactly what they demanded. Forgot miracle of being spared in all plagues of Egypt, miracle crossing of red sea whine and moan about Moses not caring about them. Exodus 17 and Numbers 20 are  two separate events for water miracles. But people quarreled with Moses forgot the first time God provided water so can do so again. Told Moses, “Give us water to drink although Moses was thirsty too did not care or have any consideration it was life in dry desert. Israel’s journey  in stages from Egypt, told Moses to give them water. Moses cried out to God who told Moses to toss stick into some bitter water to make it good to drink. But  the congregation assembled against Moses and Aaron and grumbled. These people blamed Moses, and said they prefer to be in slavery in Egypt than die in desert. They complained of food shortages and craved, leeks, cucumbers, garlic, onions, old lifestyle as slaves of the rich to eat crumbs than own land to grow crops. fish_and_fruit_basketIn Numbers 11:4-28, craved fish eaten in Egypt with the leeks, cucumbers, onions garlic and watermelons. Told God they prefer to die by the hand of the LORD in the hands of Pharaoh than endure their eleven days journey into Canaan Israel. Instead of thanking God for answer to their prayer to be rescued from slavery complained and cried for scrumptious, comfort food while wandering in desert. Their timing lacked their reality check for a few days to reach Canaanland for fresh food. And focused on inhospitable environment murmured against Moses Aaron and God for nothing to eat but just manna collected everyday. God was so angry he told them they will perish to never reach Canaanland. God wanted to teach them to fish to have more food but preferred quick fix hand me down token of silve masters. And God delayed their journey each they complained God added extra years as punishment in the desert. Instead of enduring eleven days stayed 40 years longer for the insolence against. Forgot they brought a hardship on themselves by a disobedience to God agreed in Covenant warned in advance. Jeremiah 14:1-6 on LORD’S drought of “Judah mourns at her gates and sits on the ground in mourning and they cry in Jerusalem so are heard by God. “Nobles send servants for water, cisterns but no water return so vessels empty in shame cover their heads. In Jeremiah in 13th year of king Josiah in 626 BC to the fall of Jerusalem and destruction lived 570 BC in Egypt. Josiah’s difference to father reformed nation Jeremiah commended for doing justice and right thing for his people. Jehoahaz ruled three months in 2 Chronicles 36:2 reign marked turning point in king’s attitude toward Jeremiah prophet of God to the nation of Israel. In Israel another drought and famine that hit the people in search of food to eat.488929_ruth-and-boazRuth 1:1 says in the days judge’s ruled a famine in the land a man of Bethlehem in Judah, wife, two sons lived in Moab. 2. Elimelech’s wife Naomi and two son’s Mahlon and Kilion died. So Naomi and Ruth returned to Israel to glean fields of Boaz, collect wheat grains married Boaz bore Obed and Jesse, father of David is bloodline of Jesus. In 2 Samuel 21:1-14 a famine in days of David for three years David sought presence of the LORD. The LORD said, “Saul’s bloody house has put Gibeonites to death are not of Israel but survivors of Amorites. 2 Israel swore to spare them, Saul’s zeal for Israel, Judah tried to annihilate them. 3 David helped Gibeonites “made atonement so to bless the LORD’S  inheritance. 4 So Gibeonites didn’t want silver, gold from Saul or his family but right to Israel in death. 5 Saul destroyed and decimated so no place in Israel. 6 Let seven of male descendants be killed, bodies before the LORD God at Gibeah of Saul by you as LORD’S chosen 7 The king agreed spared Mephibosheth son of Jonathan, son of Saul due to oath before the LORD of David and Jonathan. The king chose Armoni, Mephibosheth two sons of Aiah’s daughter Rizpah son of Saul, five sons Saul’s daughter Merab bore to Adriel Barzillai son Meholathite. 8 Handed to Gibeonites who killed them and exposed bodies on a hill before the LORD in the first days of barley harvest. 10 Rizpah’s daughter, Aiah in sackcloth,  beginning of harvest till the rain poured from heavens with bodies. She didn’t let birds touch them day or wild animals by night. 11 David told Aiah’s daughter Rizpah did 12 He took bones of Saul and Jonathan from Jabesh Gilead who stole bodies from public square at Beth Shan as Philistines hung them after stricking Saul down on Gilboa. 13 David brought bones of Saul, Jonathan and all killed so 14 buried in tomb of Saul’s father Kish, at Zela in Benjamin. And God answered David’s prayer to heal the land of Israel. wp-1579942333083.jpgFamines in 1 Kings 17:1 Elijah a Tishbite settler in Gilead told Ahab, “The LORD, God of Israel who lives says, there will be no dew, rain, three years, except by my word.”Do drought punishment in 1 Kings 18 Jezebel abused nation held to ransom 2 So Ahab in famine in Samaria told Obadiah his governor of house who fears the LORD greatly to look for water and grass for animals. 4 Jezebel cut off the prophets of the LORD but Obadiah took hundred prophets hid fifty in two caves fed them with bread and water. 5 Obadiah told go search land, fountains of water, brooks to find grass to save horses and mules not lose all the beasts. 6 They divide the land between them, Ahab went one way Obadiah to another. 7 Obadiah met Elijah, fell on his face so Elijah sent him to call King Ahab, he did but feared Ahab will kill him if Elijah disappeared…18 The LORD told Elijah in the third year go show yourself to Ahab and tell I will send rain on the earth. To prove to Ahab God is fed up with pagan evil deeds of Jezebel, who took Naboth’s vineyard, abused whole nation a carmel contest set up to serve God only. Elijah pours water on altar but fire came from heaven so burnt offering God accepted.  Elijah took the pagan prophets to brook Kishon and slew them there… 41 Elijah told Ahab, Get up, eat and drink; there is a sound of abundance of rain coming. 42 Ahab to eat and to drink and Elijah went to the top of Carmel; cast himself upon the earth, put his face between his knees prayed to God. 43 Told servant Go look toward the sea he looked but saw nothing. He said, Go again seven times. 44 At the seventh time, saw a little cloud out of the sea, like a man’s hand. Elijah said, tell Ahab, Prepare your chariot to get home before the rain stops you. 45 It came heaven had clouds, wind, a great rain so Ahab rode and went to Jezreel. 46 The hand of the LORD on Elijah took him faster before Ahab into Jezreel.IMG-20200328-WA0004In 1 Kings 17:7-15 Elijah met a widow at Zarephath when brook dried in drought caused famine. 8 There was no rain in the land. 9 So the LORD told him, Go to Zarephath to Sidon, stay there. A widow will supply your food 10 In Zarephath a widow gathering sticks he asks to bring a little water to drink 11 And bring me a piece of bread 12 She said as the LORD God lives I have only a handful of flour in a jar and little oil collected few sticks to make a meal for myself and my son to eat it and die 13 Elijah said, “Don’t be afraid. Go home and do as you said but first make bread and bring it to me. 14 This is what the LORD, the God of Israel, says: ‘The jar of flour will not run out or jug of oil run dry until the day the LORD sends rain on the land.’” 15 So she did as Elijah told her and there was food every day for Elijah the woman and son. And Later God sent a golden chariot to Elijah alive into heaven gives a double portion anointing to Elisha. Elijah is expected as one of two witnesses to save this world, authorized by God send plagues of God’s wrath punishment. Bible says endtimes plagues of Egypt in Exodus 8:22; & 9:34 fall on the earth during Tribulation. In Revelation 2: 21 & 6:16 Revelation 22:18 prophecy of Bible says if anyone adds to them God will add plagues to those who distort the word of God. In 2 Kings 4:38 Elisha returned to Gilgal, during famine in the land. Told sons of prophets, “Put on a large pot and boil stew to eat.” The stew was ready but as bitter toxic leaves could not eat the food. Elisha sprinkled salt in the pot and food was eaten. In 2 Kings 6:24-25 Ben-hadad king of Aram’s army attacked Samaria. A great famine in Samaria so a donkey’s head sold for eighty shekels of silver, a fourth kab of dove’s dung sold five shekels of silver. A famine in Israel in dire times wildleaves food poison prophet cured with flour.20200328_193828 Children and babies died, some people ate grass, roots, abandoned infants died. Great famine in Samaria the LORD said the children eat a defiled bread among Gentile. Medieval Europe famines made some ate a dove or bird droppings, rats, cotton batting or kaolin clay. Their rich leaders abused powers to deny people meager rations. Some ate locust, insects, tree barks, mud, forage in Europe. Bible famine in Egypt and Canaan afflictions mean no food. Droppings of bird called ptarmigan delicacy parts of Greenland eat as haute cuisine. Dove dung “bird’s milk,”“bird’s dung” bulb roasted, boiled plant is “Star of Bethlehem” as Linnaeus botanist calls “dove’s dung. ” Parkinson, a British herbalist in 1800, said roasted bulb “sweeter than chestnut.”Is a white flower twelve-inch stem star-shape seed pods. New Jerusalem Bible says its wild onion Geneva Bible says dung used fuel for fire. Jewish historian Josephus it is dove’s dung salt substitute. Others say dove dung is falafel in Hebrew is locust-beans fruit of carob tree. 2 Kings 6-7:17 famine in Samaria attack by Ben-Hadad of Aram’s army so great famine in city. 26 King Jehoram passing on wall heard woman saying, “Help me my lord the king 27 The king said, “If the LORD does not help you how can I help you? All the threshing floors of winepress are empty. 28 What is the matter? So she said, “This woman told me, ‘share your son and so tomorrow we’ll eat mine.’ 29 We cooked my son and ate him and next day I told her, ‘Give your son to eat, she is hiding him.” 30 The king heard the woman’s words and tore his robes and the people saw under his robes a sackcloth. 31 He said, “God deal with me if head of Elisha son of Shaphat remain on his shoulders today.” 32 Elisha at home with elders as king’s word sent, Elisha told elders, “See he sent to cut off my head and when the messenger comes shut the door at the sound of his footsteps behind him. 33 A messenger of king said, “This disaster its only the LORD God who can rectify it to save the nation from the perilous times.20200328_192842Starving parents watch children die see no end of famine in sight cause of child eating of spiritual cause sin against God received punishment. Leviticus 26:22-29 says wild animals, people, eat children. In Deuteronomy 28:53 Ezekiel 5: 9-10 so parents eat children. Lamentations 2:20 &4 :10 says women cook children eaten. American skeleton of a 14 year teenage girl cannibalism in Jamestown colony is reconstructed by archaeologist of bones in 2017. Kelso took her remains of skull, tibia bone found in cave to Smithsonian. Dental analysis revealed her identity as Jane. Others use “ritual cults to get rich’ sacrifice children for wealth, plead with ‘gods’ during natural disasters to ‘avert’ tragedy of wars or gain evil “power” to rule the world. Or done for ‘fun’ online by a German. God deals with cannibals as HE created all the people attacked. To eat flesh is ‘normal’ to ‘imbibe’ power of their departed cooked to eat. American restaurants serve donated bodies eaten, reptilians eat human products. After the  seven years of famine in 2 Kings 7:1-11, Elisha said”tomorrow by this time there will be abundant food so the finest flour will sell for a shekel and two seahs of barley a shekel at gate of Samaria.”2 An officer of the king doubted, “If the LORD opens floodgates of heavens this cannot happen. Elisha said, “You will see it with your own eyes but you will not eat it.  3 Four lepers at city gate said, “Why stay here until we die? 4 ‘We’ll go to the city, if the famine is there, we will die if we stay here we will die let’s go to the camp of Arameans. 5 They went to the camp of Arameans but no one was there. 6 So the LORD caused the Arameans to hear sound of chariots and horses their army said, “The king of Israel hired the Hittite and Egyptian kings to kill us.” 7 Got up fled, abandoned tents, horses donkeys, left camp and ran for their lives. 8 Four lepers entered the tents, ate, drank, took silver, gold, clothes and hid them. They returned to city with abundant riches. 9 So shared good news with royal palace.” 20200328_200539KurtRose17566236432710 City gatekeepers in Aramean camps told king lepers collected gold, food, saw 11 tethered horses, donkeys, tents, left behind. 12 But the king said, “Arameans know we are starving left their camp to hide to come so they take us into their city.” 13 The officers sent five horses to the camp to confirm testimony 14 Two chariots of horses were sent out to go to check Aramean army. 15 They went far to Jordan but found on the road clothes, equipment Arameans threw in flight as messengers reported to the king. 16 The people went into plunder camp of spoil of Arameans so a seah finest flour sold a shekel, two seahs of barley sold a shekel as the LORD said 17 The king put officer in charge of gate but trampled on in the gateway. 18 He died as man of God said. 19 Man of God told king finest flour sold sold shekel, two seahs of barley a shekel at gate of Samaria.” 20 People trampled on officer who doubted as God said. In 2 Kings 8:1-3 in another Famine a widow whose son Elisha brought to life told to avoid the LORD’S decreed famine in the land for seven years. 2 The woman did as man of God said. 3 So her household went to live in land of Philistines seven years. After seven years she returned to appeall to the king for her house, fields, left behind. 4 The king asked Gehazi the servant of the man of God, “Tell me all the great things Elisha did.” 5 So he told the king Elisha brought a dead boy back to life and woman is coming to appeal to you for her house and fields. Gehazi said, My lord the king this is the woman and her son, Elisha brought back to life. 6 The king asked the woman who told him so the king appointed a high official to her case to “Return all things which are hers and produce of her fields since day she left the land.” She got her house and lands with interest 14 Elisha was in  Dothan and horses, chariots and a great army that came by night surrounding the city. 15 The servant of man of God saw the army, with horses and chariots. He said, “Alas, my master what shall we do?”16 So Elisha said, “Don’t fear, those with us are more than those with them.14886 17 Elisha prayed, “LORD open his eyes to see so The LORD his eyes and he saw the mountain was full of horses chariots of fire around Elisha. 18 Syrians came to attack but Elisha prayed to the LORD, Strike this people with blindness so God did according to the word of Elisha. 19 Elisha told them, Follow me, I will bring you to the man you seek.” He led them into Samaria. 20 At Samaria, Elisha said, “LORD, open their eyes to see The LORD opened their eyes and they were, inside Samaria! 21 When the king of Israel saw them, told Elisha, “My father, shall I kill them?”22 He said, “Don’t kill those taken captive without sword or bow give food to eat and water to drink and go to their master.” So they were set free by Elisha. In Chronicles 21:12 a three year famine  or three month’s destruction by enemy with sword or three day’s sword by the LORD, pestilence in the land by angel of the LORD destroying all coasts of Israel. “The days are coming,” says the LORD God, “I will send famine on the land not famine of bread, thirst, diseases. Famine of lack of knowledge of God people face pestilence locusts and insects destroying produce of earth. Droughts, diseases are part of endtime birthpang warnings. In Italy money is so useless its thrown on the streets seen in these pictures. Love of money is root of all evil so what shall it profit you to gain the whole world but lose your soul? Money can’t buy God or save you from hell fire punishments so repent, accept Jesus to go in the Rapture alive to heaven before great tribulation.IMG-20200402-WA0001 IMG-20200402-WA0000Take heed, ask God for mercy in Jesus  Name. In Isaiah 51:19 two things befall the nations, mourning, devastation and destruction, famine sword. Ask God to forgive nations and comforts all in Jesus Name  In Acts 11:28 Agabus said, by the Spirit of God there will be great famine all over the world which took place in reign of Claudius. In Matthew 24:7 Jesus said, nations will rise against nations so kingdom against kingdom and in many places famines, earthquakes. Luke 4:25-27 says in truth many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah. The sky was shut three years and six months in great famine over all the land. Jesus warns of events and comes in Clouds in Rapture. Things get worse before it gets better so trust God so no weapon formed against you will prosper in Jesus Name. God is in control of your life hidden in Christ. In God live, move and have your being. Thank and Praise the LORD, Give HIM GLORY in all situations of life. Be ready for God’s intervention, confident in God. Pray God SHORTENS evil days.

