SLAVE DANCE MUSIC ITEMS

Slave+drum+from+1645,+found+on+a+VA+plantation.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0001.jpgat783176122225883477906321000011840561155310077420182n1.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0003.jpgslavedance.jpgwp-1572269263498.jpgwp-1572269200706.jpgUncle-Toms-Cabin-2.jpgcard07.jpgA0057_image0001.jpgthe-bamboula-granger.jpgwp-1571952504645.jpgtap_12.gifdancing-the-slaves-1024x617.jpg6drmr.jpg7D955E00-D477-4299-89D9-73C96B138393.jpgdownloadfile-39.jpg2008268WH0417-1024x683.jpgbenin.jpg3d9dfa5e820988bc198023a09700f9f5bffaae75_00.jpgdownloadfile-48.jpgAtem-Bangwa-carver-sculptor-artist-Cameroon.jpgTamTam.jpg20191028_145811.jpgLunda 1972 - portage d'un tambour.jpgslide_4-1.jpgRaineri_Musical-instruments-belonging-to-negro-slaves.jpgslide_6.jpgdownloadfile-37.jpgdownloadfile-40.jpg611f8a5f-c350-4068-9063-99c447c064f1.jpgAfrica-Unplugged.jpegweb1_CubanBarbershop.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0004.jpghqdefault.jpg46517066_196782661230954_2434980490982195200_o.jpg19367118_1919652318316036_5681263008345489408_n.jpgTraditional music of African continent is passed down orally and is not written. Sub-Saharan African music tradition is based on many percussion instruments  including xylophones, drums, and tone-producing instruments such as mbira or “thumb piano.” The music and dance of African diaspora is from these various regions of diaspora origins. The degree of influence of African musical tradition includes American music or Caribbean genres like soca, calypso and zouk. And Latin American music genres: rumba, conga, bomba, cumbia or samba music of the music of enslaved Africans. These in turn influence African global music.ee69f5393c8ce402bdf85148553c983b.jpgReplica of a Akan West African chief’s drum used for dance music events. The artist is high ranking West African well slave community. Drum denotes a wood carving specialist but drums prohibited because white colonists feared its used to communicate for revolt. So Virginia preserved African Cultures from 1700 – 1800, drums made of animal material and Wood. Drums are oldest African-American objects collected early 1700s in Colony of Virginia in America. Drum was made in the Akan region in Ghana West Africa is played during ceremonies or social occasions. The music is fusion of sounds from Ghana, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Gambia, Uganda, Morocco, Belgium, Scotland, England, Denmark, and France. instruments include Kora, Ngoni, Gimbre, Krakab, Axatse, sticks, Gakogui, Seprewa, Sogo, Apentema, Kpanlogo, Atumpani, Fontonfrom, Dondo, Endingidi, Goje, Bolong, Atenteben Flute, the orchestral Flute and Egoe Calabash Gourd.

The drum travelled across Atlantic on a slave ship used to exercise slaves to keep healthy. Music legacy of drumming on plantations by over 12 million Africans transported to America between 1501-1800s. Provided labour for mines, plantations of sugar, rice, tobacco and cotton. Drumming, African musical tradition in colonies of different music, shouts, hollars, work songs, fife, drum and spirituals. Ghana drum opens news broadcast with ‘Ghana muntie’ ie Ghana listen.   

Music of 12 million Africans into Brazil, Caribbean, America by Europeans from West Africa. Europe used war captive as slaves to farm plantations and domestic slaves. Chained below deck, did not see outside travelling on deck to breathe air or dance. Shackled, densely packed like sardines got sick some died, killed from their societies at sea. Sloane’s collected the material culture of Drum objects in African-American slave trade era. These middle passage forced Africans to dance to exercise for slave labour. Akan drum reached Virginia as musical instrument coerced circulate as cultural resources is used in African international music.

Sloane recorded slave music in Jamaica of African drum, guitar. African-Americans play guitar or drums identity of community. Planters didn’t tolerate performances of slave societies. Sloane notes instrument bans didn’t make drums ddisappear. Sloane collected slave artefacts in C18th tools, clothing, whips, nooses, weapons or anatomical remains. Objects, were gifts from correspondents or collectors, judged Sloane on Caribbean’s natural history slavery. The Akan drum donor Reverend Clerk to Sloane identified it “as Indian drum,” but its African. True identity of African objects survived and circulated by slave traders, recreated by slaves for music to dance to. downloadfile-33.jpgAccording to RootsKunta Kinte was born circa 1750 in Mandinka village of Juffure, in Gambia. He was raised in a Muslim family. In 1767, Kunta while he searched for wood to make a drum for his younger brother, four men chased him and took him captive. Haley traced record of ship The Lord Ligonier to Maryland where Kunta arrived in chain in America. Kunta Kinte kept name of his village and native name of Gambia River origin from Portuguese cambio for exchange or trade. Kunta Kinte’s life in village is similar to Masaka Africana.

Cambio is Kamby Bolongo native trade route like Naplis is Minneapolis. By 1600s large agricultural or commercial estates in Brazil needed more slaves. Portuguese slave traders of Gambia kidnapped Kunte. He traced his roots back to the Gambia. Kunte Family was: Omoro (father) and Binta (mother); Belle (wife); Kizzy (daughter); Chicken George (grandson). Kunte was born in c. 1750 in Juffure, The Gambia and died: c. 1822 (aged c.71–77); in the Spotsylvania County, Virginia. Despite attempt by the slave master to erode his name, Kunta Kinte held onto his memories passed on to his descendants written about in his life history book, Roots made into films. 

Courtesy & Credit Images

Professor Kwesi Ampene, CU West African High Life & World Music International Team

Adam Holden, Obroni Dance Music

Anthony Appiah, Princeton University,

Alex Haley, Roots, Kunta Kinte, Virginia

James Delbourgo, Associate Professor of History, Rutgers University, USA

Patton, S.F. (1998) African-American art. Oxford, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.Hans Sloane’s collection?

