Jerusalem at the time of Jesus and temple is different from modern times. Acts 15:16 says God and Messiah Yeshua will build a temple on Temple Mount Zion. God intervenes to choose a people for HIS NAME from Gentiles. 15 The words of the prophets are in agreement with this, as it is written: 16 “After this Jesus will Return and rebuild David’s fallen tent, Its ruins Jesus will Rebuild and Restore Temple. 17 The rest of mankind will seek the LORD God Yahweh, even all Gentiles who bear MY NAME, says the LORD God Yahweh, WHO does these things’ 18known from long ago. Joel 2:1 says blow the Temple in Mount Zion and announce the coming days of the LORD Yahweh. And Yeshua Rebuilds Mount Zion is significant spiritually as He predicted fall of Temple in His days destroyed, no stone was left standing of that particular Temple. Jesus is Absolutely correct because specific Temple of His day was destroyed.
Tabernacles constructed by Moses, Bezalel and Oholiab in the wilderness Isaiah 33:20 were brought to Mount Zion as a centre of worship of YAHWEH before the days of Jesus, King David and Solomon’s Temples among the many other previously destroyed Temples. Isaiah 33:20. Look upon Zion, the City of our solemn gatherings; thine eyes shall see Jerusalem a peaceful habitation, a tent that shall not be removed, the stakes whereof shall never be plucked up, neither shall any of the cords be broken. Isaiah 2:2 And it shall come to pass in the end of days, that mountain of the LORD’s house shall be established at top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills and all nations shall flow unto it. 3 Many peoples shall go and say: ‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob and He will teach us His ways and walk in His paths.’ Out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.
Jeremiah 50:4 In those days and in that time says the LORD, the children of Israel shall come with their children and Judah together; they shall go on their way weeping, and shall seek the Lord their God. 5 They shall inquire concerning Zion with joy on their faces saying ‘Come and join yourselves to the LORD in everlasting Covenant that shall not be forgotten.’ 6 My people have been lost sheep; their shepherds caused them to go astray, they have turned them away on the mountains; they have gone from mountain to hill, they have forgotten their resting-place. The real Chabod Shekinah Glory of the LORD Yahweh will reappear again on Mount Zion because God Chooses to do so. Isaiah 4:5 And the Lord will create over the whole habitation of mount Zion, and over her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and shining of flaming fire by night for all the Glory shall be canopy. 6 There shall be a pavilion for a shadow in the day-time from the heat, and for a refuge and for a covert from storm and from rain.
Another significant event in history of Israel is conquest of Jericho led by Joshua. The walls of Jericho falling down, recorded in Joshua 6:1-27 by God’s miracle power. Destruction of Jericho regains their inheritance on return from captivity in Egypt. The people of Israel crossed the Jordan River into the land of Canaan in Joshua 3:14 -17 back to their land of milk and honey God promised Abraham over 500 years in Deuteronomy 6:3, 32:49. After forty years in wilderness desert of Sinai the people of Israel arrived on eastern banks of the Jordan. To take land of Canaan back they started from the city of Jericho in Joshua 6:1 from the walled city. Excavations reveal fortifications featured a stone wall 11 feet high and 14 feet wide with smooth stone slope, angling upward at 35 degrees for 35 feet, joined to massive stone high walls. It was virtually impregnable so ancient warfare used assault or surrounded city and people starved into submission. Invaders weakened the stone walls with fire, tunneling, heap up mountain of earth to serve as a ramp methods of assault took weeks or months, and the attacking force usually suffered heavy losses. Strategy used to conquer city of Jericho was unique as laid out by God for people to march silently around Jericho six days on seventh day march seven day with a loud shout. When people shouted, the walls collapsed and Israel won the victory. God restored the city of Jericho to them im Joshua 6:2, 16. People of God by faith, followed the commands of God so walls of Jericho fell down in Joshua 6:20. In Isaiah 4:5, Chabod or Glory of the LORD, Cloud or pillars of smoke and fire in wilderness shows Presence of God to reassure the children of Israel on their way to Canaan Land out of Egypt. The issue of location is now a major issue and conflict. Yet like any other old cities rebuilt or renamed over the centuries, there is bound to be mix ups of vital details and information lost in translation. Isaiah 34:8 For the Lord hath a day of vengeance, a year of recompense for the controversy of Zion. So Isaiah 66:1 says, Thus saith the Lord: the heaven is My throne, and earth is My footstool; where is the house that ye may build unto Me? And where is the place that may be My resting-place? Zechariah 8:2 ‘Thus saith the Lord of hosts: I am jealous for Zion with great jealousy, and I am jealous for her with great fury. 3 Thus saith the LORD: I return to Zion, and will Dwell in the midst of Jerusalem and Jerusalem shall be called City of Truth Holy mountain of LORD of hosts.