Pray for God’s Peace on earth for God’s help and GIVE HIM NO REST DAY AND NIGHT UNTIL HE MAKES JERUSALEM A PRAISE IN ALL THE EARTH. All nations are connected to Israel and so belong to God. Your body is God’s Temple Holy so God’s Spirit dwells in you to help, teach, comfort, lead you to God’s Bible Truth. Value your life and your precious body is priceless take care follow instruction to be safe in Jesus Name. Keep in touch, check on others or text, phone, email, skype, letters. Pray and worship God at home it is well with you ask God to save you in the Rapture in Jesus Name. God bless you. Jesus appeared again in my dream three times is ready for Rapture. He is calling you to accept Him repent to rescue you in Rapture before its too late. Jesus warned 2000 years ago that these things will happen on the earth. Call on God to save your life so your soul will go in eternity on passing before Rapture. A peak view of heaven shows blissful life of joy, no more pain, grief, sorrow so no more death but eternal joy with Christ,  God, saints, angels, family reunion with loved ones forever in heaven. Ensure to have your name written in God’s BOOK OF LIFE. All whose names are found in book of life are Children of God go into eternal life in heaven in Jesus Name. Be sure to ask God to save you in Christ.  

 

JESUS UNITES ALL IN ISRAEL

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Galatians 3:26-28 says not a Jew, Gentile, Greek, SLAVE, free, MALE, FEMALE ALL ARE ONE IN CHRIST JESUS. In the Bible Jesus Christ of Nazareth came to SAVE to redeem ALL FAMILIES in Christ. God created all black and white people equal in God’s Kingdom, no rank, class, status. SOVEREIGN GOD JEHOVAH and CHRIST JESUS are Ultimate Authority all submit to in ETERNAL LIFE. So Matthew 22:30 says after resurrection people DO NOT MARRY so no virgins to marry. Glorified body is like angels in heaven in eternal life so no need to marry, to give birth to replenish earth in future. All restored to youthful bodies, healed, live perfectly healthy lives eternally. Love is directed totally first to God and to Jesus Christ flowing through all people. There is no need to seek fulfilment through a human being because all are fulfilled in Christ Jesus. The supernatural love God fills mankind with is superior to human love. All LOVE comes from God through Jesus the Bridegroom, enriched deeply in Christ Jesus Alone in eternal life. So human romance pales in comparison to GOD’S DEEPEST LOVE BEYOND human understanding in terms of earthly love. Earthly love is full of disappointment, pain, hurt and grief. A Heavenly LOVE yet fully experienced on earth glimpses of true love found here, there on earth.4bdde64e26478018c275ab2ae84328d6.jpgPERFECT LOVE after GLORIOUS BODY IS FOUND IN CHRIST so no human can provide angelic love for glorified body higher being in Christ Jesus. ETERNAL LIFE IN GOD’S PRESENCE is NO HATRED VENGEANCE, Bitterness or vendetta for only the PURE IN HEART FULL OF LOVE ENTER GOD’S PRESENCE. GOD IS LOVE in heaven no evil on earth exists after judgement BY JEHOVAH. Only the sheep enter heaven and goats are thrown out into hellfire burning forever. A banquet by KING MASTER JESUS for all no slaves IN HEAVEN. Emancipate yourself from the arrogant mental slavery justifying abuse of people in THE NAME of God. Vengeance belongs to Jehovah to meet out so stop misleading the people with twisted lies misquoting Bible to deceive naive vulnerable people. Only Jesus is able to Comfort us and restore PERFECT PEACE we crave because human love is limited. Be content, so grateful, thankful for families you feel not good for you. It is God who puts people in families for a reason. Trust God with your family and AVOID ANYONE WHO DIVIDES FAMILY! 29131.jpgJesus the Messiah is surrounded by His mother, father siblings in His Ministry on earth and in heaven with Jesus. Any Church that divides family is a cult for manipulation naive members to control them by CUTTING OFF from loved ones who SEE THROUGH FAKE PASTORS. The fake pastor deceives people for control weakens them without back up support challenging controlling behaviour. They fear families standing up to stop abuse so anyone who knows the Bible well or confronts them is blackmailed and also vilified to subdue members. They make examples of people to humiliate them to put fear in them to become ZOMBIES or robots they control. Beware of anyone twisting BIBLE to CONTROL your life because who the SON JESUS SETS FREE IS FREE INDEED!!! God is LOVE and by love people know you are the children of God.  Jesus LOVE YOUR ENEMIES do good to those who hate you and do not inherit enmity and hatred from a bitter miserable people preaching evil hatred.  God’s promise to Abraham the land of Israel is a BLESSING to ALL NATIONS.Galatians_3-28.jpgIn Genesis 12:2; 18:18; 22:17–18; 26:3–4 God fulfilled promise to Abraham, first in the nation of Israel then all nations. Israel’s technological, agricultural, and medical innovations, advances help all people in the world. God’s greatest meaningful fulfillment of covenant promise is Word of God Jewish people gave all world. God faithfully protects and brought Israel’s eternal salvation through faith in Jesus the Messiah. So Father God in Lord Jesus Messiah by His great mercy Christians born agains are raised the Messiah from dead. To live in future is a great expectation of priceless inheritance in heaven, pure, undefiled, beyond death and decay. Through faith, God protects by HIS power to endure to end, receive crown of life 1 Peter 1:3–5.  God’s destiny for Abraham to become the father of MULTITUDE of NATIONS includes Gentile nations fulfilled in Jesus, a direct descendant of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob Israel in Matthew 1:2–17.  God LOVES people of all tribes, tongues, nationalities, languages in Jesus as heirs of Abraham and joint heir with Christ.

imageGod’s joint heirs are kings and priests of God in Christ Jesus. There is neither Jew nor Greek, neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; you are ALL ONE IN MESSIAH YESHUA. In MESSIAH you are Abraham’s seed heirs according to promise in Galatians 3:2729. Today know Jesus better by READING BIBLE to STUDY LIKE BEREANS not just do what so called fake control freak cult pastors order you to do to manipulate your life. Messiah Jesus is coming to decide your reward based on if you are HIS SHEEP. Not what the fake prophet misquoted in Bible designed to lie to you because you lack knowledge. God says  MY PEOPLE are destroyed for lack of knowledge of Bible. God says Study to show yourself APPROVED TO GOD not show off Bible verses you memorized. But APPLY the Bible to each need you have, read the specific TEXT daily to meet your need.Galatians+3_26-28.jpgEach one faces God alone on judgement day so remember God will not ask about what the pastor told you. God demands account of your PERSONAL LIFE not the total social media number of followers, bank accounts, mansions, private jets, size of your family, your status, class, colour or race. Each person must share Gospel to DIRECT PEOPLE TO GOD IN CHRIST. The Church you attend or the denomination  is IRRELEVANT TO GOD. Letter to seven Churches in Bible warns Churches. Israel and Jewish people are ONE IN CHRIST JESUS to fulfill all God’s feasts, prophecies covenant promises.  Isaiah 27:6 says, God will cause them that come of Jacob to take root Israel shall blossom and bud to fill the face of the world with fruit. The people of Israel return from parts of the world  their ancestors dispersed take root. The land is blessed and people blessed in the world. Israel’s desert desolate is a major exporter of food to the world. The crops are major export by companies in Israel Isaiah predicted. Isaiah predicted in the Word of God over 2,600 years ago fruit of the land blessing Earth with physical food exported and fruits of God’s Word confirms by Holy Spirit in Christ Jesus. Matthew+1-22+To+Fulfill+What+Was+Spokne+By+The+Lord+Through+Prophets+red.jpg Zechariah says all nations on earth will come yearly to Israel to celebrate Feast of Tabernacles to worship LORD of Hosts. Zechariah 14:16. Isaiah points to road connecting Egypt to Assyria and through this area access road is being built called King’s Highway. Building a super highways links them with all the surrounding nations. These prophesies of Isaiah and Zechariah prepares way in advance in time for Messiah’s rule from His Throne in Israel. Jesus Rules whole Earth and all people will know God in the millennial kingdom in Israel after rapture and His second coming on earth after Armageddon. The land is prepared today to fulfil prophecy of Messiah Jesus as KING of Kings and Lord of lords. And above all countless multitudes of people of all nations, tribes, languages, colours, BELONGS TOGETHER IN HEAVEN AND LATER DWELL ON EARTH WITH GOD. God is not a respecter of persons to put any person above others by class, race, colour, wealth or status. Death is their leveller making all equal before God. No man is bigger or stronger than Jehovah God no matter how powerful they may feel in own eyes to inflate their ego.