RUBBER BLACK SLAVE TRADE

e39da07af9712527db4552aa56d78160--king-leopold-african-history.jpgPeople of Congo oppressed by Leopold II in nineteenth century terrorised blacks in rubber plantations of Congo. A brutal violence was used to cut off the hands of slow workers. Leopold ruled Congo with brutality of Congo land to establish white supremacy over populated black people. Leopold unleashed brutal, cruel exploitation like death camps of Hitler to abuse people. Leopold’s “civilizing” of people was enforced “hard work” on the rubber plantations. How does cutting of their hands ensure hard work? Natives served by hard work but to strengthen their character, their hands are cut off? Leopold’s monstrous colonial enterprise said Adam Hochschild in his book King Leopold’s Ghost notes: “Leopold claims his state provided wise government and public services in Congo. There were no schools or hospitals except a few sheds “not fit to be occupied by horse.” Used a dreaded chicotte whip routinely whips black Africans and cuts off their hands.  And black victims lies on the floor on his stomach with feet and hands bound, whipped on the bare bottom of victims the severe blows left permanent scars on the flesh. Twenty -five strokes meant unconsciousness for victim, hundred or more strokes caused people’s death.congo-belge.jpgdc591453d4ce48fdf191eabbaf543fa7.jpg20191025_140027.jpgd93b45fd-8820-4ce8-9aa3-8e7b3cb47b93.jpg
Missionary E J Glave wrote in his diary, ‘we persuade ourselves African’s skin is very tough but at first blow victim yells horribly quietens down into groaning. After 25 or 30 blows a victim loses his senses. Punishment far worse inflicted on women and children. Small boys of 10 or 12 working for the hot tempered masters most harshly treated. Stanislas Lefranc, a Belgian prosecutor in Congo, sickened at brutal whipping of thirty people whose crime was to laugh in presence of a white man. The terrible carnage of people of Congo increased by rubber boom. In 1887 more demand for rubber grew as used for inflatable cycle tubes for bicycles. Motorcars became so popular tyres for motorcars use rubber. In 1891, Leopold issued decree creating monopoly of trade in rubber, ivory to himself. Joint ventures between Belgian, British, Dutch firms says Stuart Nolan in Belgium’s Imperialist rape of Africa, ‘the astronomical profits built Leopold’s rich empire. Earned the 700 percent profits of his Anglo-Belgian India Rubber and Exploration Company (ABIR).’ A private army Force Publique used to brutally extract from the native labour rubber without any payment of money. Adam Hochschild said terror tactics use by an officer Fievez against those who did not collect rubber to meet the quota: “I made war against them. One example enough was hundred heads cut off and then plenty of supplies ever since. My goal is ultimately humanitarian. I killed hundred people… allowed five hundred others to live.” Another Belgian Captain Rom used heads of 21 natives murdered on his flowerbed to punish them. Those who failed to supply required rubber quota to Belgian masters had villages burnt down, children murdered, hands cut off as punishment. Some historians said Belgian way of promoting progress in Congo was evil and dehumanising.wp-1571940892317.jpg.jpgdownloadfile-32.jpgrubber-tapping.jpg6891de805df7499ec9217b38ed8d140d.jpgdownloadfile-31.jpgNatural-Rubber-Factory-Manufacturer.jpgIMG-20191024-WA0002.jpg

And death toll of slavery by Leopold in Congo is more than 10 million people as Congolese historian Professor Ndaywele Nziem states death toll is a staggering 13 million. Belgian King Leopold’s brutal exploitation in Congo was enormous he spent $6 million to upgrade his Royal Palace at Laeken. Used millions to build the monuments of Chateau d’Ardennes, Brussels’ Arcades du Cinquantenaire, Ostend’s seaside arcade and golf course. He funded universities, museums, more millions in secret purchases of more of hid properties through his doctor and his architects. Leopold used Congo to launder money for investment, billions of dollars in Asia, Latin America or Near East. His Congo-based companies built constructions in China, fishing rights off Morocco, mines in Greece, Philippines and rubber concessions in Bolivia. This Scramble for Africa, Congo by Leopold II led to more developments. The public outcry human rights movement against Belgian King Leopold forced parliament to assume control of Congo in 1906. The change didn’t improve life of Congolese, they suffered forced labour and heavy taxation. Congolese were used as cheap labour in Belgian mines or agricultural firms. Exploitation was so huge by 1950 profits Congo produced twice domestic average income in Belgium itself.

In 1960 Congo was independent from Belgium as Patrice Lumumba became first prime minister of Congo. ‘On the first day of independence, the Belgian King, Baudouin,’ writes Osei Boateng ‘made an ill-judged patronizing speech praising genius and courage of Leopold II whose reign of terror caused death of over 10 million Congolese.’ Confessions of CIA Agent…How the imperial powers control Africa by remote control in New African-April 2007. The speech incensed Lumumba who went to the podium and trashed the Belgians’ colonial record. He spoke of need ‘to bring an end to slavery imposed by force.’ Lumumba saw their degredation by Belgian colonial rule as Congo state had less than 20 university graduates with no cadres of doctors, lawyers or engineers. Brussels planned to allow Congolese political freedom but retained control of military, economic and commercial power. Guiding Congo to safe was an uphill task for Lumumba.wp-1571937570089.jpg43234-cp.jpg001.jpgACTEZ8U.jpg4381E60F00000578-4818958-image-a-38_1503568339599.jpgwp-1571937534066.jpg1-s2.0-S2212609015300121-gr1.jpgSmarting under rebuff by Lumumba the Belgian government caused trouble for independent Congo. On 11 July 1960, the province of Katanga of Congo’s copper, cobalt, uranium, gold, mineral wealth to secede. Belgium the principal owner of wealth perceived in Brussels resources of Katanga tied Belgian interests to the secession. A painful lesson of history is historians glorify conquerors is deeply ironic and sad because African history written from point of Colonial masters. Colonizers wrote textbooks and books but ban different perspective. The press was censored. The written record of the devouring of Africa by colonialism was excised from memory. Memories of the rubber era cruel exploitations is never written into official Western history. So, Mark Curtis in Web of Deceit, explained backgrounds to conflict struggle a tribal war. Television portrays Africa by very little understanding of events developed world, major international institutions created. Much reporting promotes view as faults of Africans. The Western press reinforced the stereotype of Africans as post-colonial failures of tribalism wars.

