MANAGING PLASTIC WASTE

Chinese worker sorts through plastic bottles
Marine life faces “irreparable damage” from billions of tonnes of plastic waste in oceans each year, the United Nations warned. “This planetary crisis ruins the ecosystem of oceans,” UN oceans chief Lisa Svensson said. Why is this allowed to continue despite global damage risks this plastic actually do? Why is plastic problematic since existence in the last 60-70 years of transforming everything from clothing, cooking and catering, to product design, engineering or retailing.

Many types of the plastics are designed to last for a long time. Nearly all plastic created still exists in some form today.how much plastic is there ? infographic

A paper published in Science Advances Journal by industrial ecologist Dr Roland Geyer, from the University of California in Santa Barbara, and colleagues, calculated the total volume of all plastic ever produced at 8.3bn tonnes. Some 6.3bn tonnes is now waste and 79% is in landfill or the natural environment. This vast amount of waste has been driven by modern life, where plastic is used for many throwaway or “single use” items, from drinks bottles and nappies to cutlery and cotton buds.

500 billion plastic bottles

Drinks bottles are most common types of plastic waste. Some 500bn plastic bottles were sold globally in 2017 that is more than a million bottles per minute. 130bn were made by drinks giant Coca Cola.drinks bottles infographic

Some countries are considering moves to reduce consumption. These includes deposit-return schemes, improvement of free-drinking water supplies in major cities, forcing the producers to cut down overproduction. So much plastic waste ends up in the sea about 15m tonnes of plastic currently ends up in oceans each year. Scientists from National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis and University of Georgia, Athens estimated the figure as 11m tonnes, and forecast that to rise to 20m tonnes by 2019. The study, published in the journal Science surveyed 192 coastal countries affected by ocean plastic waste, and found Asian nations suffered most.ocean plastic waste infographic

China and US, UK, among top of the list of countries mismanaging plastic waste, and contribute higher rate of waste per person. Plastic waste accumulates in areas of the ocean where winds create swirling circular currents gyres, which suck in floating debris. There are five gyres around the globe, but best known is probably the North Pacific gyre. It is estimated debris takes about six years to reach the centre of the North Pacific gyre from the coast of the US, and about a year from Japan. All five gyres have higher concentrations of plastic rubbish than other parts of the oceans. They are made up of tiny fragments of the plastic, suspended below surface phenomenon described as plastic soup. Hard-wearing qualities of plastics means some items take hundreds of years to biodegrade. There are moves to clean up the North Pacific gyre. An operation led by a non-profit organisation Ocean Cleanup has begun in 2018.biodegrading times for plastic products chart

How are things in UK?

Marine Conservation Society finds 718 pieces of litter for every 100m stretch of beach surveyed during recent Great British Beach Clean Up. That was a 15% increase on last year.beach waste infographic

Rubbish from food or drink constituted at least 25% of litter collected, the MCS reported. The origin of a lot of the litter by public contributes is 35%. “Sewage-related debris” or items flushed down toilets instead of in bin, amount to 9%.beach waste sources infographic

Plastic harms marine life

Sea birds and larger marine creatures, whales, turtles, dolphins, seal’s danger comes from being entangled in plastic bags, other debris, mistaken for plastic food. Turtles don’t distinguish between plastic bags and jellyfish as part of their diet. The plastic bags consumed cause internal blockages and result in death. Large pieces of plastic damage digestive systems of sea birds, whales, potentially fatal. Over time, plastic waste degrades so breaks down to tiny micro-fragments also causing scientists concern.cotton buds diagram

A recent survey by Plymouth University found plastic was found in a third of UK caught fish, cod, haddock, mackerel and shellfish. This can result in malnutrition or starvation for fish, and lead to plastic ingestion in humans too. The effect on humans of eating fish containing plastic is still largely unknown. But in 2017 the European Food Safety Authority warns of increased risk to human health, food safety given potential for micro-plastic pollution in edible tissue of commercial fish.” A whales died after swallowing 80 plastic bags off southern Thailand.The whale swallowed 80 plastic bagsRescuers used buoys to keep the whale afloat during rescue attempt. The whale died in southern Thailand after it has swallowed more than 80 plastic bags. The small male pilot whale was found barely alive in a canal near border with Malaysia, Thailand’s Department of Marine and Coastal Resources said. The whale  vomited five bags while rescuers used buoys to keep it afloat in a rescue attempt, an umbrella held to protect it from the blazing sun.The whale swallowed 80 plastic bagsPlastic bags taken from whale’s stomach piled together. A veterinary team tried “to help stabilise its illness” but the whale later died on Friday afternoon, officials said. An autopsy revealed 80 plastic bags weighing eight kilograms (18 pounds) in whale’s stomach. Thon Thamrongnawasawat, marine biologist and lecturer at Kasetsart University, said bags made it impossible for whales to eat nutritional food. Shopping bags can be recycled for road materials, etc.The whale swallowed more than 80 plastic bagsMarine biologist, Thamrongnawasawat said plastic pollution was huge problem. 80 plastic bags in stomach caused death, he said. Mr Thamrongnawasawat said, about 300 marine animals, including pilot whales, sea turtles and dolphins died each year in Thai waters ingesting plastic. He said: “It’s a huge problem as the world uses lots of plastic washed in the sea and ashore.”The whale swallowed 80 plastic bagsThe plastic bags weighed up to eight kilograms (18 pounds). The pilot whale’s plight generated sympathy and anger among global citizens. One Twitter user wrote: “I feel sorry for animal that did not do anything wrong but has to bear the brunt of human careless actions. A new way of solving pollution of rivers with plastic waste and debris is the use of  Trash Traps collecting litter before it flows further or piles up clogging rivers and sewages tunnels 

Lafayette Stormwater Trap copyBandalong Litter Trap™ is designed to float in waterways in order to capture litter before it flows further downstream by using the current to guide debris into the trap. This performance floatable control technology continuously operating 365 days a year without any mechanical assistance to capture floating litter. The Bandalong is a proven, cost-effective solution for floatables control is the answer to the growing problem of litter in our waterways. The Bandalong Litter Trap is the ideal in-stream solution for floatables where combined sewer overflows are concerned. The Bandalong Litter Trap has been cleaning waterways in Australia and Asia for more than 15 years.

StormX Gross Pollutant Netting Trash Trap is Perfect for Urban Hot Spots

StormX™ is engineered to capture gross pollutants and handle powerful stormwater runoff at most urban hot spots. Commercial grade, reusable nets provide full capture of gross pollutants as small as 5 mm, including organic materials (such as leaves) that could reduce the levels of phosphorous and nitrogen in our water. This economical solution to litter and debris in stormwater runoff is highly effective for “first flush.” To prevent flooding, built-in overflows allow heavy runoff to flow unimpeded.

Bandalong Boom Systems are installed across waterways, acting as a final barrier to collect or deflect debris.

Bandalong Boom Systems™ are installed across waterways, acting as a final barrier to collect or deflect debris. The floating boom sections are coupled together and spanned across a weir, waterway or dam to capture litter and prevent it from floating further downstream. Learn more…


 

Request Information

We can help clean the waterways around your town or business.

More from Sky Ocean Rescue

  • Turtle dies after getting trapped in a barstool on Florida beach

  • Coral ‘adapting to warmer ocean temperatures’

  • Only a third of plastic food pots can be recycled, local authorities say

  • Degrading plastics ‘release greenhouse gases’, study shows

  • Princess Eugenie: ‘We want a plastic-free wedding’

  • Music festivals in concert to get drastic on plastic

:: Sky’s Ocean Rescue campaign tells people to reduce single-use plastics. Find out more about campaign, get involved at www.skyoceanrescue.com

 

Alison Trowsdale, Tom Housden and Becca Meier. Design by Sue Bridge and Joy Roxas.