BLACK HISTORY IN BRITAIN

African-Romans-12-1.jpgBlacks live in UK since recorded history of sailors, traders and settlers before slaves arrived from 1450. And modern archaeology techniques and historical research show blacks in Roman Britain from African heritage of all classes. The fourth-century ivory bangle lady York’s  skeleton in Sycamore Terrace in 1901 is between 18 and 23 years old. She was of a higher-status adult female of an North African descent who died in York in 4th century AD. Her skeleton is found with bracelets, silver, bronze pendants, glass earrings, beads, blue glass jug, mirror. A piece of bone inscribed with this words “Hail, sister may you live in God.” Her skeleton is in Yorkshire Roman Gallery Museum in York. Reconstructed remain show the North African DNA. Her flagon openwork, ivory inscription plaque in the grave reads SOROR AVE VIVAS IN DEO,”Hail sister may you live in God” is evidence of the Christian population in late Roman York. Plaque of Christian existence and grave good’s alignment of grave is north-south not east-west. This strongly suggests the lady interred had connections with Christian community. Ivory Bangle Lady’s rich burial found in York’s cranial features mixed white and black ancestry. Grave of stone contained jet bracelet, ivory bangle of great wealth of time. Evident presence in the Roman Britain of residents from a multiethnic Romanised North Africans in Britain. IMG-20200708-WA0008Another ‘Beachy Head Lady’ from a sub-Saharan Africa lived in East Sussex 200 AD. Africans travelled into Britain long before arrival of Romans. Burial site of Roman London cemeteries shows their settlement of are multi cultural society. Bioarchaeology DNA analysis of graves and church records and grave goods by London various archaeologist Museum identify many burials of these people of black African ancestry. Some travelled to or UK born in London before Roman period. Evidence of people with African includes North African ancestry before Roman Britain. The craniometric study of 22 individuals from Southwark are of Roman London abd found four African ancestry. And isotopic analysis of their bones evident of childhoods spent in a climate warmer than Roman Britain. A lot ancient documents in archives show black Africans were in Britain. Soldiers in the Roman army and others recruited in North Africa fought in battles and the crusaders had blacks alongside them.African-Romans.jpgAfrican-Romans-16.jpg Autosomal DNA analysis of one of four individuals in a Roman London found he had Black ancestry, with brown eyes, dark brown or black hair. Bone isotopes of individual male is aged over 45 years, spent his childhood in London region of multiethnic Romanised North Africans. Inscriptions of inhabitants involved in a military show some of upper echelon of society. The Augustan History, of Roman emperor Septimus Severus’ to Hadrian’s Wall in 210 AD inspection of wall said its mocked by “Ethiope” soldier holding a garland of cypress-boughs. So Severus ordered him away, ‘frightened’ by his dark skin colour saw his act appearance as omen. The “Ethiope” its written said: “You have been all things, you have conquered all things, now, O conqueror be a god.” The Black Britain’s history of two millennia show black people born, lived and died here. Their history of political activism or historic struggle and artistic roles exist despite adversity. Social history of black people shaped societies and cultures lived in. The Cheddar Man, first modern Britain had blue eyes and ‘dark to black skin’ as his fossil unearthed in 1903 in Gough’s Cave in Cheddar Gorge, Somerset tests show black heritage. His face revealed “dark to black” skin and piercing blue eyes. Britain’s oldest complete skeleton  known Cheddar man by the pioneering research has given scientists clues into what our first ancestor looked like. This is the most accurate model of what scientists now think the very first British man looked likeThis is the most accurate model of what the scientists think the very first British man looked like. The Cheddar man had lived around 300 generations ago in the area some believe he still has ancestors living in Somerset. Research suggested dates to the Mesolithic period and lived in Britain when its almost completely depopulated. He is thought to have died in his twenties and had a good diet. And according to historians, his tribe was one of the first groups of people to move back into Britain at the end of the last Ice Age. He had dark to black skin, blue eyes and dark curly hair. This findings are a dramatic departure from earlier reconstructions depicting first Britains as lighter skinned male. Experts say this surprising find shows paler complexion and lighter hair in northern Europeans is a more recent development. Professor Ian Barnes research leader at  Natural History Museum said “It’s not just skin colour that’s interesting it’s combination of features” that makes him look like the others seen today. Researchers carried out an examination of his DNA with a facial reconstruction of his fossil for the Channel 4 show First Britains: Secrets of a 10,000 year old man. Natural History Museum scientist’s modern techniques extracts DNA from fragments of ancient bones, and teamed up with specialists at UCL to carry out extensive analysis. The result passed to Dutch artists Alfons and Adrie Kennis specialist palaeontological model makers. Another black African pioneer recognized in c.125 to 350 is the Beachy Head Lady shown here.72748915 ancestors 7Scientists determined this woman was around 30 years old when she died. Her  remains give insight into long history of Africans in Britain. In 1953, her remains as the Beachy Head Lady were found in East Sussex. Her skeleton show origins from Sub-Saharan Africa date to around 125 AD. In 2012 the archaeologists again found her skeletons. Using 19th Century Analysis revealed this skeleton, named Beachy Head Lady after the Eastbourne beauty spot where she was discovered, belonged to the woman of sub-Saharan African descent of 125 AD. She lived in England most of her life and held a high position in Roman society. Is first black Briton confirming African presence in Britain from second, third centuries. In 2013, another skeleton discovered in Fairford, Gloucestershire by the forensic anthropologist revealed to be of a sub-Saharan African woman. Remains dated between the years 896 and 1025. Local historians believe she was either a slave or a bonded servant. Oil paintings of the aristocratic families from period shows artists positioned black people on edges or rear of canvasses to gaze at masters and mistresses. In ‘hierarchy of power relationships,’ they were placed next to dogs and domestic animals. As shared by the art critic and the novelist David Dabydeen, ‘more or less on same status,’ their humanity effaced, exist in pictures as solitary mutes, aesthetic foils to their owners’ economic fortunes. Ohajuru_Derbyshire_entry.jpgThe flow of culture and ideas from East to West some scholars argue Crusades played a part in bringing Africans into Britain. Some in Britain as prisoners captured as done in Crusades period or they may have come into England as visitors. Some sub-Saharan Christians from Sudan and Ethiopia took part in Crusades on the side of Europe against Muslims of Middle East. A documented evidence of people of African descent coming and settling in England appears in sixteenth century baptism, marriages and burials of people of African descent found in church records and the official records. The scribe who drew image in the Abbreviato might have seen African man who came to England as a prisoner or visitor following one of the Crusades during the period. Most were called the Moors or blackamoors and referred to  for record purposes than racism bias of the nineteenth century still rife today.article-1275339-097D21A1000005DC-744_230x378.jpgIpswich Man’ is the skeleton of a man found in Ipswich, Suffolk and made the subject of a BBC documentary History Cold Case. This skeleton was discovered during a series of archeological digs  carried out from 1993-2006 in cemetery of the Greyfriars monastery in Ipswich, Suffolk. The Ipswich Man buried there between 1258 and 1300 and through forensic investigation by Professor Sue Black at University of Dundee, found to have direct African ancestry challenges the popular idea that the first people of African descent arrived in Britain in the mid-twentieth century. Dame Professor Sue Black one of the leading forensic anthropologists in her field and her research team at Centre for Anatomy Human Identification (CAHID) work with organizations like United Nations, police and intelligence services. They conducted forensic research all over the world including African countries and study local differences in chromosomes, effects climate and diet have on teeth, bone density and bone structure. The Ipswich Man came from Tunis in North Africa found in Greyfriars monastery where Ipswich man was buried, built by Robert Tiptoft. Tiptoft was a colleague of Richard de Clare and both went on a Crusades in 1270. Payments for their activities during Crusades recorded in the Pipe Rolls (papers written in Latin recording expenditure). In the Flores Historiarum, a medieval history, it states De Clare brought ‘four captive Saracens’ with him to England from Tunis in 1272. Ipswich Man one of the four because of De Clare and Tiptoft’s relationship. The scientific investigations of the Ipswich Man’s bones concluded he died from a spinal abscess by latter end of his life would have seriously incapacitated his movement. It is likely during those last years he was cared for at the Greyfriars monastery. The Ipswich Man buried in the grounds of friary in a single grave. Historical research says poor man or slave unlikely to be buried this way. Due to his grave’s location inside cemetery it is probable Ipswich Man was Christian at time of his death and connected to the friary. This is because Pope Innocent IV stated only ‘friars and their families’ buried in cemeteries of the Greyfriars. Philippa_of_Hainault-mini.gifPhilippa of Hainault 24 June c.1310 to 15 August 1369 Queen of England wife of King Edward III. Edward promised in 1326 to marry her within following two years. She was married to Edward first by proxy when Edward dispatched the Bishop of Coventry “to marry her in his name” in Valenciennes second city in county of Hainaut) in October 1327. The marriage celebrated in York Minster on 24 January 1328 in months of Edward accession to throne of England. And in August 1328 fixed his wife’s dower. The blacks brought English words of African origin like aardvark is Afrikaans word, meaning the earth or ground or pig. So apartheid is Afrikaans policy separated development and living. Banana is West African, Wolof banana. Banjo is Bantu mbanza. Basenji breed of dog from the Congo. Biltong is Afrikaans cured meat. Tumpani is large drum, Asante Ghana.queen-charlotte.jpgThe second black queen of Britain  is Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was the wife of King George III. Queen Charlotte 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818. Born Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz on 19 May 1744, youngest daughter of Duke Charles Louis Frederick, Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Princess Elizabeth Albertina of Saxe-Hildburghausen. She served as a Queen consort of Great Britain and Ireland from her wedding in 1761 until the union of the two kingdoms in 1801. Afterwards she was queen consort of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in17 November 1818 Kew Palace, Richmond. Children  include George IV of United Kingdom,  William IV of the United Kingdom. Both these queens had Moorish features and tanned but often portrayed whiter than white. It was From 12th century, the empire caused black people numbers to swell from 15th and 18th centuries. John Hawkins, England’s first slave trader in 1562 sailed the Barbican from Plymouth with three other ships to violently kidnap 400 Africans in Guinea, trading them in West Indies. So between 1562 and 1567 Hawkins and his cousin Francis Drake made three voyages to capture more slaves from West Africa it then called Guinea Coast.Jan_Verkolje_(I)_-_Portrait_of_Johan_de_la_Faille_-_WGA24594.jpgAt first smaller numbers, were ferried into the ports of London, Liverpool and Bristol on the same ships that brought imperial products like tea, sugar, cotton, coffee, rum, fruit, wine, tobacco and oil enriched national economy. Guinea coin named after West African region area from which hundreds of thousands of indigenous people were seized against their will. Slave traders from 17th – 18th century in Britain used African guinea as their unit of currency. Like Apache tribe named for Helicopter or Cherokee, Zulu tribe named vehicles after natives. Some blacks in Britain were brought in by planters, government officials, and military and naval officers returning to the United Kingdom. Slaves were seen as reassuring companions to the lonely white expatriates on long voyages back to UK island away for decades. Other black people offered to commanders of slaving vessels as gifts and later sold in domestic service at quayside auctions or at coffee-houses in London. They were given names as John Limehouse or Tom Camden. Early in 16th century, Africans arrived in London when Catherine of Aragon travelled to London so brought group of African attendants with her. Africans trumpeters served Henry VII and Henry VIII in London when trade lines opened between London and West Africa. The record of African in London in 1593 named Cornelius show Africans found themselves working as butlers or the household attendants in aristocratic families. Their duties or a chief function looked at was decorative. They were the symbol of status, human equivalents of porcelain, textiles, wallpaper, lacquered pieces the English nobility bought for a display of their wealth. People dressed in fancy garb, their heads wrapped in bright turban, selected on basis of looks and skin tones like Lord Mansfield Dido.3ee44280ffa0ee08001d3a105730a420.jpgDido here in this photo played crucial role in Lord Manfield’s understanding of black slaves in Britain. Dido a family member and his brother the Captain’s daughter lived with, cared for by Lord Mansfield. Her ability to influence him by researching the plight of black slaves helped paved the way and also shaped minds to abolish slavery in Britain. This helped women sewing bags with notes inside to boycott slavery products in the UK. Manchester mill workers refused to use slave cotton from America leading to closure of mills. So Abraham Lincoln wrote to thank them for helping to stop the triangular slave trade in Britain. The London resident falsely perceived rapid increase of black population. Elizabeth I declared black “Negroes, black Moors” be arrested and expelled from UK but it did not lead to legislation. The Africans continued to live in Britain despite such racist negative attitudes. British empire expanded and African, Caribbean slaves still shipped on seas work plantations in Caribbean or in America. One of black musicians of six trumpeters in the royal retinue of Henry VIII in a Westminster Tournament Roll manuscript dates from 1511 revealed. Royal livery is mounted on horseback a man identified as “John Blanke, the blacke trumpeter,” listed in payment accounts of Henry VIII and his father, Henry VII. A group of Africans at court of James IV, Scotland includes the drummer, “More Taubronar” and John Blanke paid wages for their services.Westminster Tournament Roll shows  John Blanke, wearing a brown turban latticed with yellow. Trade lines opened from London to West Africa the people from this area began coming to Britain on board merchant and slaving ships. The merchant John Lok brought several captives to London in 1555 from Guinea now West Africa. The voyage accounts in Hakluyt reports said they: “were tall, strong men, could well agree with our meates and drinkes. The colde moyst aire somewhat offend them.”During the later 16th century to first two decades of the 17th century, 25 people named in records of a small parish of St. Botolph’s in Aldgate identified as “blackamoors.”  In a period of war with Spain between 1588 and 1604, there was an increase in the number of people reaching England from Spanish colonial expeditions in parts of Africa. The English freed many of these captives from enslavement on Spanish ships. They arrived in England as a by-product of the slave trade; some of mixed-race African and Spanish, and were interpreters and sailors. American historian Ira Berlin classified as Atlantic Creoles or Charter Generation of slaves, multi-racial workers in North America.  After a slaver John Hawkins arrived in London with another 300 captives from West Africa, slave trade was entrenched by 17th century. And Hawkins although embarked on three expeditions lobbyist joined forces to kidnap more slaves for plantations in Caribbean and America.IMG-20191018-WA0014.jpggeneral_francis_sweet_potato_dinner.pngFrancois Auguste Biard - The Slave Trade detail.jpgBlackamoor servants were seen as the fashionable novelty popular in homes of wealthy and Queen Elizabeth I. Other servant “John Come-quick, blackemore” a servant to Capt Thomas Love. Others in parish registers includes Domingo “a black neigro servaunt unto Sir William Winter” buried xxviith daye of August [1587] and the “Frauncis a Blackamoor servant to Thomas Parker” was buried in January 1591. Some freed workers, employed as servants and entertainers to the wealthy. Some worked in ports or chattel labour. The black population of several hundred during the Elizabethan period settlement actively discouraged by Queen Elizabeth I’s privy council. In  archival records of 360 African people between 1500 to 1640 in England and Scotland. Racist reaction to black people and biracial parentage, as George Best argued in 1578 black skin was not from heat of the sun in Africa but was caused by biblical damnation. So Reginald Scot associated black skin with witchcraft, in his book Discoverie of Witchcraft. As an unprepossessing devil in 1584 “horns on his head, fire in mouth, tail, eyes bison’s, fangs like dog, claws like bear, skin like niger and voice roaring like lion. Racist views spread in Britain by playwrights and royalty. But black slaves were coach porters of King James VI of Scotland yet Black people seen as different, common without white ‘virtues’ unless English subject born on the island and a citizen. 