Congoleselaves-rubber-plantation-Ultimate-History-Project.jpgCongo_Malnourished.jpgDisguise as civilizing mission system of forced black labour by usurper imperial domination during scramble for Africa. In 1876, famous explorers at European society, Leopold II delivered the keynote address couched in high moral purpose said, ‘To open civilization to parts of our globe not yet penetrated, to pierce the darkness hanging over entire people is crusade worthy of century of progress. The objective of International African Association was to abolish “Arab slave trade to establish peace among chiefs to procure impartial arbitration.” Leopold II’s overseas territorial expansion states, ‘No country is complete without owning overseas possessions.’ Grabs territories in Africa between 1880 and 1884, writes J. Stengers, King Leopold’s imperialism, ‘sent expeditions, led by Stanley, which established a fairly loose occupation of territory in Congo by means of outposts. At Berlin Conference 1884-85, Leopold laid claim to huge tract of Congo region 80 times the size of Belgium he declared a Congo Free State in 1885 with himself as sole owner. The Scramble for Africa, Congo under Leopold II developments had to obtain the consent of Bismarck of Germany. Conditions of Germany was European nation occupied African coast or declare ‘protectorate’ to notify action, signatory powers forced blacks to serve colonial masters.

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International institutions relationship’s reporting promotes view of the innate faults of Africans.’ Western press with few exceptions reinforced stereotype of Africans post-colonial failures destiny to tribalism. Niall Ferguson, empire writer ideology: Africans can’t rule themselves Writing history from the standpoint of Whites as “helping” is dark history of its colonial past need to understand link to policies of Western countries conflicts bred in Africa. Leopold’s Congo claim alarms Bismarck but given to “civilise” blacks in Conyo negotiated to obtain the concessions from Bismarck. So Leopold got French in January 1885, permission to extend control over Congo. Northern, eastern boundary owned by Germany, Leopold driven by greed for territorial expansion control to the south between Congo and Zambezi. In 1884 obtained recognition for Congo by United States. Frontier free State of Congo territory,’ Stengers, said ‘disproportionate to the resources at disposal. Slender finances did not allow establishment of more than a rudimentary government.’ The resources occuping a large territory in Congo did not curb greedy ambitions of Leopold to expand territories outside Congo Free state 1885 capital establish port town of Boma. Transport systems established to exploit and plunder rich natural resources of Congo. A system of transportation connected Atlantic coast to Stanley Pool Leopoldville, Kinshasa. Africans brutally used as human mules relay heavy load supplies maxim guns another 250 miles. From there, steamers cruise Congo River 900 miles to Stanley Falls in Kisangani. The river, renamed Lualaba, navigable another 500 miles deep into rainforests of southern Congo. Leopold financed building of river fleet of steamers. And thousands of Africans died as porters forced to serve colonial masters. Views of West is the innate faults of Africans  by Western press reinforced stereotype of Africans post-colonial failures destiny to tribalism. Niall Ferguson on empire ideology says Africans cannot rule themselves, history from standpoint of Whites, “helping” the dark history of the black colonial past must understand link to policies of Western countries breeds conflicts in Africa. And still deprives billions of own resources.