Isaiah 28:11 For with stammering lips and with a strange tongue shall it be spoken to this people; 12 To whom it was said: ‘This is the rest, give ye rest to the weary; and this is the refreshing’; yet they would not hear. Jeremiah 6:16 Thus saith the Lord: Stand in the ways and see, and ask for the ancient paths, which is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls. But they said, we will not walk in it. Isaiah 27:12 In that day the LORD will thresh from the flowing Euphrates to the Wadi of Egypt, and you, O Israelites, will be gathered up one by one. 13 That day a Great Trumpet will Sound and those perishing in Assyria and those who were exiled in Egypt will come and worship LORD on Holy mountain in Jerusalem.
God Chose Zion HIS desired Habitation in Scripture states many times Zion is correct Temple location. The following passages make clear mention of this and many more verses apart from these cited here can be examined to maintain the same point. The first Psalm of King David as follows says: Psalm 132:1, LORD, remember David and all his sufferings. 2 He swore an oath to the LORD, he made a vow to the Mighty One of Jacob: 3 “I will not enter my house or go to my bed, 4 I will allow no sleep to my eyes or slumber to my eyelids, 5 till I find a place for the LORD, a dwelling for the Mighty One of Jacob.” 6 We heard it in Ephrathah, we came upon it in the fields of Jaar. 7 Let us go to HIS Dwelling place, let us worship at HIS footstool saying, 8 Arise, LORD and come to your resting place, you and the ark of your might clothe your priests your righteousness; may your faithful people sing for joy.'” 10 For the sake of your servant David, do not reject your anointed one. The whole City of Jerusalem is called tha City of David not just his palace, courtyards and garden grounds or altar built in a Tent for Yahweh. During conquest of Jebusite stronghold Zion now called Jerusalem, Joab the Chief Captain expanded City of David upwards to Millo near rest of the city. And Chief Captain built and repaired ruins damaged by conquerors who took people into exiles. Solomon built his Temple, palaces, gardens on expanded to the Temple Mount area in the City of David.
11 The LORD Swore Oath to David, a sure Oath HE will not revoke: “One of your own descendants I will place on your throne. 12 If your sons keep my covenant and the statutes I teach them, then their sons will sit on your throne for ever and ever.” 13 For the LORD has CHOSEN Zion, HE has desired it for his dwelling, saying, 14 “This is My Resting place forever and ever; here I will Sit Enthroned for I desire it.15 I will bless her with abundant provisions her poor I will satisfy with food.16 I will clothe her priests with salvation, and her faithful people will ever sing for joy. 17 “Here I will make a horn grow for David and set up a lamp for my anointed one. 18 I will clothe his enemies with shame, but his head will be adorned with a radiant crown. Isaiah 24:23, The moon shall be confounded and sun ashamed for the LORD of hosts will Reign in Mount Zion and Jerusalem, before HIS elders shall be Glory. Psalm 48:2, Great is the LORD, and highly to be praised in the City of our God, His Holy mountain, 3 Fair in situation, the joy of the whole earth is Mount Zion the uttermost parts of the north, the City of the Great KING. 4 God in HIS palaces made Himself known as a stronghold. Psalm 87:1 A Psalm of the sons of Korah sang: His foundation is in Holy mountain.2 The LORD loves gates of Zion more than all dwellings of Jacob. 3 Glorious things are spoken of City of God.
Obadiah 1:17, In Mount Zion there shall be those that escape, and it shall be Holy; and the house of Jacob Israel shall possess their possessions. Joel 3:5, And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be delivered; for in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be those that escape, as the LORD said among remnant whom the Lord shall call. Joel 4:16 And the Lord shall roar from Zion,and utter His voice from Jerusalem and the heavens and earth shall shake; but the Lord will be a refuge unto His people, and a stronghold to the children of Israel. 17 So shall ye know that I am the LORD your God, Dwelling in Zion My holy mountain; then shall Jerusalem be Holy, and there shall no strangers pass through her any more. 18 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop down sweet wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the brooks of Judah shall flow with waters; and a fountain shall come forth of the house of the Lord, and shall water the valley of Shittim. 19Egypt shall be a desolation, and Edom shall be a desolate wilderness, for the violence against the children of Judah, because they have shed innocent blood in their land. 20 But Judah shall be inhabited for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to generation. 21And I will hold innocent their blood that I have not held as innocent, the LORD Dwells in Zion.