IMG-20191002-WA0008.jpgislamic-slave-tradeMoors enslaved British and Europeans for over 300 years before English joined European slavery of blacks. From 1500s to 1600s took around 35,000 European Christian slaves to the Barbary Coast in Tripoli, Tunis, Moroccan, Algiers. The Barbary corsairs took British ships 466 in 1609, 1616 and 27 by Plymouth, Baltimore in Ireland, in 1625. In 1682′ of 160 British ships taken by Algerians from 1677 to 1680. Sailors taken on ships 7,000 to 9,000, fishermen and coastal villagers into Africa, Spain, Italy. Thousands taken by slave raiders from the coasts of Valencia, Andalusia, Calabria, Sicily till none left to capture. White slaves in Barbary men and women Christians of impoverished families. 8,500 slaves needed annually to replenish about 850,000 captives over the century from 1580 to 1680. For 250 years from 1530 to 1780, 1,250,000 over a tenth of Africans taken in slavery. The Arabic black Moors influenced English words like coffee from kahveh, lemon is from laimum limon in France, Alcohol is from al kohl, algebra is from al jebr.Phillis_wheatley_frontpiece_1834.jpgBy 1596, Queen Elizabeth I privy council issued letters to lord mayors of major cities that “of late divers blackmoores brought into this realm, of the kind of people there are already here to manie.” Sir Thomas Sherley, Caspar Van Senden, merchant of Lübeck tries to capitalise on this by petitioning Elizabeth I’s Privy Council to transport slaves captured in Africa to Lisbon, to sell them there. The relevant Privy Council Letters of July 1596 and draft proclamation papers of Robert Cecil attempt to deport captives from England. Van Senden and Sherley did not succeed in correspondence with Sir Robert Cecil. In 1601 Elizabeth issues proclamation expressing how “highly is discontented to understand those great number of Negroes and blackamoors as informed carried into this realm” again licensing van Senden to deport them. So her proclamation of 1601 stated that the blackamoors “fostered, powered here to great annoyance of the queen’s own liege people, covet relief, those people consume.” “Most are infidels, having no understanding of Christ or His Gospel.”  In March 2019 two skeletons found on the Mary Rose have Southern European or North African ancestry; one found to be wearing leather wrist-guard bearing arms of Catherine of Aragon and royal arms of England is thought to possibly be Spanish or North African, the other, known as “Henry” have similar genetic makeup. Henry’s mitochondrial DNA showed his ancestry is from Southern Europe, the Near East, or North Africa. Dr Sam Robson from the University of Portsmouth “ruled out” Henry as black or sub-Saharan African origin. And Dr Onyeka Nubia cautioned the number on board Mary Rose had heritage beyond Britain was not representative of whole of England was not one-off.  Travelled through Spain or Portugal to arrive in Britain. Jacques Francis, seen as a slave by some historians, described himself in Latin as “famulus” a servant, slave or attendant. Francis was born on an island coast of Guinea, Arguin Island, off the coast of Mauretania. He worked as a diver for Pietro Paulo Corsi in his salvage operations on sunken St Mary  and St Edward of Southampton and the other ships as Mary Rose, which sunk in Portsmouth harbour. Corsi was accused of theft, Francis stood by him in English court. With help from an interpreter, he had support his master as innocent. The depositions in case displayed negative attitudes towards slaves or black people as witnesses. Studies of the blackamoors in early modern Britain shows minority continuing presence. Others did a back-breaking labour all their lives under the hot sun. Slavery was legal in Britain till 1772 though it continued another 400 years. Images of black people in family portraits of the rich and wealthy.220px-William_Ansah_Sessarakoo_2William Sesreko of Anomabo in Ghana, a kings son was rescued from slavery by a British queen from the Bahamas. His father entrusted him to the captain of a ship to be educated in Britain. But that captain betrayed his father so sold him to a slave master in the Bahamas. Then a Fanti trader found him in Bahamas and informed his father in Gold Coast. His father negotiated his release from slavery to regain his freedom after 40 years. He lived in England among high society and was well respected as royal among aristocrats of his time. Slavery of whites and blacks is devastating to both sides. Often the good deeds of genuine misionaries misquoted as slave masters. White slavery is not celebrated in Black History month or the Sidique slavery of Africans by Moors into India. Slavery is by greedy few who sell off humans and perpetrate wars that forcefully acquire slaves. All whites and all blacks are not racist slave traders. So Africans suffered damaged by slavery consequences and past colonialism impacts still felt today. People are God’s creation, maltreatment of people is an offence to God. Though slavery in Deuteronomy 28 is permitted by God its punishment for a stiffnecked rebellion. People need God’s mercy and forgiveness in Christ for slavery justice.Detail from a painting of Dr Johnson leaning on his stickDr Johnson forbade his black servant to buy food for his cat. And Black men and women found life in UK preferable to lives of punishing work others faced in the West Indies. Though comparatively well treated, they were not treated as fully human and equal to white people. Some were paraded as commodities on show, others displayed naked to portray size of their buttocks. Dehumanised and treated as property of masters. During this era there was a small rise of black people arriving in London. Britain was involved with the tri-continental slave trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas. Black slaves were attendants to sea captains and ex-colonial officials as well as traders, plantation owners and military personnel. This marked growing evidence of the black presence in the northern, eastern and southern areas of London. There were also small numbers of free slaves and the seaman from West Africa and South Asia. Many people were forced into beggary due to lack of jobs and racial discrimination. There is evidence that black men and women were discriminated against by dealing with law because of their skin colour. In 1737 George Scipio accused of stealing Anne Godfrey’s washing so case rested on if or not Scipio was only black man in Hackney at time.William Hogarth’s engraving Four Times of Day: Noon (1738) shows black London resident. Evidence of African presence in LondonEngland from Roman times to the present day experience racism. By 1750s London became home of many Black people, Jews, Irish, Germans and  Huguenots. In 1764 The Gentleman’s Magazine reported its ‘supposed to be near 20,000 Negroe servants.’ Evidence of number of black residents in London found through registered burial. People of London viewed blacks, less human.  These views expressed in the slave sale advertisement led black activists of era  Olaudah EquianoIgnatius Sancho and  Quobna Ottobah Cugoano campaign to stop racism. By support of other Britons these activists demanded Blacks freed from slavery. Supporters involved in this movements included workers and other nationalities of the urban poor.  At this time the slavery of whites was forbidden, but the legal statuses of these practices were not clearly defined. Free black slaves could not be enslaved, but blacks who brought as slaves to Britain considered property of their owners. It was in this era Lord Mansfield declared slaves who fled from his master could not be taken by force or sold abroad, in case of Somerset v Stewart. This verdict fuelled numbers of Blacks that escaped slavery, and helped send slavery into decline. In this same period many slave soldiers who fought on the side of the British in the American Revolutionary War arrived in London. These soldiers were deprived of pensions and many of them became poverty-stricken and were reduced to begging on streets. Blacks in London lived among the whites in areas of Mile EndStepneyPaddington and St Giles. Majority of people lived servants to wealthy whites. Holy Church records Woodchurch Cheshire of baptism on 16 May 1784, of “Robert Cleaveland a Black boy of about 15 years old.” And St. Anne Manchester of baptism on 17 February 1786 of “William Ballard a child about eight years old son of late William Tate late of the Isle de Las on the Winward coast of Africa.downloadfile-51.jpgMany labeled “Black Poor,” low wage soldiers, seafarers and plantation workers.During the late 18th century publications, memoirs written about “black poor.” Writings of Equiano, unofficial spokesman for Britain’s Black community. Memoir of his life titled The Interesting Narratives of Life of Olaudah Equiano. Equiano became a landowner in Cambridgeshire, married Susannah Cullen, from Soham. His daughters were born and baptised there. In 1787 4,000 blacks were transported from London resettled in colony of Sierra Leone with help from Committee for Relief of the Black Poor. In 18th century and freed Black American slaves who fought for the Crown in American Revolutionary War, Black Loyalists. In 1787, hundreds of London’s black poor include the East Indian seamen known lascars agreed to go to West African colony on condition they retain the status of British subjects, live in freedom under the protection of the British Crown, and be defended by the Royal Navy. Some white people with them said Committee for Relief of Black Poor. Lovers, wives and widows of the black men. 1200 Black Loyalists, former American slaves freed resettled in Nova Scotia join new colony. Black presence in northern, eastern, southern areas of London, had one most famous slave a sea captain Sambo, fell ill after arriving in England and consequently buried in Lancashire. His plaque and gravestone stand to this day. Small numbers of free slaves, seamen from West Africa, South Asia, beg as discriminated against.A 1651 painting of this Scottish noble woman Elizabeth Maitland, Duchess of Lauderdale with her black servant. In 1687, “Moor” was given freedom of the city of York. He is listed in the freemen’s rolls as “John Moore – blacke.” He is the only black man or woman found to date in York. And the British merchants in the transatlantic slave trade important factor in development of Western Black British community. The communities flourish in port cities in slave trade of Liverpool and Bristol. By 1795 Liverpool had 62.5 per cent European Slave Trade. Liverpool home to Britain’s oldest black community, dating at least to the 1730s. Some Liverpudlians trace black heritage in city back to ten generations. Early black settlers in the city, seamen, the mixed-race children of traders sent to be educated in England, servants, and freed slaves. In 1787, Thomas Clarkson, English abolitionist said in Manchester “I was surprised to find a great crowd of black people standing round the pulpit about forty or fifty of them. Evidence of black men and women discriminated against in dealings by the law because of skin colour. In 1737, George Scipio was accused of stealing Anne Godfrey’s washing, case rested on if Scipio only black man in Hackney at time. Ignatius Sancho, black writer, composer, decent shopkeeper, voter Westminster, wrote  despite being in Britain since age two he felt “a lodger.” Sancho said a, “national antipathy of prejudice” of native whites Britons to wooly headed brethren. And Sancho frustrated so many stereotyping their black neighbours. The financially independent householder the first black of African origin voted in parliamentary elections in Britain, a time 3% of British population were allowed to vote. 