COFFEE’S HISTORY & ORIGINS

20191014_110716.jpg15710468834321102168724083807666.jpg15710437345183676338762388191799.jpgCoffee global originated from Ethiopia as earliest evidence of coffee drinking and knowledge of the coffee tree spread from early 15th century. Africans grow coffee harvested, grounded and drank by families as tropical crops. Coffee spread as commodity for trade from Ethiopia Horn of Africa to Yemen Arabia Felix monks monasteries spreading into Mecca and Cairo. Goats were seen hyper stimulated inspired coffee concoction born long ago in the mountains of Ethiopia. Legend says that Kaldi saw his excited herd dancing after eating coffee cherry berry, 16th century reached rest of Middle East, South India (Karnataka), Persia, Turkey to rest of Horn of Africa and northern Africa. Coffee spread to Balkans, Italy, the rest of Europe, Southeast Asia and Americas despite ban imposed in the 15th century by religious leaders in Mecca and Cairo, and later by the Catholic Church.15710460124356859565088160134012.jpg15710436855935512932863149678515.jpg15710447815743466109153844499277.jpgCoffee spread from Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Kaffa Province name of coffee, the first to recognize energizing effects of native coffee plant. So the tribesmen consumed as hunters on days-long treks benefitting from coffee plant’s ability to quell hunger and provide more energy. Studies of genetic diversity of Coffea arabica varieties retained the residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica. Oral history direct evidence has indicated Africans coffee grow among other crops natives used as stimulant so known earlier spread into seventeenth century. Original domesticated coffee plant from Harar, native population use derived from Ethiopia distinct is found populations in Sudan and Kenya.1571043405765699259889766813539.jpg15710434270053024933810851534611.jpg15710436277878114956373217936851.jpg15710435846402047751185959458711.jpg15710434925723954462411793900624.jpgCoffee is native to tropical Africa but its Brazil that is the world’s largest coffee producing country. Vietnam, Colombia are second and third biggest producers. Coffee was traded through Middle East, Asia and Europe before its taken to the Americas by European colonizers. The crop’s success there depended on slave trade. The history of coffee recognizes racism and the role of colonialism. The history of coffee has a dark side of the exploitation of Western countries taking advantage of the African countries. And multibillion multinational corporations making so much profit but don’t invest in these countries of the supply chains. 15710433560353172288782735507670.jpg15710440983255412735373397344862.jpg15710445900461747951835999486447.jpg15710441400893604583404307719482.jpg15710439366083654047546056266942.jpg15710440294184227315937896153147.jpg15710444445985513000575336350508.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.1571044828283157220128130682346.jpgwp-1571137280306.jpgdownloadfile.pngwp-1571007286187.jpgIMG-20191014-WA0001.jpgwp-1571136784509.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.15710478444701786177490462436469.jpg15710456532011356605169476525987.jpg15710456143886626766098078755663.jpg15710455659128566144229800899532.jpg15710448803383604231430384290796.jpg15710449771794187086487037815745.jpg15710450656392204661356868672582.jpg15710451149853942328613469727459.jpgBarbados and Jamaica were some of the earliest British colonies as slave traders provided outposts with human labour from Africa to work on sugar and coffee plantations. Goods and people moved in a triangle between West Africa, colonies in Caribbean and Americas and Europe.wp-1571143326145.jpg15710465101715420187119285288633.jpg1571046665177784825754492463044.jpg15710465806261383212562540144503.jpgwp-1571143230605.jpgwp-1571143279802.jpg15710462101437150544227229786142.jpgSan Domingo in French-occupied Haiti was supplying half of the world’s coffee in 1788 as a direct result of slave labour. Living conditions was appalling, slaves underfed, overworked and housed in the windowless huts. The African slaves were beaten, tortured or killed by their white European rulers.15710466183022452900408860596017.jpgwp-1571142356971.jpgwp-1571138218332.jpgwp-1571142304784.jpg15710467716452899072847031383823.jpg15710449165545412649823065829850.jpg15710450356353051306629389501833.jpg1571046353063816915106442229309.jpg15710432352042400621271070553203.jpgNapoleon tried to regain Haiti in early 1800s led to decline in coffee production prompted the Dutch to fill the gap with coffee produced in their own colony of Java, Indonesia. But has rigid hierarchy between the native Javanese and their colonial overlords. Laziness and apathy of Dutch landowners forced Javanese natives to harvest coffee for a pittance, whole villages died of starvation.15710462360581092218315998157921.jpg15710463381055154496466313978760.jpgwp-1571136892649.jpg15710470158994600447489546368637.jpg15710433079216012543656666705158.jpgUK drinks 95 million cups of coffee day with 500,000 tonnes of waste coffee grounds a year. Some business’s small waste coffee grounds customers to take home as garden fertiliser or homemade exfoliant. Wet coffee grounds waste into landfill in UK tax £88.95/tonne to £94.15 from 1st April 2020 levy operators cost to collection fee. Waste management companies charge for contaminated dry mixed with recycling. 15712234953994380269245425115741.jpgLandfill harmful greenhouse gases such as methane 34 times more potent than carbon dioxide over a 100 year period causing climate change. The wet coffee grounds in an anaerobic digestion plant absent of oxygen microorganisms break down biodegradable material managing waste or producting fuel but grounds sink to bottom in ‘belly’ inhibit rate of biomethane production. Waste grounds incinerated energy generation, not best usel. Bio-bean utilise wet coffee grounds waste recycled bio-products by disposal recycling service generate savings for businesses saving emission as bio-fuel.15710432727097757498507419898001.jpgCoffee declined in the West Indies but it thrived in Latin America. So first coffee bush in Brazil was planted by Francisco de Melo Palheta in Pará in 1727. Brazil became a coffee superpower under the rule of the Portuguese and continued to after independence. By the 1830s, coffee became Brazil’s largest export is around 30% of world coffee production.15710461315717905217574155760681.jpg15710452158122014500876146091126.jpgBrazilian coffee plantations used black or indigenous slave labour. Indentured labourers worked and lived in horrific conditions. Plantation owners treated their labourers as dispensable imported new slaves as they died from overwork. Did not treat existing slaves with any compassion most slaves last seven years from initial bondage.wp-1571142201640.jpg15710455063321556057087774078740.jpgBrazil made slavery illegal in 1888, but four million slaves had been brought from Africa. In Latin America, coffee industry depended on the indigenous labour. Black people not used as slaves in Central American countries anymore, Mayans and other native peoples served as semi-slaves.15710451884962273506023802601097.jpg15710452671042518442429950312232.jpgThe Mayans occupied best fertile lands for growing coffee and so increasingly became disenfranchized by colonial governments. Violently evicted by the military as the demand for coffee grew, forced to work land for the oppressors. Revolts and rebellions common during that time government brutality and the oppression was response.15710454680217849189674356110640.jpg20191015_133547.jpgThe coffee industry in Latin America explaining why the world is dominated by their coffee production. Slave labour no longer but paved the way for today’s industry. Many regions of Brazil and Colombia are now traditional coffee-growing areas with farming as main resource. Legacies of colonialism affect coffee supply chain in Latin America racial divide between farm owners and labourers.15710464500078699002128982820492.jpgMillions of blacks in Latin America Asia, and Africa live in poverty producing the affordable coffee for Western markets. African coffee is the best in the world as Tropical Africa origin of coffee. But that continent not treated on same level of Latin America. Colonialism by former European colonies in Africa left without infrastructure or stable political system. Structural racism economic oppression exists in supply chain. Inequality in the coffee production, baristas, economics. Education, politics of coffee-producing regions of the community in producing countries must contribute to improving sustainability, working conditions, and quality of life for people globally.tree-goat-morocco.jpg15712272641128742041996406789531.jpgObviousTimelyAlligatorsnappingturtle-size_restricted.gifThe Argan coffee like Ethiopian Coffee, Nepal coffee grown on Himalayan climate is ideal for coffee growing. The aroma of brewed coffee fragrance, coffee’s global recognition beans, grown in Nuwakot, a scored 90 points on a scale of 50 to 100 in Coffee Review, California-based trade magazine. In first-ever blind assessment Nepali coffee in Lekali is “savoury sweet in structure with gentle acidity; crisp, satiny mouthfeel.” Concluded the coffee is worth seeking its confident savoury-sweet cup. In 2016, coffee produced by Greenland Organic Farm scored an 89 Specialty Coffee Association of America, California trade group Nepali coffee producers elevate quality of country’s beans to international standards.Workers sort cherries for processing at Lekali Coffee Estate’s farm in Nuwakot in central Nepal. Nepali coffee’s in 2014, Banjara became Nepal’s first Q-grader trained in Xining in China. The West are calling coffee aficionados value beans’ from exotic origin to local cafe. Coffee companies create market for vacuum packed cans of coffee grounds and jars of instant coffee kitchens in the world,  Nepal’s high-end market export coffee. Some claim goat eaten berry coffee also exist like Luwak kopi coffees. Coffee farm in Mauja district of Kaski, view to the Annapurna mountain range Nepal’s first national coffee cupping as Q-graders identify characteristics and flavour, quality of coffee beans. Eight of the world’s 10 highest peaks like Mount Everest Nepal ideal climate high-quality beans. Nepal’s Arabica variety Bourbon and Typica coffee grow on rolling, misty mountain slopes at altitudes from 800 meters to 1,600 meters. First introduced to the country by a monk in the middle of 20th century the crop supports 32,000 farmers in 40 of country’s 77 districts. It exports coffee but Coffee Review rating recognition gives them a much-needed boost in the international market.15712209071994545813192981911343.jpgThe world’s most expensive is Coffee alamid highly sought-after brew among coffee aficionados is “caviar” of coffee. Odour-free coffee alamid aroma, syrup texture, chocolate hint, coffee alamid’s clean aftertaste and flavour is processed by acid from stomach of animals eating coffee cherry berries. The coffee seeds remain intact undigested excreted as a faecal material collected, washed and is grounded as premier luxury coffee sells U$500 -U$1000 per pound. Kopi luwak one of most expensive coffees in world. Vietnamese weasel coffee collecting coffee beans eaten by wild civets in India. Luwak coffee kopi luwak of Java Indonesia is second best.  But traders of this type of coffee exploit animals by caging, feeding them solely on coffee beans instead on an enriched variety of diets in wild more suitable to thrive. The tourists travel to see caged animals in action oblivious to animal rights issues involved in most expensive coffee processs. A cup of coffee cost $80 per cup in the tourist epic centres.