Advertisements

AMAZING MIRACLE RESCUE

IMG_20180809_155003

Thank God Almighty for this amazing miracle rescue of the coach and Wild Boar team boys trapped in the cave in Thailand has made headlines all over the world. This miracle surpassed any past cave rescue missions so involved numerous international cave diving experts. Thanks to excellent teamwork, all managed to overcome overwhelming challenges to rescue team successfully. It is beyond any other previous daring rescues without precedence yet worked together to rescue the team and experts who risked their lives to save them. The poignant issue that stood out for me is a miracle of ability to communicate with  the two British cave divers who helped to rescue the team. How on earth would they understand each other without the only English speaker among. It would probably have caused further delays or complicated matters. In counselling the concept of entering cave means getting into the most painful areas of life one does not want address. The mountain in this case described as sleeping woman so symbolically her womb was entered. The flood birth water had to be drained so human life is born. Like a birthpang labour pain is unpredictable and time-consuming the process was daunting but by the Grace of God team delivered safely to the Glory of God. unnamed (1)The 12 boys were all rescued and taken to hospital to be checked with the coach and later released press conference. On 23 June, 12 boys and their football coach walked into cave after football practice in northern Thailand. The boys, who are part of the Moo Pa – Wild Boars  football team became trapped when heavy rains flooded the Tham Luang cave to cut off their escape route. All 12 boys and their coach have been freed from the cave. A few details about the group have been released. Here is what we know about the boys and their coach:Chanin VibulrungruangChanin Vibulrungruang (Nickname: Titan), 11 is the youngest in the team, who played as a forward. Titan started playing football at seven before joining his school’s sports club. He was later invited to join Wild Boars football club.Panumas SangdeePanumas Sangdee (Nickname: Mig), 13. According to Nopparat Kantawong, the head coach of the football team, Mig is bigger than other kids his age, but he is agile. He is a defender for Wild Boars.Duganpet PromtepDuganpet Promtep (Nickname: Dom), 13 is a striker, and captain of the Wild Boars, Dom has reportedly been scouted by many professional clubs in Thailand. He is said to be motivator and respected by team for his football skills. Players on field need captain like him because sometimes a coach can’t get in to solve their problems,” Nopparat told the BBC.

Adul Sam-onAdul Sam-on, 14 born in Myanmar’s self-governing Wa State and left his family behind to get a better education in Thailand, according to reports. The left defender speaks Thai, Burmese, Chinese and English, and was the only one able to communicate with the British divers when the group was first discovered. While trapped in the cave, the boys and their relatives exchanged letters, carried by the rescue divers. Adul told his parents he missed them and not to worry. “Mum and Dad want to see your face,” his parents wrote. “Mum and Dad pray for you and your friends, so we can see each other soon.”  Adul is also a talented volleyball player – and part of a local team that came second in all of northern Thailand two years in a row, local teacher Bunjob Chai-arm told BBC. Adul said he learnt as a Christian in Church. So an amazing miracle the team gets on well together despite being from different faiths. This mutual respect is a great advantage and so its good to learn basic English.  Somepong JaiwongSomepong Jaiwong (Nickname: Pong), 13 is a cheerful boy who likes football, and all sports. He dreams of becoming a footballer for the Thai national team,” his teacher Manutsanun Kuntun told AFP. The left winger wrote to parents from inside the cave, saying: “I love Dad and Mum. Don’t worry about me, I’m safe.” His parents replied: “Take good care of yourself and be strong said Dad and Mum and all are waiting for you.”Mongkol BooneiamMongkol Booneiam (Nickname: Mark), 12. Mark has been described by his teacher as a “very respectful” boy. He cheerful, energetic, very friendly, and likes football and volleyball, Bunjob Chai-arm told the BBC. Mark and his mother had moved to Thailand from Myanmar. He plays in same volleyball team as Adul. His father Thinnakorn Boonpiem told AFP that his son is a “good boy” who loves to study – almost as much as football.Nattawut TakamrongNattawut Takamrong (Nickname: Tern), 14. In a letter to his parents, Tern told them not to worry about him. The defender wrote he missed his parents and grandparents, but “Tern can take care of myself. “Dad and mum are not angry at you and do not blame you,” his parents replied, adding that they were waiting for him “in front of the cave.”Peerapat SompiangjaiPeerapat Sompiangjai (Nickname: Night), 17. Night plays as right winger on the team. He went missing on his birthday and his parents say they are still waiting to hold his party. According to reports, the boys went into the cave to celebrate Night’s birthday. They were said to have brought treats and snacks along with them. The supplies probably helped sustain group in the many days spent trapped inside the cave. Sittthisak Sawanrak, who goes to the same cycling club as Night, describes him as “a great lad who just loves to cycle and play football.“He’s a quiet boy – doesn’t talk much, but a very good, polite boy,” he told the BBC. In a letter to his parents from the cave, Night wrote: “Night loves everyone” and drew several hearts.Ekarat WongsukchanEkarat Wongsukchan (Nickname: Bew), 14. Bew is the goalkeeper of the team. In a letter to his mother, Bew promised to help her sell things at her shop once he was rescued.Prajak SuthamPrajak Sutham (Nickname: Note), 15. Note is described by family friends as a “smart, quiet guy who loves sport and supports Chiang Rai United.” Family friend Ponrawee Tachavandee told the BBC he was “shocked” when he learned Note was trapped. “I didn’t expect he would go inside cave.” Rinlinee Sombat, who works in the same garage as Note’s father, describes him as a kind boy who takes care of his two-year-old sister, and enjoys playing with her young son. He is a smart kid, when you teach him how to fix something in garage learns how to do it after just one go,” she told the BBC.Pipat PhoPipat Pho (Nickname: Nick), 15 in his letter, Nick told his parents he wants to go for Mookatha, or Thai barbeque, when he comes out of the cave. “Nick loves Mum, Dad and siblings,” he wrote, alongside a drawing of a heart.Pornchai KamluangPornchai Kamluang (Nickname: Tee), 16. Tee is a defender for the Wild Boars. “Don’t worry, I’m very happy”, said Tee in a letter to his parents.The mood was tense as people waited for news of high-risk operation. The Assistant coach Ekapol Chantawong (Nickname: Ake), 25. Ake reportedly born in Myanmar and lost his parents at a young age. Before becoming a football coach, spent several years as a Buddhist monk, and learnt to conserve energy by restricting movements and meditating. According to local news reports, taught these techniques to the boys in the cave. In his letter, Ake apologised to parents for taking boys into cave network, but many replied to say they did not blame him. “I promise I will take care of the kids as best as I can,” Ake wrote.The found Thai cave boys July 2018The group of boys and their coach were found after nine days. Some media reports suggest that when the group was found Ake was the weakest, having refused to eat any of the food they had brought with them, giving it instead to the boys. His note aincluded a message to his aunt and grandmother, informing them that he was “fine.” Do not worry too much about me. Take good care of your health,” he wrote, adding: “Please prepare vegetable juice and pork rind for me to eat when I get out. Thanks.”A composite image showing the rescued football teamThank God meant finally, they had been found. Two British Mr Volanthen and Richard Stanton were in the cave after being called in by Thai authorities with another British caving expert Robert Harper. The trio arrived in Thailand 3 days after football team went missing. More than 1,000 people were involved in operation from all over the world.Richard William Stanton Robert Charles Harper and John Volanthen(From Left to right) Richard Stanton, Robert Harper and John Volanthen. The British Cave Rescue Council (BCRC) – the body for voluntary underground rescue in British Isles in contact with British divers since the return. Bill Whitehouse, council’s vice chairman, said the men described dive as “gnarly” in an email, meaning there were complications and problems.  It was 11 hour round trip, involving a 1.5km passage, flooded open he told BBC’s Breakfast.Cross section of cave showing various hazardsOn hearing the boys were found, Mr Whitehouse said: “It was really quite a moment, I can tell you.” However, he said that “moment of euphoria” for the divers and the boys would have been followed by: “Now what?”Bill Whitehouse of British Cave Rescue Council was in touch with the divers. Around 4,000 volunteers worked to clean up the area around cave which was battered by relays of rescuers, volunteers and news crews.