A 1744 painting of Hon. John Spencer, his only son and their black servant. In 1764, The Gentleman’s Magazine said its  “supposed to be 20,000 Negro servants.” Morning Gazette said 30,000 in country as whole but numbers were “alarmist” exaggerations. Same year the party for black men or women in Fleet Street pub so unusual and written in newspapers. Their presence in the country started a heated outbreak of distaste for colonies of Hottentots. Modern historians say the parish lists, baptism, marriage registers and sales contracts 10,000 black people lived in Britain in 18th century. Others put the number at 15,000. In 1772, Lord Mansfield put number of black people in country at 15,000 but to most modern historians its 10,000. Black population 0.1% of overall London population 1787. Black female population less than 2% of overall Afro-Caribbean population. The 1780s end of American Revolutionary Wat hundreds of black loyalist America resettled in Britain. Some emigrated to Sierre Leonne helped by Committee for Relief of black poor suffers destitution.Composer, shopkeeper Ignatius Sancho  was first black person of African origins to vote in parliamentary elections was symbol of humanity of Africans on the immoral slave trade. Ignatius Sancho engraved by Francesco Bartolozzi first African prose writer in England. Sancho financial independence householder the first black British voter. Born on slave ship, Sancho orphan Sancho was taken to England. Was butler but intelligence noted by employer Duke of Montagu who sponsored his creative endeavors. Sancho wrote plays, poetry, music, shop in Westminster meeting place for black writers, artists and musicians. Sancho counted Samuel Johnson, Laurence Sterne and David Garrick friends. First part of my life unlucky, placed in family who judged ignorance the best and only security for obedience. Slavery was not legal in England. Cartwright decision of 1569 resolved England was “too pure an air for slave to breathe in. Black African slaves bought and sold in England in the eighteenth century. Slavery not legally contested until Somerset case of 1772, James Somersett black slave of Virginia. Lord Chief Justice W.M. Earl Mansfield  Somerset do not force to leave England against his will, “The determinations go further master cannot by force compel him to go out of the kingdom. article-0-1CF6B15E00000578-284_634x543.jpgSlavery common law despite previous ruling in 1706 declaration clarified by Lord Chief Justice Holt. Slavery not legal in Britain ignored argument slaves as property not be considered people. A slave owner Thomas Papillon took his black servant “to be in nature and quality of my goods and chattel. In 1731 the Lord Mayor of London ruled “no Negroes to be bound apprentices to Tradesman or Artificer of City ruling, forced to work as servants.  Black Londonet unpaid servants were slaves in disguise. In the 1750s, London home of Blacks, Germans, Irish, Jews,  HuguenotsGretchen Gerzina in Black London mid-18th century accounted for one three percent of London populace.  Evidence of number of Black residents in city found through registered burials. Some black people in London resisted slavery through escape, others resettled  free men in London, awarded pensions, poverty-stricken beg on streets, “had no prospect of their subsisting in country by depredation on public or common charity.” Observer said “black refugees from America and others by land or sea in his Majesty’s service distress. White loyalists had no goodwill to new arrival of America. Harris List of Covent Garden Ladies from 1757 to 1795 on prostitutes’ working in Georgian London, ”mulatto” woman in 1789 ”Eliza dark complexion, by thickness of her hair and eyebrows, is well-furred. Charged little more than worth of scarcity complexion in country imported from West Indies. During the 18th century, publications and memoirs on “black poor writings of Equiano. The former slave was unofficial spokesman for Britain’s Black community. Memoir about his life entitled The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano.Olaudah EquianoIn 1786, Olaudah Equiano became the first black person to be employed by the British government, made Commissary of Provisions and Stores for 350 black people suffering from poverty who had decided to accept government’s offer of assisted passage to Sierra Leone. In the 1787, Committee of Relief of Black Poor, sent 4,000 black Londoners into Sierra Leone in West Africa first British colony on continent. British subjects  recognize duty Royal of Navy defend black people from London. It was the view of British West intermarriage was abhorrent. The chair wrote to Standing Committee of West India Planters and Merchants and advice and assistance in procuring act of parliament “prevent Foreign Blacks brought to this country to remain. The  Indian Briton, Dadabhai Naoroji, stood for election to parliament for Liberal Party in 1886. He was defeated, leader of Conservative Party, Lord Salisbury to remarks “however great the progress of mankind and how far we advanced in overcoming prejudices, doubt if got to point of view British constituency elects Blackman. Led to discuss term, “black” to South Asians and Naoroji elected to in 1892 as a first Member of Parliament (MP) of Indian descent. In 2007, scientist found a rare paternal haplogroup A1 in a few living British men with Yorkshire surnames. This clade is exclusively found among males in West Africa but rare. The haplogroup brought to Britain enlisted as soldiers during Roman Britain or slave trade. Turi King, a co-author on study, noted the West African slave trade individuals arrived through slave route, as Ignatius Sancho or Olaudah Equiano high social rank. Some married in population.

Pablo Fanque, celebrated circus owner and performer in Victorian Britain. In 18th century British slave trade decline in response to changing public opinion. Great Britain and US abolish Atlantic slave trade in 1808. Cooperate liberating slaves from illegal trade ships off coast of West Africa freed slaves sent to Sierra Leone. Slavery abolished in the British Empire by 1834 stop profit of Caribbean plantations. Few blacks came to London from West Indies, West Africa, resident British black population trickled. Slaves or servants of West Indies and America.  Abolition virtually halt to Britain. Black population of Victorian Britain so small those living outside larger trading ports isolated from the black population. The black people and descendants in parish registers declined in early 19th century. Descendants of black servants Francis Barber, Jamaican-born servant lived in Britain in 18th century. Descendant live in England white. Abolition of slavery in 1833, black and Chinese seamen put down roots in communities in British ports abandoned by employers. Late 19th century, the race discrimination theories of scientific racism, felt whites superior race and blacks less intelligent than whites. Failed to support theories of such ‘scientific evidence.’ James Hunt resident of the London Anthropological Society, in 1863 in his paper “On Negro’s place in nature” wrote,”Negro is inferior intellectually to European…and only be humanised civilised by Europeans. The 1880s, small groups of black in dockside communities in towns such as Canning Town, Liverpool and Cardiff.

Sara Forbes Bonetta, this West African princess goddaughter to Queen Victoria. Orphaned in intertribal warfare, given a “gift” to Queen Victoria. Despite social prejudice discrimination in Victorian England in 19th-century black Britons achieve good success. Pablo Fanque as William Darby in Norwich, become the proprietor of Britain’s most successful Victorian circuses. Lyrics of the Beatles  song “Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!” Thirty years after 1871 death, chaplain of Showman’s Guild said: Brotherhood of equestrian world has no colour line. Pablo Fanque of African extraction, he speedily made his way to the top of his profession. Camaraderie of the ring has only one test ability. Joseph Hillier, took over and ran Andrew Ducrow‘s circus company as Ducrow died. Walter Tull, professional footballer mixed-heritage British Army officer and fellow officers.3b860e_5f3e0966ad23487c935d7c94896f0a10~mv2-1.jpg

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Members, British West Indies Regiment  on Somme, September 1916. These men pictured were Afro-Caribbean people fought for the British Army. World War London’s Black communities on arrival of merchant seamen and soldiers, small groups of students from Africa and the Caribbea into London. The communities among the oldest black communities of London. The largest Blacks in the United Kingdom’s port cities: of London’s East End, Liverpool, Bristol, Cardiff’s Tiger BaySouth Shields in Tyne & Wear and  Glasgow. In 1914, black population was at 10,000 from parts of British Empire. The number of black soldiers in British army prior to World War I low. A Black British soldiers in World War I Walter Tull, a English professional footballer, of Barbadian carpenter Daniel Tull and Kent-born Alice Elizabeth Palmer. Slave descendant Tull was a first British-born mixed-heritage infantry officer in Army 1914 manual of Military Law soldiers of not “pure European descent.” Colonial soldiers and sailors of Afro-Caribbean descent in war settled in cities. South Shields community “coloured” seamen lascars and South Asia and Arab world  victim of  UK’s first race riot 1919. Eight cities of non-white communities hit by race riot evacuated to homelands. Some white attacked “coloured” peoples in US, Caribbean, South Africa. The displaced after war struggle to integrate veterans to work force groups competing for jobs and housing. Australian British refused Racial Equality Proposal by Japanese at Paris Peace Conference 1919. In World War II black communities in London, Liverpool in Britain. Blacks, Caribbeans, West Africa, wartime workers merchant seamen, servicemen, army, navy and air forces. In February 1941 these 345 West Indians work in factories of Liverpool, made munitions. By 1943 were 3,312 the black American GIs at Maghull, Huyton Liverpool. By 1944 GIs 150,000 from America, 1948 blacks less than 20,000 to 1958. Learie Constantine a West Indian cricketer Minister Labour was refused service at London hotel sued for breach of contract awarded damages, changed racism towards acceptance and equality of all citizens in London.IMG-20191128-WA0004.jpgIMG-20191128-WA0003.jpgIMG-20191128-WA0002.jpg2415.jpg

The Empire Windrush in Black British history in 1948 of Jamaican invited to United Kingdom. In 1950 fewer than 20,000 non-white residents in Britain. After World War II, Black people from the British West Indies, settled in Britain less than decade. In 1951 population of Caribbean and African people in Britain 20,900. HMT Empire Windrush, the first Caribbean to UK in 1948 as West Indian  Black British in post-war UK. The British friction of white communities created a Black British identity. By 1950s, blacks embraced the Black American culture imported by Black servicemen of World War II, music Jacqueline Nassy-Brown calls “diasporic resources.” These close interactions between Americans and Black British inspired the Black British women to America married servicemen later return to the UK.

Ridley Road Market in Dalston, London, sells Afro-Caribbean music, textiles, and food, goat meat, yams, mangoes, spices.