Mark Pendergrast: Uncommon Grounds, History of Coffee & How It Transformed Our World.

Sprudge.com, The Question of Racism

GOD/BIBLE ON WITCHCRAFT

25 Important Bible Verses About WitchcraftWitchcraft is from the devil and anyone who practices it will not enter Heaven because it is abomination to God. Don’t dabble in witchcraft to open yourself up to demons and demonic influences that can harm you. And satan is crafty so we must never let him take control of your lives. Don’t get involved in wicca so help them to save their life but if they refuse help stay away from them. Christians do not need to fear satan’s power to stop evil things of the occult. Bible warns on witchcraft so repent, get help, get rid of any occultic items fast, pray, ask Christ to break bondage to witchcraft. If you practices witchcraft you will not enter Heaven.IMG-20191008-WA0003.jpg

1. Revelation 21:27 Nothing impure will enter heaven no shameful or deceitful, only those whose names are written in the Lamb’s book of life.

2. Revelation 21:8, Cowards, unbelievers corrupt, murderers, immoral, practices of witchcraft, idol worshipers, liars is in fiery lake burning sulfur second death.”

3. Galatians 5:19-21 The actions of flesh sexual immorality, impure, promiscuity, and idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, rivalry, jealously, outbursts of anger, quarrels, conflicts, envy, murder will not inherit the kingdom of God.

4. Micah 5:11-12 I will tear down your walls, demolish your defenses, put end to witchcraft, no more fortune-tellers.  In Acts 19:8-22 Christian reject sorcery after Paul Bible taught God’s words.15705835466792352920556105854708.jpg5. Micah 3:7 Seers will be put to shame, all who practice witchcraft disgraced to cover faces for God won’t answer them.

6. 1 Samuel 15:23 Rebellion is like sinful of witchcraft, stubbornness as worship idols. Because you rejected command of the LORD HE rejected you as king.”

7. Leviticus 19:26  “Do not eat meat not been drained of blood. “Do not practice fortune-telling or witchcraft.

8. Deuteronomy 18:10-13 Don’t sacrifice your son or daughter as burnt offering. Do not practice fortune-telling, sorcery, interpret omens, engage in witchcraft, cast spells as mediums or psychics, call forth spirits of the dead. All who does these things detestable to the LORD. All nations doing these things the LORD your God will drive them out ahead of you. Be blameless before the LORD God.15705837095392703637720246138116.jpg9. Revelation 18:23 The light of a candle shine no more in thee; the voice of the bridegroom and bride heard no more in you, your merchants great men of earth by your sorceries all nations deceived.

10. Isaiah 47:12-14 “Use your magical charms and spells to do you good. Call your astrologers, stargazers to save you and let them save you from burning in a fire; they cannot save themselves or you from the flame. You will get no help and their hearth is no place for warmth.

11. Isaiah 8:19 Some say to you, “Let’s ask mediums and consult the spirits of the dead. Their whispering mutterings to tell you what to do.” But should not a people ask God for guidance? Should the living seek guidance from the dead?15705842640341436067494928143008.jpg12. Leviticus 20:26-27 Be holy because I, the LORD, am Holy. I set you apart from other people to be my own. “Men and women among you who act as mediums or consult spirits of the dead must be put to death by stoning.”

13. 1 Chronicles 10:13-14 Saul died for he was unfaithful to the LORD. He failed to obey the LORD’s command, consulted a medium instead of asking the LORD for guidance. The LORD killed him and gave kingdom to David son of Jesse.

14. 1 John 5:18-19 Whosoever is born of God sins not he that is begotten of God keeps himself so the wicked one cannot touch him. We know we are of God and the whole world lies in wickedness.

15. 1 John 4:4 You God’s little children so overcomes them. Greater is HE that is in you than he in the world.15705841878074711401650381653562.jpg16. Ephesians 5:11 Take no part in deeds of evil of darkness expose it publicly. So MANY BELIEVED CONFESSED TO SHOW THEIR DEEDS In Acts 19 MANY WHO USED CURIOUS ARTS BROUGHT THEIR BOOKS TOGETHER AND BURNED THEM BEFORE ALL MEN PUBLICLY.

17. 3 John 1:11 Dear friend, don’t imitate what is evil so do what is good. Anyone who does what is good is from God but all who do evil don’t know or seen God.

18. 1 Corinthians 10:21 You can’t drink Cup of the LORD and cup of demons at  table of the LORD and table of demons.

19. Galatians 6:7 Don’t be deceived God is not mocked what one sows, will reap.15705843002564576363613375458595.jpg20. 1 John 3:8-10 One who sins is of the devil because devil sins from beginning. The Son of God came to destroy devil’s work. None born of God continues to sin because God’s Spirit in them cannot go on sinning born of God. This is how we know Children of God and children of devil. All who do what is right are God’s children so love their brother or sister.

21. 1 John 4:1-3 Dear friends, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, many false prophets have gone into the world. This is how you to recognize the Spirit of God: Every spirit that acknowledges Jesus Christ came in the flesh is of God every spirit that does not acknowledge Jesus is not from God. This is the spirit of the antichrist, which you heard is coming and is already in the world.