What we know about trio

Mr Volanthen and Mr Stanton are part of the South and Mid Wales Cave Rescue Team. John and Rick involved in a good number of rescues over the years, and they’ve got lot of personal expertise to take to Thailand,” the team’s chairman, Gary Mitchell, saidIn France in 2010 the pair were part of a team attempting to rescue a trapped diverMr Stanton, a retired firefighter from Coventry, was also involved in the rescue of six British cavers in Mexico in 2004.Richard StantonRichard Stanton was made an MBE in recognition of his cave diving rescue services. During that rescue Mr Stanton was able to persuade one of the group – who was terrified of water – to make a 180-metre dive out of the cave, the West Midlands Fire Service said. In a 2007 interview, he said he became interested in diving after watching a programme called “Underground Eiger” as a child. He joined caving and diving clubs at university. Speaking to the BBC in 2004 he described difficulties of navigating caves: “When people land on the moon they had a map, they knew where they were going but in cave if you’re beyond known limit of the cave, nobody knows where it goes, you don’t know what will happen round the corner.” Mr Stanton was made an MBE in the New Year’s Honours List at the end of 2012 for his cave diving rescue services.John Volanthen at rescueJohn Volanthen is a member of South and Mid Wales Cave Rescue Team. Mr Volanthen is an IT consultant based in Bristol but who grew up in Brighton. He started caving as a scout. Spoke to the Sunday Times in 2013, said cave rescue required calm heads.“Panic adrenalines are great in certain situations but not in cave-diving,” he said. “The last thing you want is an adrenaline whatsoever.” He added: “cave diving is like a puzzle with fox, chicken and grain, not dangerous if you do it right.” According to an online profile, Mr Volanthen runs marathons and ultra-marathons. He joked “he runs to eat more biscuits.” His mother Jill said she felt ‘absolute pride’ over son’s role in rescue effort in Thailand.img_20180809_162823.jpg

Artists rallied together to create mural to commemorate event by various team members showing cave rescuers and the supporting teams that helped to achieve this miracle. The rescue teams included local divers and a cave doctor from Australia and soldiers volunteers, whole Thailand nation plus all nations helped in the search and rescue of 12 teenage boys and football coach who disappeared into a cave network in Thailand. Professional divers helped to find the group but high water and the mud in narrow passages drove them back when Jonathan Head was with search teams. Eventually the Wild Boar team was safely rescued after 17 days in the cave and now back home, thanks and Glory to God. In life people descend into emotional trauma caves sometimes requiring whole lot of global specialists to understand daring missions to help overcome. Counselling demands people be willing to let in others to dig deeper to deal with the hidden cave issues affecting your life. Despite opening up and feeling vulnerable it is worthwhile getting help. Everyone in life most of the time needs somebody so all others are in it together whether inside or on the outside cave it takes mutual support to survive daily challenges in life.

 

More on this story

  • Thai boys and parents send letters of love & reassurance 7 July 2018
  • Video Thai cave: Wife and father mourn ‘hero’ diver on 9 July 2018
  • Thailand cave rescue: Community united in hope 6 July 2018
  • Brits helped find boys 3 July 2018
  • Thai cave rescue: psychological effects 8 July 2018
Reblogged

FOOLED BY FOOD LABELS?

We often think of food as healthy or unhealthy, good for you or bad. So the companies use this to their advantage in their branding and packaging, to give foods health haloes that suggest they are healthy, when the reality may be more complicated than that. Seducing claims such as ‘natural’ and ‘low fat’ lead many of us to overestimate how healthy a food is. It can also discourage us from reading the nutritional details on the back label.

What do labels really mean?

Organic: it’s easy to believe that ‘organic’ equals nutritious. But organic certification does not guarantee the nutritional quality of food – instead it states the production methods. A US study has suggested that when food is labelled ‘organic’, people tend to believe it contains fewer calories.

Superfood: the term ‘superfood’ has no regulatory approval and no accepted definition – it is more a marketing word than a health one. Regardless, it’s been shown to have a strong effect on consumers – 61 percent of us have bought something because it is labelled ‘superfood’, according to YouGov.

Low fat: ‘low fat’ doesn’t always equal healthy. In the UK this label means the product must have less than 3g of fat per 100g. But when producers take out fat they often pile in sugar. Studies have shown that a ‘low fat’ label can trick us into eating more.

Low sugar: similarly to the ‘low fat’ label, ‘low-sugar’ foods can be high in fat and calories. The ‘no added sugar’ label doesn’t guarantee a low sugar content. Companies use fruit juice concentrate as a sweetener, as it does not have to be labelled as ‘added sugar’, but it is essentially sugar.

Natural: this word evokes a sense of healthy, unprocessed food. The Food Standards Agency states that ‘natural’ should mean that the food is made up of ingredients produced by nature. Many contain chemicals renamed to be more appealing to consumers. ‘Carrot concentrate’, for example, is a highly processed ingredient that’s used as a yellow food colouring.

Labelling and digestion

When individuals think they have consumed more calories than they have, their bodies respond as if they have actually consumed more. In a 2011 study, milkshake was packaged in two different bottles. One was labelled ‘Sensishake’, claiming to be a low-calorie drink with 0 percent fat, no added sugar and 140 calories. The other labelled ‘Indulgence’ and advertised as a rich treat with 620 calories. Both drinks had 380 calories. The study measured the participants’ level of ghrelin, the ‘hunger hormone’, whose levels drop in the body after a big meal, signalling to your brain that you’re full. They drank ‘Indulgence’ milkshake and their ghrelin levels dropped three times than when they drank ‘Sensishake.’ The difference in ghrelin response is seen as consistent with what happens if the individuals really consumed drink with different calorie counts. The results are consistent with well-documented placebo effect.

Location, location, location

We are bad at estimating how many calories are in food, and labelling makes this even more difficult. It turns out location really is everything. Research suggests that when people eat at a fast food chain labelled ‘healthy’ (even if it isn’t), they greatly underestimate calories consumed compared to when they eat somewhere they believe to be ‘unhealthy.’ They may also order more side dishes, drinks and desserts when eating out somewhere ‘healthy’.

‘If I have a low-fat snack I can eat more of it’

If you have a salad for dinner, do you think you deserve a slice of chocolate cake? A front label only gives limited information and it’s important to read the ingredients list at the back. Even if you are trying to reduce the fat in your diet, eating foods with the fat swapped for sugar will not necessarily be better for you. A great way to eat better is to cook for yourself so you know exactly what you’re eating.

Reblogged BBC Food

STOP BLOOD CLOTS IN BODY

Venous thromboembolism(VTE) blood clots diagnosis is a serious preventable medical condition. So its important to know VTE or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) happens to anybody at any age and causes serious illness, disability and in some cases, death. VTE is prevented and treated if discovered early. PE in SCD patients is etiologic factor in patients who develop respiratory symptoms. Xray imaging procedure scans chest for blood clots treated with full-dose anticoagulation. Diagnosis of venous thromboembolism by positive Duplex ultrasound, ventilation-perfusion scan, or computed tomography angiography in most cases. Radiology reports for patients with documented history of anticoagulation treatment venous thromboembolism cases. This criterion verifies the high specificity history venous thromboembolism. So thromboembolism data collected on date of diagnosis, recurrence, site of thrombosis, central venous catheter-related status. Additional triggering factors includes oral contraceptives, pregnancy, cancer, hospitalization, surgery recorded. Hospitalization associated clots defined by venous thromboembolism occurring 24 hours after admission or within 90-days after discharge. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clot forms thrómbōsis  clotting inside the blood vessels obstructing flow of blood through the circulatory system. If a blood vessel vein or artery is injured, the body uses platelets thrombocytes and fibrin to form blood clot to prevent blood loss. Even when blood vessel is not injured, blood clots form in body under certain conditions. The blood clot or piece of clot breaks free, travels around body as embolus in body blocking small blood vessels. Symptoms are chest pain shortness of breath, leg pain, problems speaking, or moving parts of body. As clotting factors and platelets used up bleeding occurs with blood in urine, blood in stool, bleeding in skin. Complication include organ failure. Red blood cells are principal means delivering oxygen (O2) to body tissues via blood flow circulatory system. RBCs take up oxygen in lung released into tissues squeezing through body’s capillaries. Blood clot blocks circulation causing severe pain or bruising mark on leg.  Treatment for a pulmonaryembolism is at the hospital to treat underlying causes of deep vein thrombosis. This starts with anticoagulant medications asheparin and warfarin to stop blood clots from returning. Pulmonary embolism occurs as clump of blood clot gets wedged into artery in lungs. Blood clots from leg condition deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A catheter is inserted into vein in the groin upper thigh or arm and threaded to clots in the lung. The doctor may use catheter to remove clot or deliver medicine to dissolve it. Rarely, surgery is needed to remove the blood clotClots block oxygen flow 2.4 million erythrocytes produced per second in human adults affected. Blocks red cells developing in bone marrow circulating 100–120 days in the body before component recycled by macrophages. Circulation takes 60 seconds or one minute and a quarter of the cells in human body are red blood cells. And the blood volume is 40% to 45% is red blood cells. Blood related conditions are critical life situations so must be taken urgently, extremely seriously. Every second counts and they must have continous oxygen supply during crises. The blood clots can appear incredibly quickly, due to a number of factors like change in temperature. It causes a number of problems in the body and causes issues heart attacks. If found during routine check ups clot dealt with before obstructing oxygen in red blood portal veins or arteries.S_0917_deep-vein-thrombosis_M17501.2e16d0ba.fill-767x511