In 1961, Africa Caribbean at 191,600 less 0.4% of UK population. Black people in 1975, David Pitt appointed to House of Lords spoke against racism for equality in regards to all residents of Britain. The Black members elected into the British Parliament. By 1981, blacks 1.2% of all residents. By 1980smblacks from Africa, in Nigeria, Ghana, Uganda, Kenya, East Africa, Zimbabwe, Southern Africa. The Commonwealth Nigerians, Ghanaians used to British life, achieve best results at GCSE and A-Level, on a par or above performance of white pupils. The rate of inter-racial marriage between British citizens from Africa and Britons is still fairly low, compared to the Caribbean. Africans as part of mainstream British culture second, third generation African communities established. 20th century black Londoners, Great Britain, United Kingdom not Northern Ireland. The first blacks elected to Parliament argue there still discrimination and socio-economic imbalance in London among blacks. In 1992, blacks in Parliament increased to six, in 1997 increased numbers to nine. Problems black Londoners face global high-tech information urban economy unemployment rates of blacks relative to non-blacks affect progress so far.  By 2001, Black British 2.0%.

William cuffay

This image is thought to be William Cuffay, featured in a political journal dated 1850. Cuffay, a formerly enslaved man from St.Kitts was powerful orator. He campaigned for universal suffrage and emerged a leader of the Chartists.

Part of first mass political movement in Britain, fighting for political rights for working classes, Cuffay was arrested and accused of “conspiring to levy war” against Queen Victoria. Transported to Tasmania, he received a pardon three years. Stayed agitating for democratic rights until his death in 1870. Though he forgotten, his legacy is an inspiration for those who believe in rights of the marginalised and the poor.

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During her lifetime, Seacole’s profile is like Florence Nightingale. Born to a free black woman, Seacole’s position status in Jamaican society did not protect her from the racism experienced by black people at that time. Seacole’s mother was a healer who gave her daughter a rich education in Caribbean and African medicine. When Crimean War began, Seacole applied to the British War Office to assist but was refused. Independently she set up British Hotel near Balaclava to care for the wounded. She became a much-loved like Florence Nightingale. Destitute, Queen Victoria’s nephew got funds so lived in London until death.

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Aldridge performed Shakespeare’s roles Lear, Othello, Macbeth. Aldridge among the highest paid actors in the world at a time when black roles Othello played by white men with blackened skin. Born in New York before abolition of slavery, he emigrated to the UK in order to pursue opportunities impossible for a black man in the US. He went on to establish himself as a formidable Shakespearean actor throughout Europe. His daughters became performers. In 1896, Luranah Aldridge, was cast to perform in a racist “Ring of the Nibelung,” at the Bayreuth Festival, a full six decades before Grace Bumbry officially broke colour barrier.

Edinburgh University

Edmonstone taught taxidermy students Edinburgh University in 19th Century.  Edmonstone a taxidermist skills helped to pioneer scientific research of Charles Darwin. Edmonstone born in slavery in Guyana, gained freedom so travelled to Scotland and met the naturalist Charles Waterton, who taught him the craft of taxidermy. Became tutor at Edinburgh University, where he taught the young Darwin. His student accounts of tropics inspired Darwin’s trip to the Galapagos. Taxidermy crucial to Darwin’s research, led to his development of the theory of evolution by natural selection.

Fanny Eaton

In later life, Eaton worked as a domestic cook on Isle of Wight. Eaton, model and muse featured, work of pre-Raphaelite artists. The child of a formerly enslaved woman, Eaton moved to London from Jamaica and worked as a portrait model at Royal Academy. She sat for several well-known artists: John Millais, Joanna Boyce, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Frederick Sandys. Rosetti praised Eaton’s beauty in a time narrow beauty standards and racial prejudice ensured black women no prominent place in Western art. An increasing interest in Eaton led to an appreciation of her place in art history.

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Evelyn Dove performed in 1930 as an

internationally known singer, actress and star of 1920’s cabaret scene. The daughter of a Sierra Leonean Barrister and his English wife, Dove studied at the Royal Academy of Music where she performed with some of the world’s top black entertainers. She was regarded as close to jazz star Josephine Baker. There were many challenges for black female performer in Evelyn’s day. Once hugely celebrated, her reputation as a singer faded and she died alone in obscurity. Recent interest in her extraordinary life to introduce her to a new generation.

Sue Lawley's castaway is cultural theorist Professor Stuart Hall

Hall during an appearance on BBC in 2000 is “godfather of multiculturalism.” Britain’s leading intellectuals, political campaigners. Hall arrived from Jamaica in 1951 after winning a scholarship to study at Oxford University. In 1960, he helped found the influential academic journal, New Left Review. He pioneered academic study of low highbrow culture the media, identity, sexuality and race a means to understand and interpret the society and politics. He co-founded the first cultural studies course in Britain at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at University of Birmingham. So African Caribbean black American hero war stories about Britain incorporating blacks must be taught on schools. Teach with photographs, songs, diary entries of African, Caribbean, American slaves. Black presence in history reinforces the facts in living history on Britain. Black history in schools, websites, publishers must update black history materials. To build up more complete history as part of priority to educate people. A cultural identity creates stronger more inclusive material to enrich the history of society. Inclusive history is the complete picture of the whole human race on earth. This is important and necessary to bring this awareness to people lacking knowledge in ancient black history in Britain. This will enhance people’s understanding to educate all on there is only one human race created by God since Eden Garden.

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15680449437944780065845189322578.pngOne_albino_parent_8.JPGOne_albino_parent_6.JPGBlacks are in Japan, China, Australia, all over the world since ancient days travel on foot during pangea earth or by sea. A trade route into Africa exists from silk roads. The global world God created has variety of people to show the GLORY OF GOD YAHWEH. But slavery since 1500s and early 1600s was 35,000 European Christian slaves in Barbary Coast in Tripoli, Tunis, Moroccan towns Algiers. Barbary corsairs took British ships 466 in 1609, 1616, 27 Plymouth, Baltimore in Ireland, in 1625. In 1682′ of 160 British ships by Algerians from 1677 to 1680. Sailors on taken ship 7,000 to 9,000 so its fishermen and coastal villagers to Africa, Spain, Italy. Thousands taken by slave raiders from coasts of Valencia, Andalusia, Calabria, Sicily till none left to capture. White slaves in Barbary men and women Christians of impoverished families. 8,500 slaves needed annually to replenish about 850,000 captives over the century from 1580 to 1680. For 250 years from 1530 to 1780, 1,250,000 over a tenth of Africans taken in slavery. God wants injustice repressed by Jesus in the end time changes taking place. Accept Jesus and walk in love do not let racist hatred send you to brimstone hell fire.

Courtesy & Image Credits:

BBC News/Black History On Wall Street

British Slave Castles in Ghana & Africa

BBC Glasgow University Black Slave History, 20 million Compensation plan

Glasgow Slave Master Street Names

Moors Built Europe: North Africa ruled 800 years in 11th and 17th centuries.

Slave Castles in Africa

Jesus Castle in Kenya

Onyeka, Moors, Black Tudors, African Presence in Britain,

Incomparable World by by SI Martin (Quartet, 1996)

Reconstructing The Black Past by Norma Myers (Frank Cass, 1996)

London Calling: How Black and Asian Writers Imagined A City by Sukhdev Sandhu (HarperCollins, 2003)

Imtiaz Habib’s Black Lives in English Archives 1500–1677 Imprints Invisible  (Ashgate, 2008),

Fanny Eaton: Black muse  time forgot

BBC Culture: Challenging racism is art history

Onyeka’s Blackamoores: Africans in Tudor England, Their Presence, Status and Origins.(Narrative Eye, 2013) Miranda Kaufmann’s Oxford DPhil thesis Africans in Britain, 1500–1640 Black Tudors: Untold Story Oneworld, (2017)

The letters of the late Ignatius Sancho, Volume I, Letter XXXV

Yeboah, Staying Power History of Blacks in Britain

BBC, Hidden stories of Black History.

 