22. Revelation 9:20-21, The people who did not die in plagues refused to repent of evil deeds to turn to God. Continued to worship demons and idols of gold, silver, bronze, stone, and wood, idols that neither see, hear nor walk! They did not repent of evil witchcraft.15705843431747121818676164556388.jpg23. 2 Kings 9:21-22 Get my chariot ready King Joram commanded. King Joram of Israel and King Ahaziah of Judah rode in their chariots to meet Jehu. They met him at plot land belonging to Naboth of Jezreel. 22 King Joram demanded, “Do you come in peace, Jehu?” Jehu replied, “How can there be peace as long as the idolatry and witchcraft of your mother, Jezebel is all around us?”

24. 2Chronicles33:6 Manasseh sacrificed his sons in fire in valley of Ben-Hinnom. Practiced sorcery, divination, witchcraft, consulted with mediums and psychics. Did evil in LORD’S sight for HIS anger.

25. Nahum 3:4-5 Because of multitude of whoredoms of the harlot of witchcrafts, who sold nations, families to witchcraft. I am against you says the LORD of hosts; I will uncover your skirts on your face to show the nations your nakedness and kingdoms your shame.15706062383126221656731411984810.jpgJesus cast out evil spirits in people takes authority over evil powers. Others take the law into their own hands to attack the perceived witches seen as enemies against greater good of society. Causes of witch huntings include abject poverty epidemics, social crises and the lack of education. The leader of witch-hunt is prominent figure in community or “witch doctor” who gains from economic benefit charging for exorcism or selling body parts of the murdered. Agendas or motives of witch hunters are complex grievances against the victim targeted, blamed, shamed for death, misfortunes accused of. Despite literal obvious cause of disease natural causes, death is blamed on another person. The consequences are revenge attacks unauthorised by any proper legal procedure. Years later victim declared innocent as evidence shows vendetta set up central figure seeking vengeance manipulating others to eliminate them. Vengeance belongs to God and witchcraft spirits cast out of a person in bondage sets them free in the Name of Jesus. Deliverance is available if there is goodwill for solutions rather than anger vendetta against enemies. A witch hunter is accountable to God for the human life and blood shed of others by the judgement of God. It is important to repent to be saved in Christ Jesus for eternal life in God’s Kingdom.

Courtesy: Images & Excerpts Reblogged

GOD KNOWS YOU BY NAME

15696018096118520238093821280294.jpgGod called Moses in Exodus 2:1-6 in the burning bush by name ‘Moses! Moses in verse 4. God knew and called Moses by name for God knew Moses by name and God knows your name too. In Exodus 33:17 the LORD God told Moses I will do the thing you asked for you found grace in my sight and I know you by name.15695936359615921057643056964170.jpg1 Samuel 3:1-10 says God called Samuel by name five times that night. Samuel’s name is known by God who knows your name too. Jesus after death when ladies at His tomb told by angel, “Go tell the disciples and PETER, Jesus is going ahead of you to Galilee in Mark 16:7.  Peter is named by Jesus and God knows your name too. Be confident God knows your name to care in HIS LOVE for you.15695930491324585302263683787082.jpgtumblr_ca0a2765cf4867f498a1ffd18607a767_81b9a534_540.gif15695928353085138114838400789948.jpg15695937154576726216725543685279.jpgIsaiah 43:1 – Bible says in Jeremiah 1:5 Before God formed you in the womb He knows you, before you were born God sanctified you, ordained you prophet to the nations. Before you were born God called you from birth and mentioned you by name in Isaiah 49:1-26. Listen, O isles, hearken people from far. The LORD called Isaiah from the womb so God mentioned Isaiah by his name.IMG-20190927-WA0003.jpgIsaiah 43:1-28, The LORD God created you Jacob and He formed you O Israel, Fear not, God redeemed you and called you by your name as God’s property. In John 10:14-15, The GOOD SHEPHERD is God HE knows HIS sheep and HIS sheep know God and hear HIS VOICE daily.15695927732523471099889250649876.jpg15696018479875481401615843368842.jpgIn John 10:3, the Good Shepherd Jesus the door opens and the sheep hear His voice. Calls His own sheep by name and leads them into green pastures. Psalms 139:1 – 127:24, in the Psalm of David, O LORD you searched me and know me. It is written in Psalms 91:14, Because you set your love on God, therefore God will deliver you and set him on high because you know God Elohim Jehovah’s Name.IMG-20190925-WA0001.jpgIn Isaiah 43:2, When you pass through the waters I will be with you through rivers they shall not overflow you. When you walk through fire you will not be burnt or flames burn you. Isaiah 43:7 Says everyone called by MY NAME is created for God’s GLORY formed by God WHO made him. Exodus 33:17 The LORD told Moses I will show you MY GLORY as you said for you found grace in my sight and I know you by your name.20190927_153428.jpgMoses negotiates with God to lead Israel by cloud in the day and by fire at night. Moses no longer carried the burden of leading the people allowed Moses rest to let people God tells them to move or to stop. Moses told “the LORD lead the people so everyone will know You are leading us.” God’s response in Exodus 33:17 is I will do what you ask because I know you. God knows Moses and Moses knows God will do as HE said HE will do for Moses trusts who God knows Moses. 15696020670754183882991775581690.jpgThe LORD assured Moses HIS Presence will go with Israel and responded with these words in Exodus 33:17: “I will do this thing you spoke of you found grace and favour in My sight, I know you by name.” This profound statement and is confidence boosting for Moses under so much pressure from people. This truth from to Moses is significant in our lives. Leaders find people look up to them not God to settle problems. So may not seek answers in Bible for guidance look for others for advise them. God is needed despite angelic help for journey to help with challenges of life in Promised land. 15696016206507657032653170389037.jpgMoses said, “If You know my name and I find grace in Your sight be with us. The LORD knows your name HIS favour on you to truly to experience HIS presence, grace in life, family, work or future. God knew all his mistakes, his anger, pride, murder, grief of loss of Miriam, his need for a new leader to help. God knows us by name. God knows moment from time knitted in womb and named. When we feel lonely God knows we are not alone for the Father God is with us. And Jesus promised to be with us to the end. God leads and gives rest. We trust God to be with us shows up in HIS Shekinah Glory to reveal His presence to give us hope.15696015692418302686744808717505.jpgRevelation 20:15, says God knows those whose are found written in the book of life but those found cast in a lake of fire. God sees good deeds in secret. Matthew 6:4-8, says all your gifts in secret Father see in secret to reward you openly. The Almighty God, Creator of the Universe created you in HIS OWN IMAGE knows your name each hair on your head. He knows details of your life and loves you, wants to spend time with you. So God is part of your life as you are in HIS Image you have God’s inbuilt nature, qualities of God. All who call upon the Name of the LORD shall be saved in Jesus Name156960351765152153874966760369.jpgIn Isaiah 43:1-28 The Lord who created you Jacob and formed you O Israel: says “Fear not for I redeemed you and called you by name you are mine. And when you pass through the waters I will be with you and through the rivers they will not overwhelm you; when you walk through fire you will not be burned and the flame shall not consume you. For I AM the Lord your God the Holy One of Israel, your Saviour. I give Egypt as your ransom Cush and Seba in exchange for you. You are precious to me, honoured and I love you, I give men in return for you in exchange for your life. Fear not, for I AM with you and I will bring your offspring from the east and west. I will gather your children from the north.15695940672132046145896182366750.jpgIn John 10:14-15 Jesus as good shepherd knows His own and His own know Him  the Father knows Jesus and Jesus knows the Father and He lays down His life for His sheep. In John 10:3 His sheep hears His Voice, and He calls his own sheep by name and leads them out. Psalm 139:1-24 says,  LORD, you search and know me you know when I sit down or when I rise up. You discern my thoughts from afar. You search out my path and my lying down and acquainted with all my ways. Before I speak the words on my tongue O LORD you know it. Your hedge of protection is behind and before me to and keep your hands upon me. God.15696016868903921635021051869826.jpgIn Psalm 91:14 “Because we hold fast to God in love He will deliver and protect us because we knows God’s Name. And  Isaiah 49:1-26 says Listen O coastlands, give attention people from far. God has called me from my mother’s womb and named me. He made my mouth like a sharp sword; in the shadow of HIS hand he hid me, made me a polished arrow in HIS quiver he hides me. God said, “You are God’s servant in whom Israel will be glorified.” I said, “I laboured in vain and spent my strength for nothing in vain its LORD God who will recompense me. So the LORD formed Isaiah from the womb to be his servant to bring Jacob back to HIM and Israel gathered to him. Isaiah is honoured in the eyes of the LORD and God is our strength in Jesus Name. 