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs if a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in body, usually in legs. Deep vein thrombosis causes leg pain or swelling occur with cramps or no symptoms. Deep vein thrombosis develops if certain medical conditions affect blood clots. It happens if not mobile for long time after surgery confined to bed. Deep vein thrombosis is serious because blood clots in veins break loose, travel through bloodstream and lodge in the lungs blocking blood flow oxygen by pulmonary embolism. A lack of fresh oxygen from lungs causes breathing difficulties and shortage of breath so life threatening. Treatment is for 5-7 days or typically for 3-6 months, though blood thinners are continued for life if clotting disorder increases risk of another clot. After seven days, the clot is unlikely to be completely resolved so total time taken depends on the size of the clot. Most blood clots occur in lower legs and form when an individual is inactive for a lengthy period of time. A blood clot may develop in a patient’s leg after spending hours sitting or cramped on a plane. The symptoms experienced vary based on a size of clot, bigger clots are more painful than a smaller-sized ones. Those who have a blood clot in an arm or leg can experience swelling and tenderness. If the clot is small, minor calf swelling can occur but bigger blood clots cause whole leg or arm to swell. Those who have a clot notice a warm sensation or the affected area may turn bluish in color. The symptoms of a deep vein thrombosis signs and symptoms can include: Swelling in the affected leg. Rarely, there’s swelling in both legs.

ds01005_ds00223_im00928_mcdc7_legbloodclotthu_jpg

  • Pain in leg often starts in calf and feels like cramping soreness.
  • Red or discolored skin on the leg.
  • A feeling of warmth in affected leg.

Deep vein thrombosis occurs without noticeable symptoms sometimes. See a doctor if developed signs or symptoms of deep vein thrombosis, contact doctor. If developed the signs or symptoms of a pulmonary embolism a life-threatening complication of deep vein thrombosis seek immediate medical attention.

Pneumonia is also an inflammatory condition of lung affecting primarily the small air sacs called alveoli. At the end of the breathing tube of lungs, clusters of tiny air sacs become inflamed and fill up with fluid. Symptoms include some combination of dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. This can be triggered by the blood clot blocking wind pipes of lungs making it difficult to breathe without an oxygen tank or oxygenator. Pneumonia is often caused by infection with viruses or bacteria, by other microorganisms, or medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Risk factors include lung diseases: cystic fibrosis, COPD, asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, inability to cough due such as following a stroke, or weak immune system. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and physical examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests and culture of  sputum may help confirm a diagnosis. The disease is classified by where it was acquired within community, hospital, health care associated pneumonia. Vaccine prevent some types of pneumonia, prevention methods include handwashing and not smoking. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. The pneumonia due to bacteria is treated with antibiotics. In bacterial pneumonia, the white blood cell count high but falls in severe cases. In viral mycoplasmapneumonia white cell count is low or normal but severe pneumonia cases hospitalized. Oxygen therapy is used if oxygen levels are low.

The warning signs and symptoms of a pulmonary embolism include:

  • Sudden shortness of breath
  • Chest pain or discomfort worsens when taking deep breath or cough
  • Feeling lightheaded, dizzy, fainting
  • Rapid pulse rates
  • Coughing up blood
  • Loss of appetite

Blood in Urine and some causes: 

The causes of gross hematuria are infection, trauma, kidney stones, cancer, blood cell disorders, some medications, and strenuous exercise. We do not know why strenuous exercise can cause blood leaking in the urinary tract, but it could be fluid balance (dehydration), blood cell breakdown, liver or bladder trauma. Treatment is by medication, drinking plenty of water to avoid infections.

People sometimes in certain extreme cases need the red blood clots removed surgically or medication, treatment by leaches work effectively. Blood thinning medication of aspirin or medical doctor prescribes medicines to treat patients. It must be treated urgently to stop lungs running out of air due to blocked clot as red blood clot in lungs causes shortage of breath or no blood circulation death. Respiratory circulatory system of blood clots produces blood poisoning from the decomposing blood matter. The blood is exchanged using centrifugal transfusion to replace coagulated blood. If it’s done early saves lives but delays of waiting for machine worsen patient’s survival. A patient must seek help early so as not to self – sabotage essential treatment for life because life is in the blood. IMG_20180627_101138

The widespread use of opioids to treat pain frequently prompts concerns about addiction and even deaths. So, why are these sometimes dangerous drugs still being given to patients? Much stronger than many of the other options, opioids are among the world’s most commonly prescribed painkillers. These drugs – including morphine, tramadol and fentanyl used to treat pain caused by everything from heart attacks to cancer has side effects. In the UK they were recently linked to the deaths of hundreds of elderly hospital patients, while the US is battling a well-documented opioid epidemic. Why not use other painkillers to avoid the risk of harm, addiction blood clots and breathing problems? These painkillers literally kill patients instead of alleviating excruciating pain. The triple harmful side-effects  cause personality changes, confusion, hallucination so patients become less active. Instead of helping ease people’s pain at the moment harming them. With huge bonuses paid for use of such  medications to pharmaceutical companies they are pushing it’s use more than safe non toxic options available.

A worldwide problem

Opioids work by combining with receptors in the brain to reduce the sensation of pain and they are highly effective. However, opioid receptors are present in areas of the brain responsible for breath control and high doses dangerously reduced rate of breathing as cause of almost all opioid deaths. Inquiry into Gosport said more than 450 people died between 1989 and 2000 from administration of “dangerous” amounts of opioids without medical justification. In US, increasingly widespread prescription of opioids to treat long-term pain led to epidemic addiction. In 2016, 11.5 million people in the US misused prescription opioids, and 42,249 died from overdoses. In England, GPs prescribed 23.8 million opioid-based painkillers in 2017 a rise of 10 million prescriptions since 2007. Since those with chronic pain require strong painkillers some are killed by overzealous use due to need to control excruciating pain and make patients comfortable. Those with sickle cell disease (SCD) have signs of the disease during the first year of life, around 5 months of age. Symptoms and complications of SCD are different for each person and can range from mild to severe pain. The reason infants don’t show symptoms at birth is because baby or fetal haemoglobin protects the red blood cells from sickling. When the infant is around 4 to 5 months of age, the baby or fetal haemoglobin is replaced by sickle hemoglobin and the cells begin to sickle. SCD is a disease that worsens over time. Treatments are available can prevent complications and lengthen lives of those who have this condition. The treatment options can be different for a person depending on symptom’s severity. Hydroxyurea (pronounced hye droks ee yoor EE a) is a medicine that can decrease several complications of SCD. This treatment is safe if given by medical specialists experienced in caring for patients with SCD. Side effects of taking hydroxyurea during pregnancy or for a long time are not completely known. The Food and Drug Administration approved a new medicine to reduce the number of sickle cell crises in adults and children older than age five; it is called L-glutamine. Another treatment, which can actually cure SCD, is a stem cell transplant (also called a bone marrow transplant); this procedure infuses healthy cells, called stem cells, into the body to replace damaged or diseased bone marrow (bone marrow is the center of the bone where blood cells are made). Although transplants of bone marrow or blood from healthy donors are increasingly used to successfully cure SCD, they require a matched donor (a person with similar, compatible bone marrow), and transplants sometimes cause severe side effects and occasional life-threatening illness or death. People with SCD and families should ask their doctors about benefits and risks of treatment options.