SUGAR BLACKSLAVE HISTORY

15713054607238903501092629203849.jpgBlack History Month October celebrates abolition of slaves whose wealth enrich G7 Western Europe and America but deprived slaves of their dignity and long life so slaves became traumatized. 15713056029367773464045337576003.jpgTriangular trade from Europe on ships to Africa to Carribean to America back to Europe. G7 member nations enslaved Africans. Belgian King Leopold invited them jointly to divide and own Africa.15713055252467866924691785551731.jpg Almost a thousand years black slavery continued despite official abolition law. Slavery produced sugar, cocoa, coffee, cotton for “triangle merchants” of slave trade in Britain, Africa and West Indies. 15713054895557916154530721927074.jpgTriangle trips carried guns, goods from England to Africa for slaves from Africa to Caribbean. Sugar, coffee, cotton and rum to England for commercial slavery by supply and demand on plantations. 1571305574491870094090532857700.jpg15714076486934305525943298638509.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0021.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0011.jpgAtlantic crossing from Africa Middle Passage shows cruelties of plantations in the British Caribbean. Africans were herded on slave ships and branded with irons labels people property of owners.15713033917892027579692775521469.jpgPortuguese also built sugar plantations in 1550’s off the coast of their Brazilian settlement colony, located on the island Sao Vincente. Portuguese and Spanish colonial presence in Caribbean Iberian Peninsula wealth cultivated cash crops.15713030689847713844378615539055.jpgThe economic boom of these plantations began colonizing remaining American territories to capitalize on the lucrative cultivation and trade of native’s natural resources. Sugar is the most important crop in Caribbean but other crops such as coffee, indigo, wheat and rice grown. 15712992630563548705097506481294.jpgThe coastal sugae cane was best grown on the flat land near coastal waters as the soil was naturally yellow and fertile. The mountainous parts of islands were used for sugarcane cultivation industry. IMG-20191017-WA0010.jpgslavery-west-indies-granger.jpg15712987137944748591809211620677.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0004.jpg348s.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0020.jpgThe coastal placement of commercial ports gave imperial states a geographic advantage to ship the crop throughout the transatlantic world. Sugar Slavery  trading of the Africans highly profitable not paying slaves for enforced labour. downloadfile-1.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0014.jpgSlave-Ship-pic-4-Wikipedia.jpg15714064266664307134901227462768.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0015.jpg15713038953617219558390950064672.jpg15713037481496759185923572241666.jpg15713036678907107097446613800368.jpgSlaves lived in appalling conditions but masters indulged in excessive luxury by toils of slaves. Triangular trade profits  prospered the West but underdeveloped blacks made poor despite the hardwork. 15713035569197275545111601093952.jpgwp-1571322668408.jpgManufactured goods were traded to the West African coast for slaves, who were shipped to the sugar colonies by middle passage. Sugar, molasses, rum, shipped from these islands back into England.15713038363315671248783757607047.jpg15713038628448686754927140878564.jpg15713036996912748769302716101649.jpg15713036364091737502484623690543.jpgSugar was the main crop produced on  plantations throughout Caribbean in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Most of the islands were covered with sugar cane fields and mills for refining sugar. IMG-20191017-WA0003.jpgportraet_sklaverei_zucker_g.jpg15713001247174007076067301082629.jpg15713002203195667591899451618769.jpg15713001854538734211621372862312.jpg15713001504746913528570416798187.jpgwp-1571311816344.jpg15713002724015553289083152949101.jpgThe main source of labour was enslaved Africans. After the abolition of slavery, indentured labourers from IndiaChina, Java migrated to Caribbean to work on sugar plantations. Plantations produced 80 – 90% sugar used in Western Europe.15712995770488034116736118045599.jpg15712996195613941216406783616691.jpg15712997447027764109633942991300.jpg15712995281323834808765635583176.jpgSugar enabled slave labour for profits with tragic consequences in Caribbean. Imperial powers forced West Africans to cultivate sugar by slaves. Exploited labour, natural world created imperial conflicts in these Caribbean regions._108506961_gettyimages-1002312094.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0002.jpgIMG-20191031-WA0004.jpg15713029223757577184974282763473.jpg 157130286531419080874850560467.jpg15713027760246994249402391806889.jpg15713028101291278500655225486775.jpg15712977059634715966485674610399.jpgUse political and economic control they create to divide and rule people policy of animosity. Conflicts among English, Spanish, French and various indigenous people was used for territorial gain.15712964787331552835795446583723.jpg15712950696973492756233402938394.jpg15712972087976309023403494269657.jpg15712989701492300170279122619503.jpg 15712973826202918078063655814609.jpg15712954764466783854135368343091.jpgEuropean states exploited environment, resources so sugar production began to stagnate. Due loss of trees for timber in the sugar refinement process, European imperial powers competed and fought over Caribbean in middle 17th century.slave_dynasty_i1.jpg15712948461163990403389790355463.jpg15712948817835962190680372982605.jpg15712953753492679276778321664742.jpg15712961917284396878281626055702.jpg1571294941734562424695867162323.jpg15712950360621362782314632360478.jpgEuropean settlers’ entry into Caribbean world caused changes. The indigenous populations died due to influx of world diseases of colonists. Population losses from 8.4 – 112.5 millions of these native populations cleared way for plantation industry and less conflict for Europeans and all these indigenous peoples too15712965493371578408370674417736.jpg15712966476488592384520750409745.jpgColonial arrival of sugar cane culture impact societie’s economy in Caribbean. Increased ratio of slaves to freemen and increased the sizes of slave plantations. Sugar plantation use of slaves affected cash crop economies in cultivation. The large plantations with the slaves Africa  imported worked on plantations. 15712956357681865740619933022642.jpg15712955869055477780312402713803.jpgPrior to 1650 three-quarters of island’s population was of European descent. In 1680 plantation in Barbados increased to about 60 slaves. So sugar plantations expanded transatlantic trade prospers. In 1832, plantation in Jamaica had 150 slaves one in four lived with 250 slaves. 15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15712947049235987567928405600593.jpgAbout 100 years, Barbados was richest European colony in Caribbean region. Then sugar cane production expanded to larger colonies Saint-Domingue and Jamaica. Mass sugar industry sugarcane processed commodities: rummolasses, and falernumWest India Interest was formed in 1740s by British merchants to West Indian sugar planters. 15712969933543584698609408312672.jpg157129755509656600633346701060.jpg15712963455442945155011821550429.jpg15712962302017147386549329208022.jpgwp-1571322746426.jpgBritish and West Indies shared profits or costs. needs. This first sugar-trading company was powerful in Parliament. In 1740s Jamaica and Saint Domingue or Haiti world’s main sugar producers. IMG-20191017-WA0000.jpgIncreased production in St. Domingue used irrigation system French engineers built. Reservoirsdiverted dam levees  aqueducts and canals. Improved mills and varieties of cane and grasses helped increase profits. St. Domingue in 19th century Haiti and Cuba sugar plantation Caribbean did better than British island.1571297025702538564298899779586.jpgIn the 19th century, sugar dominated  MartiniqueGrenadaJamaicaSaint CroixBarbadosLeeward IslandsSaint DomingueCuba, and other island run by FrenchBritish, or Spanish owners. During late 19th and 20th centuries the sugar cane industry dominated Puerto Rico‘s economy by colonial rule of Spain and under United States. 1571294727684996436954631513550.jpgAfter slavery, sugar plantation labour was workers imported from colonial India, Southern China. In 20th century, large-scale sugar production using wage labour continued in many parts of the region. Sugar cane industry’s negative impact affected the environment as this industry grew in Caribbean countries. 15712951825801502632195092917389.jpgThese include the destruction of forests, water pollution, loss of fertility, erosion of soils. These problems on a different scale in Dominican Republic in the 16th century; Lesser Antilles in 17th century; Jamaica, Haiti in 18th century, Cuba and Puerto Rico in 19th century. The nations impacted by sugar on the environment.15712952542173744336540029352835.jpgThe deterioration natural environment, had socio-economic consequences. And took its toll on Africans an integral part to cultivation, production of sugarcane. Slaves toiled in fields, boiling houses to supply huge amounts of labour sugar required. Four million slaves survived  Caribbean sugar plantations. wp-1571330195777.jpgConditions were harsh, mortality rates high through all stages of slaves’ lives. Some sugar colonie’s slave population ten times less than the European slave uprisings ever-present fear of planters. Slave trading highly profitable triangle of trade of Atlantic manufactured goods traded to West African coast for slaves shipped to sugar colonies of the middle passage and sugar, molasses, and rum were shipped from islands to England.wp-1571330138914.jpgSlavery in England  deemed illegal since 1772. The slavery in sugar colonies was vigorously pursued in Parliament and publication throughout last quarter of eighteenth century to time of abolition of trade in 1807, emancipation in 1833.15712977450102090396760846491987.jpg wp-1571330017603.jpgwp-1571330075100.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0001.jpg15712970952265673717702786919787.jpg15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15713021011131294159836164367675.jpg15712969306591487070998245117838.jpgdownloadfile-2.jpg12355_2014_311_Fig1_HTML.jpgAbolitionists arguments against slavery was support in England and in America. Abolitionist movement boycotted slave-grown sugar by protests is celebrated as key component of abolition’s success.15712979796166770357711539697198.jpggettyimages-919491468-612x612.jpg15712985345335906738950765594570.jpg1571300771153191415282151247452.jpg15713004757394126936251265247884.jpg15713005171167919886088148258374.jpg15713007268423280865825419848256.jpgBoycott from writings to educate sugar is derived from blood, sweat and tears of slaves pollutes the body. The planters by prospect of abolition emancipation, attack on their financial interests, place in empire argued in favour of slavery.15713009777485298377118240667583.jpg20191024_104134.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0006.jpg15712980902104280568193144664796.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0005.jpg15713003436563749568168188652437.jpg15713014110543316473429243866261.jpg15713013089491042850157734430430.jpg15713011469935621723745379844781.jpgWilliam Beckford, large-scale Jamaican planter wrote about the island unable to inherited plantation debt. Plantations profit dwindled by later plantation era so planters were compensated for their loss of earnings. Slaves never received compensations, restitution or apology. 15712989421675147982996667160052.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0009.jpg15713018236223543718958756404016.jpg15713016238362599330973898756795.jpg20191018_194544.jpg15712991574789124671528049609976.jpg15713015641859068275661653780133.jpg1571301463714798903122388001392.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0008.jpg15713014963618985587415087318746.jpg1571301334033345284614607997855.jpgInstead suffer racism from the people who sent ships thousand of miles to drag them from their homeland into strange lands. Many slaves after the wars were sent from America to Liberia and Sierra Leone in western Africa.20191017_095342.jpgIt was a problem their roots could not be traced having been renamed by force despite protests of Kunta Kinte. Natives discriminated against them because they were not indigenous citizens. And residue from slavery and colonialism is institutional racism still directed black people today.20191017_095707.jpgInvincible chain of slavery, colonialism racism hatred propaganda promote the harassment of black people. Western countries built by slave labour, natural resources usurped controlled by West. African economies are still owned by Western nations exploiting resources. Yet conqueror parasites play the victim despite depending on African slavery and ccolonialism. Kings like Prempeh exiled to Sierra Leone and Seychelles for resisting slavery and colonialism. IMG-20191018-WA0005.jpgNelson Mandela was incarcerated many years others like Lumumba killed for fighting back. Kwame Nkrumah was toppled by coup detat directed by West replaced by stooges to control Africans. Africans enslaved and those colonised are both victims of the West exploiting them. African resources: diamond, gold, in Ghana, Guinea,  Mali, Songhai empire Mansa Musa Aldrisi supersized gold tied to horse taken by whites. Gold abundant it was dished out freely to loyal citizens. Gold taken over as diamonds. Africans did not gain from slavery to enrich the kings as people claim. But stripped of natural resources owned by Western countries. Africa never had economic independence is still controlled by the Western nations today. West markets all finished goods processed from natural resources from Africa back to Africans. Forced dependency on West sabotages Africa’s self-sufficiency stops revenues of multibillions of dollars for the West. Average person consumes 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar a year or 33.1 kilograms (73 lb) in Western developed countries, over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the 20th century,  a diet high in refined sugar damages human health. Excessive consumption causes obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, and tooth decay. The World Health Organization recommend adults and children reduce their intake of sugar to less than 10% encouraged to reduce to below 5%, total energy intake.

GOLD/GEM’S BLACK HISTORY

15703599427795849490005497582097.jpgDiamonds and golds are a variety of the precious fine elegant jewellery items of everyday or special occasion celebrated. Western Europeans value diamonds as investment of great significant interest to them. Gold and diamond gemstones exhanged plus slaves sold for cowries or empty bottle glass beads during slave trade in Africa. Europeans travelled to the Maldives to harvest cowries filled with ships to West African Coast as currency for trade. The glass bottles are shipped to West Africa, grinded for making beads in exchange for the diamonds, gold and the slaves.15703593971038371000270296116611.jpg IMG-20191006-WA0004.jpg15703596092627729972377068231247.jpg15703594510032028393125005315779.jpgIMG-20191006-WA0003.jpgA bizarre exchange took place whereby two waste products as cowrie shells and empty glass bottles recycled to Africa in exchange for gold,  diamond and slaves. A deeper reflection of precious priceless treasures of gold, diamond and slaves in unfair exchange of cowry, glass bottles.15703601079021629804224632030148.jpgIMG-20191006-WA0005.jpg15703600189287282435431865502778.jpg15703598531044087406023553158766.jpg15703596674004412191520517798868.jpgThe slave traders shipped thousands of barrels of glass, crystal and coral beads to Venice in Italy into West and Central Africa. Broken glass bottles melted used to make beads for exchange of African captives. English East India Company imported millions of the cowry shells to Europe sold in Africa by slave traders. 15703595479508843222281945377230.jpg15703594724334800070438091881338.jpg15685440748807277633702931880292.jpgSlave traders exchanged gold shells of certain species historically used their currency in several parts of the world. Used in the past is presently extensively used in jewelry and other decorative or ceremonial purposes. Cowry shell is most used worldwide as a shell money.  Liverpool controlled 80% British slave trade and over 40% of glass bottle beads from Italy, cowries from Indian Ocean.15703654416986799591359005112019.jpgShell money medium of exchange is like coin money or other commodity money  used in many parts of the world. Shell money consisted of whole or partial sea shells worked into beads by shapes. Use of shells traded by commodity exchange valued body ornaments. The distinction between beads, commodities as money debated by economic anthropologists.Africa+Before+Europeans.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0025.jpgashantikingdom-768x299.jpgIMG-20190808-WA0006.jpgimage.jpgSome kings recruited women of Agoji to fight as an army of 4,000 women who battled against Europeans. West African Yaa Asantewaa in Ashanti, Gold Coast now Ghana and Kingdom of Dahomey between 17th and 19th centuries fought. These brave women who fought against slavery and colonialism. Lupita Nyongo went to Benin to explore army’s legacy.poster,840x830,f8f8f8-pad,750x1000,f8f8f8.u2.jpgasantwea-1-680x365_c.jpgwp-1571498295453.jpg15713056029367773464045337576003.jpgMore than 1 billion tonnes of ivory has been taken by Western countries over a thousand years from Africa. But after independence they ban Africans from benefitting from ivory trade destroy by burning or crushing high-profile events in 21 countries around the world. Kenya and others forced to burn ivory in each country destroy 105 tonnes (231,000 lb) of ivory by fire so not funding projects.021639A3-6D15-48F6-83C1-18C0B93154C9_w640_s.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0022.jpg15714104985158493773424962768652.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0012.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0009.jpg15714099074491660731594248591932.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0013.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0024.jpgIMG-20190918-WA0010.jpgPrecious gold was exploited by Western G7 countries which continue to own the mines all over the world. They brought bottles and cowries exchanged for gold and slaves exported to work in mines Brazil, South Africa among others. This underdeveloped African without them investing in people to own resources.15703583848418688805040572864609.jpgShell money in exchange for glass beads in AmericaAsiaAfrica and Australia. The most familiar the wampum created by the indigenous peoples of East Coast,  North America. Ground beads cut from purple marine bivalve shells. The shell used worldwide as currency is the shell of Cypraea moneta money cowry. 15703584223038067271825762797665.jpg15703585606134465096612475839878.jpg15703585357865249895412656567623.jpg15703585026025926365042799769893.jpg15703584687476343591616701578432.jpgBeads exchanged for gold and slaves or diamonds and cowries. Cowry species abundant in Indian Ocean was collected from the Maldive Islands, in Sri Lanka, along the Malabar coast in Borneo and other East Indian islands and African  coasts from Ras Hafun or Mozambique.  Cowry shell money traded by networks of Africa, South Asia, and East Asia.IMG-20191006-WA0000.jpg15703573743066753630029787445541.jpg15703574141542657800047709871768.jpg20191006_112007.jpg20191006_112058.jpg15703577026686191533060876311596.jpg15703574929207567621432847011562.jpg15703575513795785535363368352890.jpgThe first European nation in Transatlantic Slave Trade was Portugal in mid to late 1400’s. Captain John Hawkins made first English slaving voyage to Africa 1562 reign of Elizabeth 1. Hawkins made three journeys in six years. He captured over 1200 Africans sold as goods in Spanish colonies in Americas. British traders supplied slaves for Spanish, Portuguese colonists in America. British settlements in Caribbean North America grew in wars with European countries as Holland, Spain, France, British slave traders supplied British colonies. The British ships took part in the Slave Trade in the 245 years between Hawkins voyage or abolition of Slave Trade in 1807. British merchants despatched over 10,000 trips to Africa for slaves. Merchants in other parts of British Empire sent out a further 1,150 voyages. Portuguese, British, France, Spanish, Dutch Netherlands, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Norway all sold slaves as the Arabs sold slaves for centuries. The  Arabs used cowry as Cypraea moneta. IMG-20191006-WA0006.jpg15703656922301612021566349132130.jpg15703666082696824174557729869127.jpgd984d85d60ae0ec484903eecd261119b.jpgA print from 1845 shows cowry shells used as money by Arab traders. And in  Western Africa shell money legal tender until mid 19th century. Before abolition of slave trade, large shipments of cowry shells sent to English port’s reshipment to the slave coast. The shells of Olivella nana a sparkling dwarf olive sea snail harvested from Luanda Island used as currency in Kingdom of Kongo. Al-Idrisi in mid-twelfth century described a King of Ghana tethering his horse to the huge gold in his palace taken by whites like a similar but lesser size gold in Australia. Abundant gold in South Africa cause the apartheid the bad treatment of blacks in their own motherland. Gold Coast now Ghana became finished because of gold. Black history deals with injustice issues of African suffering despite gold riches.15705320153876161750733975044943.jpg1570530133933986560778091953603.jpg15705302340738369641996290500847.jpgMansa Musa I from 1280 – c. 1337 was the tenth Mansa, translated as “sultan” “conqueror” or “emperor” of a wealthy West African Ghana, Guinea, Songhai Mali Empires. Mansa Musa, the Malian emperor was richest person in history with so much gold he is noted in ancient maps. He caused inflation in Egypt by giving away too much gold with 60,000 people entourage each carried gold bars he gave as gifts on his journey to Mecca.