MOSES/ISRAEL/CROSS/REDSEA

giphy.gifGod’s people safely crossed the Red Sea as God told Moses to raise his stick up so the sea parted to walk on dry ground. In Exodus 12:29 at midnight Israel left Egypt and in Exodus 14:27 in morning appeared at Red Sea. Egyptians chased them but in six hours the Jews entered Red Sea to safely pass to other shore.15694123241955097815540926192848.jpg15694121419236347393319151113545.jpg15694112440201146684755458898322.jpg15694195640632659964315835755391.jpg15694137330673110498607959219389.jpg15694112053304128772184861679618.jpg15694116334594972027571022835312.jpg15694197434494091984519926200347.jpg15694138144058617377246618318160.jpgIMG-20190925-WA0010.jpg15694133992844109182071327762073.jpgIMG-20190925-WA0009.jpg15694148410012363923266432904609.jpg15694129961112191210653578675628.jpg15694143004806978802933251010001.jpg15694143728276928992467170713455.jpgIMG-20190925-WA0006.jpgPharaoh and his army drowned in Red Sea after the Exodus, changed his mind because of loss of a vital Israelite work force. Pursued Israel to Red Sea after he watched Moses and Israel cross Red Sea in Exodus 14:28 copied Israel in red sea.1569427820034208656777047872090.jpg15694119863757791939153653612819.jpg15694116755157172832651126118793.jpgIMG-20190925-WA0008.jpg15694196138145858426093934761484.jpgPsalm 136:15, God “overthrew Pharaoh and his army in the Red Sea.” God told Moses to lift up his staff to miraculously part red sea by God’s power authority. It is not by might not by power but by the Spirit of the LORD Jehovah. The people without understanding of Spiritual things of God try to copy miracle of God imitating entered pathway of Red Sea. Things of God are spiritually discerned God overthrew Pharaoh and his army.15694115351631718709396634268254.jpgRameses drown in Red Sea after Moses split sea using God’s power. Moses stops Red Sea after they safely millions cross. Jews prepared for Exodus with blessing of God in Passover. After the stubborn resistance caused plagues, death still Egypt wanted control of enslaved Jews. But Pharaoh drowned in the Red Sea with his army so did not survive. 15693581434292515686777692540656.jpgCrossing the Red Sea was God initiated in bible narrative of Exodus. Pharaoh’s army engulfed by the Red Sea in Exodus 15:4 Pharaoh’s chariots army thrown in the sea despite finest chariots of gold and a strong army. Pharaoh’s chariots or army could not stand against Elohim God’s powerful heavenly hosts. 1569358017343516734793707653963.jpgGod uses HIS supernatural miracles to defend Israel. Larger armies even better equipped by human standards totally annihilated by Elohim in Bible. GOD’S PEOPLE, GOD’S PLANS ON EARTH for Israel continues until God comes back to dwell on earth. God proves that those fighting Israel FIGHT GOD JEHOVAH NISSI THE MIGHTY ONE IN BATTLE.15693576409153132105163891065325.jpg15693578306881730801810535802811.jpg1569357946817256361700212105238.jpgExodus 12:31 says Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron at night and said, “Get up, go away from my people you and people of Israel. Go and worship the LORD as you said. 32 Take your flocks your cattle and go. And pray good will come to me also.” 33 Egyptians tried to make people hurry out of the land for fear they, will all die from more punishment from God. 34 So people took dough without yeast, tied pots in their clothes on their shoulders.15693578769287660601779627229678.jpg 35 People of Israel did what Moses said,  asked Egyptians silver, gold and clothes 36 The LORD gave people favour in the eyes of the Egyptians. Egyptians gave all they asked for took best things of Egypt.1569358054260226797318647284794.jpgExodus 37 The people of Israel traveled from Rameses to Succoth about 600,000 men on foot, women and children. 38 Groups of people went with them with many flocks cattle. 39 They made dough brought out of Egypt to make loaves of bread. 40 The people of Israel lived in Egypt 430 years. 41 At the end of the 430 years on same day all the LORD’S people left Egypt at night. 42 The LORD brought them out of Egypt so this night is for the LORD to be remembered by all people of Israel forevermore. God made a way where there was no way to save Israel. Some put confidence in chariots and in horses but Israel’s confidence is in God to fight for them because the battle is the LORD’S.  