Sickle Cell Jaundice

Sickle cell jaundice bilirubin is released byproduct of red blood cells destroyed. The liver must process bilirubin to be excreted as bile into gut for digestion and passed out in the stools or urine. Jaundice occurs when there is too much bilirubin produced by too many red blood cells destroyed. The liver fails to process bilirubin in tummy so abdomen becomes swollen because of a build-up of fluid ascites. Liver and spleen may be enlarged plus unexcreted pile of dead red cells blocks passage of bile into gut. Jaundice disease is assessed and treated with significant symptoms of tiredness, ankle swelling, and also gastrointestinal bleeding, coma, confusion, ascites, etc. Clinical investigations show causes of jaundice increased bilirubin production increase of red blood cells destroyed. So haemolysis collection of blood in tissue red blood cell destroyed cause tiredness or lethargy called haemolyticanaemia. Failure of the liver to process bilirubin excretion diseases affects liver as viral infection, genetic diseases, excessive accumulation of chemicals (copper and iron. The disease Gilbert’s syndrome is a genetic disease causing jaundice by this method. Blockage of passage of bile into gut causes gallstones in bileduct of liver. Accumulation of gallstones requires the removal by surgery.

Jaundice Assessment

Complete jaundice assessment includes yellow eyes seen during clinical history, clinical examination, general or specific investigations. Review of clinical history and a complete routine medical history needs to be obtained. Medical history gives the causes of jaundice including pale stool, very dark urine, itchiness, gallbladder pain, tummy pain or others. A thorough general examination will be carried out specifically, liver and spleen should be felt for an enlargement. Other features include signs of anaemia lack of red blood cells in the body. A routine blood test checks of liver, blood system. The urine is tested to find exact cause in specific investigations by ultrasound for liver and tummy, CT of tummy, or direct visualisation of bile ducts in the tummy. A sample of liver tissue may be required for diagnosis in liver biopsy sometimes.

Treatment of Jaundiced Liver

Treatment of jaundice varies according to causes. A haematologist specialist in blood system, surgeon or physician is involved in treating causes of jaundice. Read more about liver and take care of yourself because the rate young people suffer from kidney disease is alarming. As a result some end up in Hospital on life support with kidney problems but can avert the menace of kidney disease.

TOP 6 CAUSES OF KIDNEY DISEASE:

1. Delay going to a toilet. Keeping your urine in your bladder for too long is a bad idea. A full bladder can cause bladder damage as urine in the bladder multiplies bacteria quickly. Once the urine refluxes back to the ureter and kidneys, the toxic substances can result in kidney infections, then urinary tract infections, nephritis, uremia and sepsis. When nature calls do it soon as you can.

2. Eating too much salt. You should eat no more than 5.8 grams of salt daily.

3. Eating too much meat. Too much protein in your diet is harmful for your kidneys. Protein digestion produces ammonia as a toxin very destructive to your kidneys. Too much meat than body needs equals more kidney damage.

4. Drinking too much caffeine. Caffeine is a component of many sodas and soft drinks. It raises your blood pressure and your kidneys start suffering. So you should cut down the amount of coke you drink daily.

5. Drinking water. Our kidneys should be hydrated properly to perform their functions well. If not drinking enough water the toxins can start accumulating in the blood, as there isn’t enough fluid to drain them through kidneys. Drink more than 10 glasses of water daily. An easy way to check if you are drinking enough water: look at the colour of your urine; the lighter the colour, the better.

6. Early treatment. Treat all your health problems quickly properly and have health checks regularly.  Help yourself God will protect you and your family from every disease.

(3) Avoid Tablets as very dangerous:
* D-cold
* Vicks Action-500
* Actified
* Coldarin
* Cosome
* Nice
* Nimulid
* Cetrizet-D
They contain Phenyl Propanol-Amide PPA causes strokes so banned in USA.

* Doctors in United States have found new cancer in human beings, caused by Silver Nitro Oxide. Whenever you buy recharge cards, don’t scratch with your nails, as it contains Silver Nitro Oxide coating and can cause skin cancer.

Important Health Tips:

1. Answer phone calls with the left ear.

2. Don’t take medicine with cold water.

3. Don’t eat heavy meals after 5pm.

4. Drink more water in morning, less at night.

5. Best sleeping time is 10pm to 4 am.

6. Don’t lie down immediately taking medicine or after meals.

7. If phone’s battery is low to last bar do not answer phone because radiation is 1000 times stronger. Knowledge is power.

Signs or symptoms of acute liver failure include:

  • Yellowing of skin and hands, feet
  • Yellow eyeballs jaundiced
  • Pain in upper right abdomen
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • General sense of feeling sick unwell malaise
  • Disorientation or confusion
  • Sleepiness

When to see a doctor

Acute liver failure can develop quickly in an otherwise healthy person and life-threatening. If one suddenly developed yellowing of eyes or skin; tenderness in upper abdomen or unusual changes in mental state, personality or behaviour seek medical attention right away.dreamstime_s_73450142-356x187

Blood Cells & Blood Coagulation

Pluripotential cells in bone marrow differentiate into red blood cells, white cells and platelets. The Immune system  impacts red and white cells. And recent advances help understand coagulation in the heterogeneous group of diseases, thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anaemia thrombocytopenia platelet clumping in microcirculation ischemic organ dysfunction neurologic symptoms. Increased thrombosis was reported in different hemolytic anaemia (HA), particularly in sickle cell disease (SCD), and thalassemia. The different patho-physiologies, hemolysis have the procoagulant condition. The mechanism involves abnormal red blood cell (RBC) properties. And the increased plasma concentrations of microparticles and a release of cell-free haemoglobin RBC arginase result in impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, increased blood concentration of oxidants, endothelial dysfunction. Major clinical consequence increase developing venous thrombosis, clinical sequelae of hemolysis symptom by NO depletion increased cell free plasma haemoglobin. Hemoglobinemia feature of the HA possibly contributing factor to explain clinical manifestation’s thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) characterized by microangiopathic HA and thrombocytopenia. The condition characterising intravascular hemolysis specific symptoms seen cell-free plasma haemoglobin sequalae. Conditions such as SCD and thalassemia syndromes and hemolytic conditions with substantial intravascular hemolysis. SCD, and the thalassemia represent common genetic disorders worldwide. Though different patho-physiologies, patients with both diseases share clinical manifestations, including thrombotic complications. So stroke in patients caused by large-vessel obstruction superimposed thrombosis, is one of the major complications in SCD. Pulmonary hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening complication in SCD, as documented by echo-cardiography (pulmonary artery pressure [PAP] > 30%) in approximately 30% adult patients with SCD screened. Autopsy showed evidence of new and old thrombi in pulmonary vasculature in up to 75% of SCD patients at the time of death. A recent report based on data by National Hospital Discharge Survey in U.S. shows patients with SCD younger than 40 years old had higher discharge diagnosis of pulmonary embolism than African Americans without SCD (0.44% vs 0.12% the prevalence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was similar. National In-patient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, from 2000 to 2001, reported SCD is a significant risk factor for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism, with an odds ratio of 6.7 (95% confidence interval: 4.4–10.1. The thrombophilic status in SCD has been well documented as multifactorial, involving hemostatic changes, activation of the coagulation cascade and endothelial activation as shown by elevated levels of endothelial adhesion proteins (ICAM-1. ELAM-1,VCAM-1, von Willebrand factor [VWF] and thrombomodulin). Intimal hyperplasia was found in a variety of vascular beds, including pulmonary, renal, splenic, and placental vessels, and in arterioles adjacent to leg ulcers of patients with SCD. Most SCD-related complications said to be caused by the microvascular occlusion and ischemic tissue necrosis following adhesion of erythrocytes (RBCs) and other cellular elements to vascular endothelium. So clinical series describe occurrence of DVT, pulmonary embolism and portal vein thrombosis in patients with β-thalassemia major and β-thalassemia intermedia. In a recent survey of 8860 patients with β-thalassemia in the Mediterranean region and Iran, the overall prevalence of various thrombotic events was 1.65%, precisely 0.9% in thalassemia major and 4.0% in thalassemia intermedia. Was common in SCD, stroke was reported in patients with β-thalassemia major from Greece and Italy an incidence of 20% and 2%,  patients with β-thalassemia hemoglobin E (HbE) disease. Complication occurs commonly in the patients not regularly transfused. Evidence of asymptomatic brain damage reported by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with β-thalassemia intermedia and is inversely correlated with Hb level and increasing age. PAH is increasingly recognized as part of the clinical spectrum for adult β-thalassemia patients, with a frequency ranging from 10% to 74%; the overall higher rate in thalassemia intermedia. Regular transfusions thought to reduce the risk of thrombosis in thalassemia. In recent study, Singer et al found PAH in transfused patients with thalassemia major, most of whom splenectomized, suggesting regular transfusion does not prevent PAH, thrombotic complications. Several factors implicated pathogenesis of the hypercoagulable state, specific changes in lipid membrane composition of abnormal RBCs increased expression negatively charge phosphatidylserine outer surface. Postsplenectomy thrombocytosis, cardiac dysfunction, liver dysfunction lead to protein C and protein S reduction. Suggest inefficient spleen, hematologic hemolytic diseases contribute to an increased propensity to thromboembolic complications. Both β-thalassemia or sickle cell anemia, have a high proportion of patients without splenic function due to surgical splenectomy or due to functional hyposplenism. In a series of 83 patients with β-thalassemia intermedia followed for 10 years, 29% developed pulmonary embolism, DVT of lower extremities and portal vein thrombosis. Development of complications attributed to presence of high platelet counts after splenectomy. Moderate thrombocytosis in the older children, adults with SCA a consequent loss of splenic sequestration autosplenectomy in patients. Literature on relationship between splenectomy or autosplenectomy and thrombosis in SCA is scant. Specific features of thrombotic complications in patients with SCD and thalassemia share similar pathogenesis. Intravascular hemolysis is a common feature of both SCD and thalassemia. Recent evidence associates chronic intravascular hemolysis with a state of endothelial disfunction.