Deuteronomy 12:1 These are the statutes and the ordinances, which ye shall observe to do in the land which the Lord, the God of thy fathers, hath given thee to possess it, all the days that ye live upon the earth. 2 Ye shall surely destroy all the places, wherein the nations that ye are to dispossess served their gods, upon the high mountains, and upon the hills, and under every leafy tree. 3 And ye shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and burn their Asherim with fire; and ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods; and ye shall destroy their name out of that place. 4 Ye shall not do so unto the Lord your God. 5 But unto the place which the Lord your God shall choose out of all your tribes to put His name there, even unto His habitation shall ye seek, and thither thou shalt come; 6 and thither ye shall bring your burnt-offerings, and your sacrifices, and your tithes, and the offering of your hand, and your vows, and your freewill-offerings, and the firstlings of your herd and of your flock; 7there shall eat before the LORD your God and you shall rejoice in all you put your hand to and your household the LORD your God has blessed you.
Psalm 87:2-3 says, The LORD loves the gates of Zion more than all the other dwellings of Jacob. Glorious things are said of the City of God.” Zion is synonymous with city of God, and it is a place that God loves. Zion is Jerusalem. Mount Zion is the high hill on which David built a citadel. It is on the southeast side of the city. The word Zion occurs over 150 times in the Bible. It essentially means “fortification” and has the idea of being “raised up” as a “monument.” Zion is described both as the city of David and the city of God. As the Bible progresses, the word Zion expands in in spiritual meaning so Zion and Jerusalem refer to the same City, indicating physical and spiritual location of the HOLY City. The word Zion means ‘marked’ as ‘distinctive’ with inner qualities distinguishing Jews as Chosen ‘people who dwell in covenant with God’s unique spiritual traits, terms and conditions.
The first mention of Zion in the Bible is in 2 Samuel 5:7, “David captured the fortress of Zion to build the City of David.” Zion originally ancient Jebusite fortress in the City of Jerusalem. After David’s conquest of the fortress, Jerusalem became a possession of Israel. The royal palace was built there and Zion Jerusalem became the seat of power in Israel’s kingdom. When Solomon built the temple in Jerusalem, meaning of Zion City expanded further to include the temple area in Psalm 2:6, 48:2, 11:12, 232:13. In the prophecy of Jeremiah 31:6, “Come, let us go up to Zion, to the LORD our God.” In Isaiah 40:9, Old Testament Zion name for the City of Jerusalem includes the land of Judah according to Jeremiah 31:12. The nation of Israel as a whole is called Zion in Zechariah 9:13. The word Zion in theology in a spiritual sense in Scripture means figuratively to Israel as the people of God in Isaiah 60:14. In New Testament, Zion is God’s spiritual KINGDOM for believers to come “to Mount Zion and to the City of the living God in the heavenly Jerusalem as stated in Hebrews 12:12. Peter, said quoting Isaiah 28:16, Christ is Cornerstone of Zion: “See, I lay a Stone in Zion chosen precious Cornerstone and one who trusts in Him will never be put to shame in 1 Peter 2:6.
Mount Zion as a geographical area currently is a center of dispute. The Bible is clear, one day, Zion will be the Sole Possession of the Lord Jesus and Zion the nation and City will be restored. “Awake, awake, Clothe yourself in your strength, O Zion, Clothe yourself in your beautiful garments O Jerusalem, the HOLY City for the spiritually uncircumcised unclean will no longer come into you says Isaiah 52:1. The children of your oppressors will come bowing before you and all who despise you will bow down at your feet and call you the City of the LORD, Zion of the Holy One of Israel according to Isaiah 60:14. Isaiah 34:8 For the Lord hath a day of vengeance, a year of recompense for the controversy of Zion. David’s declaration in 1 Chronicles 22:1, says David in the Psalms state Zion is for God as the reserved place where the LORD God would dwell. The temple was located at Zion from time David brought the Ark into Jerusalem until they took it to temple on Mount Moriah. The Temple belonged at Zion but due to wars fought by David Ark was often hidden in secret locations in Scripture as Mount Zion the highest point of elevation than Mount Moriah.