GOD SAID TAKE OFF JEWELS

15688799791249154926920231695478.jpgGod told Israel to take off jewelry ornaments by Mount Horeb in Exodus 33:6. Israelites told to strip themselves of their jewelry to stop wearing it due to their stiff neckedness that made God angry. God’s authority as gold provider  teaches them to be humble not insolent because they dress in luxury gold. God forced them to be accountable for their stiff necked behaviour in life to reflect on their actions. So must appear in deep mourning repent of their circumstances as God told Moses. They cried at the sad news Moses relayed but remorse requires practice of a demure, sombre, silence to signify sorrow, grief and regret. Luxury jewels, trinkets, ornaments taken off, hairstyle kept simple, covered or shaved to be humble in the sight of God. Some wear sandals or walk barefoot in sackcloth as sign of humility to seek face of God in prayer of repentance. Humble penitence pleases God if mankind strips off excess to lay themselves bare before God to enter HIS Presence in the temple in silence. Its a deep reflection to seek God’s grace, mercy and forgiveness to search their heart, soul in repentance. God’s decision is not cruelty but of pity and mercy of God’s concern and love for them to change. Faces must show grief, tears or grievous sighs, groaning, sobs pleading for remission of sins, promises of eternal life in Christ. God required Israelites to show true remorse in their appearance in anguish of souls at the foot of Mount Horeb. God warned them about their stiff-neckedness that results in punishment from God. Isaiah 2:19-22 in Bible says people hide in caves, holes, rocks in fear of the LORD’S GLORY and Majesty as HE rises to shake earth. 20 That day people will cast idols of silver, gold made to worship to moles and cave bats. Revelation 6:15-17 kings of the earth, princes, generals, rich, mighty, slave, free hide in caves of rocks, mountains. 16 They call mountains and rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of God who sits on the throne and from wrath of the Lamb. 17 The great day of wrath has come and who can stand God?”IMG-20190919-WA0000.jpgAs Revelation 6:15-17 says The kings of earth, princes, generals, rich, mighty, slave or free hide in caves among rocks of mountains. 16 They call on mountain and rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of God who sits on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb. 17 The great day of wrath has come who can stand God?” God expects humility to see external physical norms associated with sadness or grief and sorrow. God told Moses to tell them to put off ornaments until God decides what to do with Israel to move on as God instructed Moses. This God’s command was to a “stiff neck” people in time of anger against their rebellion. It does not mean Christians must never wear gold. Neither are ornaments to be a centre of focus for wrong reasons of a negative attention seeking behaviour. In 1 Timothy 2:9 he warns Church women to dress in moderation compared to the vulgar outlandish costumes to draw an attention of moral decadence. In 1 Peter 3:3 the problems of affluence in Church meant adornment outwardly arranging the hair, wearing gold putting on fine apparels became competition to outdo each other to show off even in giving. It  is still an issue as Peter is talking about modesty in dress and moderation in all things. Jewelry is good as God adorns His Bride with jewels in prophecy living in Golden heavenly city bedazzled with precious jewel in New Heaven and New earth freely given to all those in Christ.15691430577836522483842083837573.jpgBut going and spending too much time preparing self with gold to look bizarre to impress to seduce in the presence of God’s house is at the heart of the matter. Gold is good to Glorify God at the heart of worship in Church in His Presence so is not fashion catwalk. Christians live in a world of luxury and decadence Peter warned of the danger of lack of modesty in adornment in the Church. A senseless extravagance to show off is not modesty to focus on God for their selfless service of goodness. Bible says Christians to be adorned modestly in humility. Timothy says ladies in church adorn your heart.  I Timothy 2:9 says wear modest apparel and be properly covered. In moderation use simple braid hair, gold, pearls not a costly clothing to show off wealth. These passages confirm the notion of stripping off fine jewels and rich clothes in times of deep grief and humiliation in Micah 1:8. To wail and howl; strip in sackcloth or simple clothes to make wailing sound of mourning required by a sincere grief. In Numbers 31:50 some gave offering to the LORD gold articles, armlet bracelets, signet rings earrings, necklaces to make atonement before the LORD. 51 Moses and Eleazar the priest accepted gold, all crafted articles. 52 from commanders of thousands, commanders of hundreds so Moses and Eleazar presented gifts to the LORD weighed 16,750 shekels. 53 From soldier’s plunder. 54 Moses and Eleazar the priest took gold to tent of meeting as memorial of Israelites before the LORD.15688437892126007227081830922345.jpgIMG-20190918-WA0010.jpg20190922_072843.jpgIMG-20190918-WA0011.jpg15691434028886680607314834921558.jpgIMG-20190918-WA0014.jpgGodly sorrow and mourning has a hope of eternal life and given precious jewels. Church is not a time for fashion parades to show off gold wealth. Or of changing clothes many times during sad funerals like a wedding feast. Costs thousands to those planning funeral to spend money after death but not in the lifetime. Deep grief or sorrow strips fineries of life in sadness for a season. God expects life to return to normal after the time of sorrow and grief. In 1 Samuel 19:24 the extreme deep devotional exercise of Saul under prophetic influence strips him bare before God. Israel is humbled by God. Ancient Jewish name יהוה of Jehovah’s Divine protection in a golden ornament used to make golden calf had consequence laying naked, defenceless. All ornaments or spiritual things of God commanded to lay off and to not wear symbols of Divine protection forfeited by transgression until after repentance. God said, “That I may know what to do to Israel” under God’s Divine protection shield is commanded to put aside. Many parted with ornaments put aside and later worn again. Lots of jewels, wives, daughters, sons of 600,000 men stripped to make golden calf. Rest of ornaments later used in Tabernacle furnishing so much people were asked to stop giving it became too much in Exodus 36:5-6. A lesson here is not to put confidence in gold wealth, riches but put confidence in God. Whoever lost gold or riches God is able to restore a 100 fold in this life and in eternal life to come in heaven.