Red Blood Cells

The major stimulus to red blood cell (RBC) production erythropoetin, which is produced in the kidney. Anaemia is decrease in number or concentration of red blood cells amount of concentration of haemoglobin as a common inducer of erythropoetin production. It is not the number or concentration of RBCs that stimulates erythropoetin production, but decreased oxygenation of the blood. The number of red blood cells increase in chronic hypoxia as occurs in those who live at high altitudes. Effectiveness of the red blood cell in carrying oxygen depends on oxygen supply, number of red blood cells and health of red cells:

1) In aplastic anemia, the marrow as a whole is suppressed, by radiation or drugs. Red cells and other blood cells decrease in number (pancytopenia) in aplastic anemia.

2) Anaemia develops from significant blood loss.

3) If iron, an important ingredient of the haemoglobin molecule is deficient in the diet, the patient develops an iron deficiency anaemia. Iron is transported in blood by plasma protein transferrin, stored intracellularly on the protein, ferritin. Deficiency of transferrin results in an iron deficiency anaemia.

4) Vitamin Bu and folic acid important in synthesis of DNA, in development of RBCs from their precursor cells in the marrow. A deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid leads to megaloblastic anaemia in which the RBCs are large, fragile and short-lived. Intrinsic factor, produced by parietal cells in the gastric mucosa, normally combines with vitamin B12, protecting it from gastric digestion, and facilitates its transport across intestinal mucosal membrane. Lack of intrinsic factor, results in a megaloblastic anaemia (pernicious anaemia by failure of B12 absorption.

5) Defects in structure of haemoglobin may be responsible for the anemia. In sickle cell anemia, a recessive gene results in abnormal haemoglobin, which distorts the red cells into a sickle shape in states of low oxygenation. The RBC becomes very fragile, is short-lived, and can clog blood vessels. About 8% of the black population carries the gene. Individuals with the heterozygous state typically are normal, although sickling can occur in marked states of hypoxia. True sickle cell anemia, the homozygous state, occurs in about 0.3% of blacks.

Read more about treatment guidelines »

Hand-Foot Syndrome

Swelling in the hands and feet usually is the first symptom of SCD. This swelling, often along with a fever, is caused by the sickle cells getting stuck in the blood vessels and blocking the flow of blood in and out of the hands and feet. One is at a higher risk of developing blood clots when blood pools in the lower extremities. Elevating the feet and legs will allow veins to return blood to the heart more efficiently and thus reduce the chances of clotting. Those who expect to be bedridden for a long time, such as after surgery or an illness, should put blocks under the foot of a bed to elevate the legs, keeping them slightly higher than heart. Alternatively, placing pillows under one’s lower half will give the same result.

Treatment

The most common treatments for swelling in hands and the feet are pain medicine and an increase in fluids, such as water. Those going on long flight planning for surgery, or other actions that put them at risk for blood clotting, drinking plenty of water can reduce the chance of developing subsequent clots. Proper hydration prevents blood clots in a variety of ways; it increases fluid in blood vessels, diluting the ratio of blood cells and reducing viscosity, lowering risk of clotting. Additional liquid washes away irritants in bloodstream damaging endothelium and blood cells. Blood clot is natural response to damage, washing away toxins significantly lowers risk. Choose water over juices and sodas high sugar liquids leads to dehydration.

Do You Use the Emergency Department for Care of SCD?

Pain “Episode” or “Crisis”

Pain is the most common complication of SCD, and the number 1 reason that people with SCD go to the emergency room or hospital. When sickle cells travel through small blood vessels, they can get stuck and clog the blood flow. This causes pain that can start suddenly, be mild to severe, and can last for any length of time.

Prevention

There are simple steps that people with SCD can take to help prevent and reduce the number of pain crises, including the following:

  • Drink plenty of water.
  • Try not to get too hot or too cold.
  • Try to avoid places or situations that cause exposure to high altitudes (for example, flying, mountain climbing, or cities with a high altitude).
  • Try to avoid places or situations with exposure to low oxygen levels (for example, mountain climbing or exercising extremely hard, such as in military boot camp or when training for an athletic competition).
  • Adults with severe SCD can take a medicine called hydroxyurea to help reduce the number of pain crises.
    • People taking hydroxyurea are checked often by a doctor to prevent complications, including an increased risk of infections.
  • Research shows that babies and children with SCD can also benefit from hydroxyurea therapy.
Treatment

Most pain related to SCD can be treated with over the counter pain medications such as ibuprofen and aspirin. Some people who have severe pain are given opioid (i.e. morphine) medications daily, with additional pain medication. Some people may be admitted to the hospital for intense treatment.

Fast Fact

Taking iron supplements will not help people with sickle cell disease. This type of anemia is not caused by too little iron in the blood; it’s caused by not having enough red blood cells. In fact, taking iron supplements could harm a person with sickle cell disease because the extra iron builds up in the body and can cause damage to the organs.

Anaemia

Anaemia is very common complication of SCD. With SCD, the red blood cells die early. This means there are not enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout body. When this happens, a person might have:

  • Tiredness
  • Irritability
  • Dizziness and lightheadedness
  • A fast heart rate
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Pale skin color
  • Jaundice (yellow color to the skin and whites of the eyes)
  • Slow growth
  • Delayed puberty
Treatment

Blood transfusions are used to treat severe anemia. A sudden worsening of anemia resulting from infection or enlargement of the spleen is a common reason for a transfusion. Multiple blood transfusions, however, might cause health problems because of the iron content of blood. Iron overload, called hemosiderosis, can damage liver, heart, pancreas and other organs, leading to diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Iron chelation therapy should be started in patients with SCD receiving regular blood transfusions to reduce excess iron levels. 

Nurse giving a little girl an immunization.

Infection

People with SCD, especially infants and children, are more at risk for infections, especially those due to bacteria with capsules because of damage to the spleen. Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in infants and young children with SCD.

Prevention

Vaccines can protect against harmful infections.

  • Washing your hands is one of the best ways to help prevent getting an infection. People with SCD, their family, and other caretakers should wash their hands with soap and clean water many times each day.
  • Because bacteria in some foods can be especially harmful to children with SCD, food should be prepared safely.
  • Vaccines can protect against harmful infections. Children with SCD should get all regular childhood vaccines, plus a few extra. Adults should have the flu vaccine every year, as well as the pneumococcal vaccine and any others recommended by a doctor.
  • Take penicillin (or other antibiotic prescribed by a doctor) every day until at least 5 years of age.

See a tip sheet on how to help prevent infection »

Treatment

Infections are treated with antibiotic medicines and sometimes blood transfusions. At the first sign of an infection, such as a fever, it is important to see a doctor right away as this may represent a medical emergency for people with SCD. Early treatment of infection can help prevent problems.

Chest x-ray

Acute Chest Syndrome

This can be life-threatening and should be treated in a hospital. Symptoms and signs are similar to pneumonia. Signs and symptoms include chest pain, coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. Blood clot travels to lungs doctors call pulmonary embolism. Clots reach lungs if small is non-life threatening but smaller clots causes substantial damage to lungs. If clot is large, can stifle proper blood flow and become deadly, so quick treatment is essential. So most common symptom to look for is sudden shortness of breath; if individual is short of breath or lacks physical movement is suffering from pulmonary embolism. A condition causes patient to experience chest pain, breathing problems, heart palpitations. In some cases, a pulmonary embolism causes one to cough up blood as well.