20191006_105616.jpgThey were traded north in the Kingdom of Benin. In Kongo called nzimbuzimbo  or eli in Ghana. The value of the cowry was much greater in West Africa than in the regions from which supply obtained so trade extremely lucrative. Some cases of gains said to be 500%. Use of cowry currency spread inland Africa. About 1850 German explorer Heinrich Barth said widespread in Kano, Kuka,  Gando and Timbuktu. Barth said in Muniyoma one of ancient divisions of Bornu, king’s revenue estimated at 30,000,000 shells, with adult males paying annually 1,000 shells for himself 1,000 for each pack-ox, 2,000 for each slave in his possession.IMG-20191006-WA0001.jpgCountries on the coast fastened together shells in strings of forty or one-hundred each twenty strings represents a dollar. In interior laboriously counted one by one or, if the traders were expert, five by five. The districts mentioned above received supply of kurdi, as called, from the west coast. The regions to north of Unyamwezi, where they were in use under the name of simbi, dependent on Muslim traders from Zanzibar. The shells were used in remotest parts of Africa until early 20th century now use modern currencies. So other shells of large land snail Achatina monetaria cut i circles with open center used as coin in Benguella, Portuguese West Africa.IMG-20191006-WA0002.jpgCowry shell medium of exchange early to mid-nineteenth century slave trade neighbouring local regions wore beads or sold abroad. Strange monetary value of cowry, empty glass bottles exchanged for slaves, gold and diamond in empires of Medieval West Africa, Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. David C Conrad, 2010 in book Juvenile Nonfiction said, Al-Idrisi, wrote in 1154, describing a natural gold nugget in the king’s palace is so big the reins of the king’s horse were tied to it. The African countries no longer use the  reycled bottles from Western world it’s  a problem their tons of waste no longer shipped to Africa. Africa still extension of Europe uses tons of local bottle waste to make glass beads so continues today. 15703589345984661777063266130447.jpgThe debate continues why the European slave traders duped the Africans with a cowry and empty glass bottles for gold, diamonds, gems. And above all humans created by God worth of priceless value commoditized and dehumanised. Black history month focuses attention on this past treatment of black slaves and then abolishing slavery. Modern slavery and past issues of retribution, reparations, compensation for slave descendants is pending for justice. Bible says, Eye has not seen, ear heard or entered heart of man things God prepared for those who love Him in 1 Corinthians 2:9. God says HE will deal with injustice. Seek God in Christ Jesus to help supply your needs.

EYE TO EYE CONTACT LOOKS

15698540731157495813780866790507.jpgProverbs 4:25, says let your eyes look up ahead to be fixed in front of you. This is important for total focus to connect and engage attention of listeners. Part of body language requires reading eyes, looks and gestures, moods, posture, tone of voice, colour worn to confirm what is heard or observed. Silent language uses these to indicate if a person is telling the truth or if their actions are congruent to what they are saying. Professionals are trained to apply eye displays to ensure what is see agrees with what is heard.15698541017993568179084049943003.jpg Eye contact is further used in profiling to select those deemed as their potential people that match as assumed role. Face recognition profiling airport by experts trained to assess people using standard measures. Over five billion people are raised in their culture to look down as a sign respect of respect to elders or boss. To bow head moved up and down to say yes or head moved sideways three times to say no. Such communities do not look directly in the eyes of adults and leaders if they do, told they are disrespectfultuning. 15698541660107598815471588664349.jpgThis contradicts Western expectation of eye to eye contact as proof of telling the truth. The irony is the person observed or assessed by Western standards have NO CLUE they are judged. Professionals trained choose potential people without IDEAS of culture of a randomly selected person by these artificial intelligence technology. Bias of institutional racism undertones means the measurement of people unaware of what is taking place. Individual differences and their style of communication is significant. 15698559844632957957749377765166.jpgA person stopped or pulled over for not having the eye contact expected is made uncomfortable, unsettled so agitated by their waste of time on mission. Catch 22 situation is a misinterpretation mistake assuming no eye contact means guilt. A professional spurred on probes further unaware of anger caused by lack of knowledge. Misunderstand cultural differences of innocent person asking for reason for the interruption NOT told lack of EYE TO EYE CONTACT is reason.15698555935354557282682839323441.jpg People NOT TOLD value of eye contact GLOBALLY in developing countries is an issue. Crucial eye to eye contact matter causes confusion and mistrust as those involved unaware of what is going on during their interaction. The person in authority uses the privileged position of power to gain upper hand to gain what they want as it happens. This injustice is felt by innocent facing consequences of chaotic situation set up for intervention purposes. It seem a good idea to observe from safe distance potential threat but concept needs fine tuning. 15698549368068715366091177153195.jpg Blindspots of professional and potential person is neither understands what is going on. And Schools must teach eye contact in PSMA classes not to mislead the people out and about minding their own business. Luke 11:34 Eye is lamp of of body for vision to focus full attention, speaker listens actively to deeply reflect on conversations. The education system and training academies must emphasize need first to educate the experts not to stress out by simple solution. Their time is wasted by overwhelming exhausting treatment given by target. Eye contact is missold as the proof of innocence used to misjudge those perceived as ‘guilty.’ 1569855211223402264736410128350.jpgBible says eye is like the lamp providing light for your body but considered rude by elders to look in the eyes. The double standard is don’t look in the eyes in the developing communities but look in eye in western world. Most people raised in the West do not realise the implications of policy of eye contact use for honesty or lack of it as guilt. Decisions are made on people’s lives by these mechanisms without the full awareness of distorted perception of the professional unaware of facts. People speak with head bowed automatically as habit of life and doing so wherever they are. 15698551529211664758458734048476.jpgWhen told keep eye contact regress into looking down naturally as used to. This is misinterpreted as lying, probed over and over again. Eye contact presumed guilt is part of maltreatment by some of the professionals because the standard scientific test equipment picked them. A strong confidence in gadget technology trusted than awareness of their selected person’s cultural upbringing. Not taken into consideration value of eye contact in developing world as a sign of respect and honour to elders, leaders, bosses or kings in Western countries as ‘lying.’15698553084514133208070762997710.jpgCultural shock and undervalued person targeted does not understand why they are selected. It may be true in Western culture a liar is incapable of keeping an eye contact because hiding something.  It is not the case in other cultures where eyes must look down always as respect. It is often said the eye is the entrance or window to the soul so it is presumed an eye contact us leading interrogator to the deepest truth. Nobody sees the soul so is misnomer only eyes communicate various emotions. A wide-opened eye is interpreted excitement or passionate. 1569856080901921482802635910558.jpgEyes as mirror to soul expresses hidden things believed so use their face reading to know people better through eyes. You can know anyone in glance by a look in their eyes. Right from day nursery body language facial expression is taught. A toddler is given facial chart of laughter, sadness, tears emojis so conditioned to know from childhood these emojis. The child in a developing world is NOT told existence of facial or eye expressions. It is unheard of in some places yet used to determine honesty globally. Eugenism is back using calculation measurements to determine the pure race face and truth by analysing data. 15698563677346650689849970460877.jpg15698567215082823320508322049933.jpg15698567687105836674172911464260.jpgImages produced by an AI data is never identical to an original photo input into the computer. This generates the debate about ethics of uses of facial recognition technology. The EYES ACT AS A MIRROR OF SOUL used to read person’s thoughts ascertained by looking into their eyes. Untrained eyes express natural emotion unsculptured without realising they are being read or coded by their behaviour. Perception of relying on observed data as more reliable than whatever person says means focus is on eyes, their facial expression taken more seriously. 15698564685217602585483894221635.jpg15698564966297660481461924447768.jpg15698560466605823939569402393629.jpg15698555556185845647951945252567.jpg15698554442225817182311506030717.jpgIMG-20190930-WA0004.jpg15698550016522466732695670191677.jpg15698542536351786798650739287017.jpg15698566623168652403132226833191.jpg15698565672722547522470440025800.jpg
Bias shows angry black men no matter what is said the personal situation is not believed if its not synchronised by data. Technology is not 100% perfect so it can misread information to lead to targeted person unaware of what is going on. So  eyes are considered windows to the soul because the pupils tell a lot about what is going on in the mind of a person used by psychologists to determine diagnoses of truth. Matthew 6:22-24 says the eye is the lamp of the body so draws light into body through eyes. Light shines into the spirit through eyes from God so the eyes reflect thoughts. A person’s thought can be ascertained by looking into his or her eyes. The eyes is entrance to the human soul from other entities. That is why its said be careful little eyes what you see. Babies keep their eyes focussed on the person who notices and plays with them or looks after them. The debate goes on among experts of ethics of eye contact as the sole measure of truth telling.