Prevention

Adults with severe SCD can take a medicine called hydroxyurea to help prevent acute chest syndrome. People taking hydroxyurea monitored closely with regular blood testing and dose adjustments to prevent complications. A person on bed rest or recent surgery can use an incentive spirometer, also called “blow bottle,” to help prevent acute chest syndrome.

Treatment

Depending on cause, treatment might include oxygen, medicine to treat an infection, medicine to open up airways to improve air, and blood transfusions. Cut down on salts and fatty cholesterol because salt irritates endothelium or inner lining of veins and arteries. The blood vessels do not work efficiently in moving blood around body. This leads to blood pooling in lower extremities, where it is more likely to clot. Damage to endothelium makes blood cells more to stick to walls of vessels, increasing the risk of clots. Excessive salt intake is harmful to the cardiovascular system in a variety of ways, with blood clots one of the more significant risks. Decreasing salt intake, cutting out all canned and processed foods significantly reduces the risk of blood clots.

Splenic Sequestration

This can be life-threatening and should be treated in a hospital. It happens when a large number of sickle cells get trapped in the spleen and cause it to suddenly get large. Symptoms include sudden weakness, pale lips, fast breathing, extreme thirst, abdominal (belly) pain on the left side of body, and fast heartbeat.

Parents of a child with SCD should learn how to feel and measure the size of their child’s spleen and seek help if the spleen is enlarged.

Prevention

For those who have had a very severe, life-threatening episode of splenic sequestration or who have had many episodes in the past, it might be necessary to have regular blood transfusions or the spleen can be removed (called splenectomy) to stop it from happening again.

Treatment

Treatment typically is a blood transfusion. This should be done in consultation with a blood specialist as patients sometimes become overloaded with fluid when the blood is released from the spleen. Removal of blood may be necessary to prevent this happening.

Young girl getting eyes checked at the eye doctor

Vision Loss

Vision loss, including blindness, can occur when blood vessels in the eye become blocked with sickle cells and the retina (the thin layer of tissue inside the back of the eye) gets damaged. Some patients develop extra blood vessels in the eye from the lack of oxygen.

Prevention

People with sickle cell disease should have their eyes checked every year to look for damage to retina. If possible, this should be done by an eye doctor who specializes in diseases of the retina.

Treatment

If the retina is damaged by excessive blood vessel growth, laser treatment often can prevent further vision loss.

Leg Ulcers

This usually occurs on the lower part of the leg. They happen more often in males than in females and usually appear from 10 through 50 years of age. A combination of factors cause ulcer formation, including trauma, infection, inflammation, and interruption of the circulation in the smallest blood vessels of the leg.

Treatment

Leg ulcers can be treated with medicated creams and ointments. Leg ulcers can be painful, and patients can be given strong pain medicine. Management of leg ulcers could also include the use of cultured skin grafts. Treatment is provided in specialized centers. Bed rest and keeping leg or legs raised to reduce swelling helpful though not always possible.

Stroke

A stroke can happen if sickle cells get stuck in a blood vessel and clog blood flow to the brain. About 10% of children with SCD will have a symptomatic stroke. Stroke can cause learning problems and lifelong disabilities.

Prevention

Children who are at risk for stroke can be identified using a special type of exam called, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). If the child is found to have an abnormal TCD, a doctor might recommend frequent blood transfusions to help prevent a stroke. People who have frequent blood transfusions must be watched closely because there are serious side effects. For example, too much iron can build up in the body, causing life-threatening damage to the organs.

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and Pulmonary Embolism (PE)

Sickling of red cells can increase blood coagulation and induce an increased risk of blood clot in a deep vein (DVT), or in the lung (PE) if the blood clot moves from the deep veins. People with SCD have a high chance of developing DVT or PE. DVT and PE can cause serious illness, disability and, in some cases, death.

Prevention and Treatment

Medication is used to prevent and treat DVT and PE. PE requires immediate medical attention. For more information on DVT and PE visit https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dvt/index.html.

Other Possible Complications

  • Damage to body organs (like the liver, heart, or kidneys), tissues, or bones because not enough blood is flowing to the affected area(s).
  • Malnutrition and growth retardation among adolescents can cause a delayed onset of puberty and, in males, infertility.
  • Gallstones.
  • Painful erection of the penis, called priapism, can last less than 2 hours or more than 4 hours. If it lasts more than 4 hours, the person should get urgent medical help. It can lead to impotence.
  • A very rare form of kidney cancer (renal medullary carcinoma) has been associated with sickle cell trait.

Links to Other Websites

Sickle Cell Disease Association of America

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Clinical Trials

Be The Match – Bone Marrow Transplantation

Reblogged as previously published

A RICH DYING MAN’S ADVISE

259227-Spend-Time-With-Those-You-LoveSpend time with those you love is a rich man’s lasting advise to people to enjoy life better! “I reached the pinnacle of success in the business world. In other’s eyes my life is epitome of good success. However, aside from work, I have little joy. In the end, wealth is only a fact of life that I am accustomed to. At this moment, lying on the sick bed and recalling my whole life, I realize all the recognition and wealth I took so much pride in have all paled in comparison because now life became meaningless in the face of impending death. You can employ someone to drive the car for you, make money for you but you cannot have someone to bear the sickness for you. The material things lost can be found. But there is one thing never found when lost is “Life.” And the person fulfilling precious family times goes to places to created fond memories in appreciation of priceless valued lives. 83406ad0349c1f35c1959e514c16c3bbIf not otherwise years later in operating room realizes that there is one book has yet to finish reading called, “The Book of Healthy Life.” Whichever stage of life in right now, with time, do not wait until it is too late to faced the day when the life curtain comes down. Treasure Love for your family, love for your spouse, love for your friends and Treat yourself well. Cherish others. Growing older, became wiser and slowly realize that wearing a $300 or $30 watch both tell the same time in that specified location. Whether carrying $3000 or $3 wallet or handbag the amount of money inside is the same. Whether driving a $150,000 car or $300 car the road and distance is the same so both get to the same destination. And whether one drinks a bottle of $300 or $10 wine the hangover is the same. And whether the house lived in is 3000 sq ft or 300 sq ft, loneliness is the same. You will realize, your true inner happiness does not come from the material things of this world. Jesus said that a man’s life does not consist of material possessions.930701cdeec23a35bc6acb0a66887ac7Whether you fly first or economy class, in the plane you both arrive at the same time. You realize, when you have mates, buddies, friends, brothers, sisters, and family you chat with, laugh or talk with, sing songs and dance with or help each whether living north-south-east-west or in heaven or here on earth, That is true happiness!!!

Five Undeniable Facts of Life :
1. Don’t educate your children only to be rich to buy and sell. Educate them to be Happy. So when they grow up they will know the priceless value of life too not just the price of material things.

2. Best words in Bible, “Let your food be your medicines. Otherwise you have to eat medicines as your food.”

3. Those who love you never leave you because despite 100 reasons to give up on you they find one reason to hold on.ab073b809b0455b8b11cd832118781d3

4. There is a big difference between a human being and being human. Only a few really understand it.

5. You are loved when born. You will be loved when you die. In between, learn to love God, others and yourself!

NOTE: If you want to Walk Fast, Walk Alone! But if you want to Go Far in life you join others go Walk Together!

The Six Best Doctors in the World to help maintain a better life in all stages of Life and enjoy a healthy life are:
1. Sunlight
2. Rest
3. Exercise
4. Diet
5. Self Confidence and
6. Friends

 

LEARN GREAT LIFE LESSONS

IMG_20180607_181942Great life lessons learnt help us through mace of living in this imperfect world.

*MAKE RIGHT LONGTERM CHOICES*

When younger we make various choices without the future in mind. Sometimes those choices bite in our mid-life. These are some of the things one might regret.

1. *Marrying the wrong person*

When you’re young, check your motives for wanting to marry. Do not marry to copy your peers, for social standing, out of pressure. Ensure you marry for love and companionship, marry the right person, marry your best friend. For if you marry the wrong person or for the wrong reasons, you will have to put up with person the rest of your life. Things might get worse between you two; then depression, physical abuse, affairs, pain, shame, court cases, bitterness defines mid-life years all because you chose the wrong one. Things will get worse when children are involved. Make the right choice of a spouse when you are young.2010febvoice2

2. *The opportunities you did not seize*

When you are younger many doors will open, you will get many chances. Many young people let these opportunities go because of fear, laziness, or pride; yet well younger and with more energy is the best time to start a venture and a name for yourself. Some think the opportunities are too big for them. Take advantage of them or one day when you’re older you will want to go back and grab those missed chances.

3. *Do not Burn Bridges*

The younger care little for relationships, what most think about is getting money and moving up ladder of success at all cost. Many use and trample on people to progress, take relationships for granted, messing bonds, sleeping with people for personal gain. These bad actions does catch up with ahead. And realizes how empty life is without love or friends. If you have success but has no one around you or trusts you it’s a lonely life.IMG_20180607_182056

4. *The child terminatef*

A young lady if pregnant or scared may take termination option rather quickly thinking in the moment. But when you are much older, you will look back and wish you kept that baby. When you are rich and successful you may wish that child you gave up would be around to enjoy fruits of your hard work. Being a single mother doesn’t mean you can’t make it in life or can’t marry in future.

5. *The child rejected*

Young man, you impregnated a woman, she told you she’s pregnant with your child. You rejected her and baby and ran. Years later you’re 50 something, you will wish you were responsible, you will wish you manned up and became a father to that child. You will see child excel and become an adult but will have no claim to the grown up child rejected from the beginning. You regret being a Dead Beat Dad by choice.IMG_20180607_182036

6. *The marriage destroyed*

So you get married to your good fiance; the first months in marriage were good but shortly after, with your money and charm, you started having affairs. You became unfaithful. Spouse begged you to stop, your children started hurting, your marriage was collapsing. One day when you are older, it will hit you how foolish you were to destroy the good marriage you had began to build for temporary thrills in affairs that did you no good. You will realize the damage you caused to your children and spouse.

7. *The God disowned*

When you are much older you become wiser, God becomes more real as you see life in a more meaningful way. But don’t wait to get older to start enjoying a relationship with God. Know God when you are young, build your future with God. Don’t be a young rebel who runs back to God when age catches up.IMG_20180607_181842

8. *The body messed up*

You have only one body to live with all your life. The cigarettes, the alcohol you are abusing, the drugs you are taking, the unhealthy food you’re consuming; all that will destroy you slowly. When you are 50 and lifestyle diseases catch up with you, you will wish you took care of your body when younger, that you exercised more; but now the damage is done.

9. *The time wasted*

The time you are wasting when younger in worry, wrong relationships, laziness, being a couch potato, giving excuses and pursuing meaningless things; you will never get it back.

10. *The dreams talents shelved*

Are you talented when young; are there things you love to do and you are good at them? Nurture those talents, exploit them, don’t give up if you encounter set backs, don’t give up on your dreams. If you give up, when you’re older you will look at peers who do what they love and made it and think to self, “That could be me.” Pursue a career, study course you love. Don’t waste years of your life in a field that doesn’t fulfill you.Never-lose-yourself-while-trying-to-hold-on-to-someone-who-doesnt-care-about-losing-you.

11 *The name defamed*

When older, a legacy is very important, the value of a name is crucial. You will ask yourself what reputation are you leaving behind? Your legacy is a sum total of your actions since youthful days. The written biography of how we live life everyday counts. When you look back your path and see the mud threw at the name, the shame you attracted and the little value you have added to the world; you will regret.

12. *The wealth thrown away*

Are you riding on good money during your productive years? Earning good money? Don’t throw away that money in clubs, reckless living and wasteful shopping. Invest with money, widen your revenue stream, make that money work for you and keep it safe to take care of you in your older years. Leave an inheritance for your loved ones so will never say “I wish I knew better”

13. *The good love that got away*

Is there that great person in your life loving you good? Don’t push that person away, or else that person will walk out your life and you will never ever find someone incredible and who connects with you all your life. It will torment you to grow older with thoughts of “What if I was still with that person?”IMG_20180607_181814

14 *The parents you despised*

When younger, easy to show contempt to parents thinking what do parent’s know? They are old-fashioned, shady and small -minded. But parents are still your parents whether you agree with them or not, whatever their style. Don’t let your parent die separated from you, reconcile and make up. When you get older, you will realize why your parents wanted to be close to you. The older you get, the more you see the priceless value of life. Thanks for reading, quietly send it sharing the journey of life. Appreciate and realize the value of a sister/brother. Check out how it feels for someone who doesn’t have siblings. Realize the value of the past ten years by asking a newly divorced couple how they survived. And realize value of next four years if still in education and graduate with excellence. And realize value of how one year runs so fast. Ask the student who failed final exam how they used their time. Realize value of nine months of pregnancy and ask the mother who gave birth to baby stillborn. And realize the value of one month after the mother has given birth to a premature baby in incubator. Has to wait many months to embrace child. Realize the value of one week for editor of the weekly newspaper. Thousands or millions of copies produced. And realize the value of one minute of a person who missed the train, bus or plane. Realize a value of one second of a person who has survived an accident. Time waits for no one. Treasure every moment you have. Treasure it even more and share it with someone special. Realize valued friends or family members enhance and enrich your loveBring blessings to everyone you know and Remember, Hold on tight to the ones you love! Have a great week, month, years days, life, ahead. ❤🌹🌹😊

CELEBRATING LIVING ALIVE

8d2893a7-d929-4261-86cb-53c54d5c93ddCelebrate life while alive because life is worth living. Enjoy small things in life for when you are dead your tears will flow But loved ones won’t know *Cry now instead! *You will send flowers But won’t see it *Send them now instead!* You’ll say words of praise But they won’t hear. *Praise them now instead!* You’ll forget faults. But will not know, so forgive and *Forget now instead* You’ll miss them But they won’t feel the love so *Miss them now instead.* You will wish You could have spent more time with them *Spend it now instead!* You will wish You could have spent all your money on me. *Spend it now instead!!!* When you hear loved one is gone, you’ll find your way to their home to pay your condolence but did not speak in years. *Please look for them now!!!* Spend the time with every person around you help make them happy while alive before it is too late to show your love!!! 8461-grief-ptsd-trauma-mourning-mdLovingkindness to families, friends, acquaintances, colleagues is important. *Make them feel Special. Because you never know when time will take them away from you forever’* Life is to build each other up. *Life is too short. *Love all and Forgive all.* Funerals costs lots more expenses that go along with it, in many instances cost quite considerable. Family decides to be quite extravagant with planning to “prove their love or status of the deceased. What you need to keep in mind is that you don’t have to spend lots of money to prove how much you cared about someone. It is better simply to do something profound to ensure the commemoration reflects beautifully of who they are. Deceased in other parts of the world go through ritual in Indonesia community. They dig up deceased, clean corpses and dress them up in favourite clothes to parade them around streets.Torajan islanders pay their respects to the dead in the Ma’neme festivalThis ritual is to remember loved ones. It looks like scene from zombie movie, but every three years Torajan islanders pay respects to the dead in Ma’neme festival which is their celebration of life ritual, which translates, Ceremony of Cleaning Corpses. Their dead exhumed, groomed, dressed in new clothes goes on for more than century. Trend set by the Animal hunter Pong Rumasek who discovered a corpse abandoned decaying under tree as he hunted in mountains, felt blessed with good fortune for dressing corpse in his clothes and given proper burial. The bizarre ritual is to remember loved ones Torajan islanders pay respects to dead in Ma’neme festival adopted as people led to believe spirits rewards them for taking care of dead. Deceased’s coffin is replaced or fixed while relatives parade them around streets, following a path of straight lines. Its thought paths connect with Hyang, a supernatural power that only moves in straight lines. The funeral is seen as one of the most important and expensive events in calendar. And some Torajans save money for entire lives for decent send off ‘Puya’ ceremony lasting several days with slaughter of buffaloes, pigs to ensure peaceful afterlife. A man buried abandoned corpse so the society exhumes their already buried relatives to copy his good deeds for reward from spirit? Why not show the living love and care while they are alive instead of now disturbing corpses in graves every three years? How about disease and infection digging up grave. Let dead rest in peace and use resources on living people.