In 2 Samuel 6:16 And it was so, as the ark of the Lord came into the city of David, that Michal the daughter of Saul looked out at the window, and saw king David leaping and dancing before the Lord; and she despised him in her heart. 17 They brought in ark of the Lord and set it in its place, in the midst of the tent that David had pitched for it; and David offered burnt-offerings and peace-offerings before the Lord. Nahmanides in Jerusalem In the year 1322 Estori Farhi was in Jerusalem; and his “Kaftor wa-Ferah” (ch. vi.) gives archeological description of city (Eng. transl. in “Itinerary” of Benjamin of Tudela, ii. 393; German, in Zunz, “G. S.” ii. 268). According to Farhi, Jerusalem was three parasangs long. He mentions the entrance to the Cave of Hezekiah (B. K.16b), within the walls of Jerusalem to the north; the tent erected by David for Ark, in a place called “David’s Temple,” south of Mt. Moriah (comp. “Yihus ha-Abot,” p. 25); northwest of this was a place where a synagogue and the Jewish quarter (see David b. Zimrah, Responsa, No. 633). The city of Jerusalem is, according to him, higher than Mt. Moriah and higher than the synagogue.
In 2 Samuel 5:4-9 King David takes stronghold of mount Zion where he was mocked that the blind and lame shall not come in there. The spiritually blind and lame cannot come into the HOUSE of God metamorphoricaly speaking. All must know God for themselves and His Words in Scripture. 1 Chronicles 11:4 And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem the same is Jebus and Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, were there. 5 And the inhabitants of Jebus said to David: ‘Thou shalt not come in hither.’ Nevertheless David took the stronghold of Zion; the same is the city of David. 6 And David said: ‘Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites first shall be chief and captain.’ And Joab the son of Zeruiah went up first, and was made chief. 7 David dwelt in the stronghold; therefore they called it the city of David. 8And he built the city round about, from Millo even round about; and Joab repaired the rest of the city. Isaiah 33:5 the Lord is exalted, for He dwelleth on high; He hath filled Zion with justice and righteousness. The House of God will stand at the HOLY site that is most suited for prayer as it is written: “God’s Eyes are opened towards HIS HOUSE night and day, towards the place HIS NAME IS, to HEAR the prayer Your servant will pray toward this place. And You shall hear the supplication of Your servant and of Your people Israel that they will pray toward this place.” Isaiah 33:20 Look upon Zion, the City of our solemn gatherings your eyes shall see Jerusalem a Peaceful Habitation, a tent shall not be removed, the stakes shall never be plucked up, neither shall the cords be broken ever again.
This information locates Zion to conclude though previous temples located at Zion were destroyed, 2 Samuel 5:8 refers to a landmark water shaft. “Water shaft” is rendered “quarry tunnel stretching beside Temple for washing and purification required” in the 1917 Jewish Publication Society Tanakh. Scripture notes other landmarks located with certainty today to establishes the western boundary of the City of David in ancient times is the water channel built by King Hezekiah. And in 2 Chronicles 32:30, Hezekiah stopped the upper spring waters of Gihon and brought them straight down on the western side of the city of David. And Hezekiah prospered in all his works. Isaiah 52:7 How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of messenger of good tidings, that announce PEACE, the harbinger of good tidings, announces salvation; saying to Zion: ‘Your God Reigns!’ 8 The watchmen lift up their voice, together to sing; for they shall see, eye to eye, the Lord returning to Zion. 9 Break forth into joy, sing together, ye waste places of Jerusalem; for the Lord hath comforted His people, He hath redeemed Jerusalem. 10 the LORD has made bare His HOLY ARM in the eyes of all the nations and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God.
The Millo in this ancient map in Hebrew: המלוא was a place in Jerusalem first mentioned in 2 Samuel 5:9 and in Chronicles and Kings. It is part of the expansion of the City of David built by the Jebusites before conquest by David with Joab and Israelites. Joab specifically expanded David’s City into Millo nearby Solomon’s Temple. Millo was rebuilt and repaired by Solomon. There is archaeological and historical site of Millo from ancient Israel and ruins of Millo as Stepped Stone Structure uncovered by Kathleen Kenyon and Eilat Mazar connected Millo to the recently discovered large stone structure. Excavation by Eilat Mazar directly above the Stepped Stone Structure shows this structure connects and supports the large Stone Structure. Mazar presents evidence that the Large Stone Structure was an Israelite royal palace in continuous use from tenth century as part of a single, massive royal palace. This biblical reference to Millo as the House of Millo in II Kings 12:21 and II Chronicles 24:25 was the place where King Joash lived until 799 BC. Millo is derived from “fill” in Hebrew milui). The stepped stone support structure is built of fills. In Samuel, Millo is mentioned as the boundary of King David’s construction while building up the City of David after capture of Jerusalem from Jebusites. Millo is translated literally as Landfill or supporting terraces.
Hezekiah’s repair of the Millo is mentioned in repairs to military fortifications, and several scholars agree connection to military tower citadel or significant part of a wall. It was embankment flattened slope between Ophel and the Temple Mount. Isaiah 46:13 God brings near HIS righteousness not far off and HIS salvation shall not delay and WILL place salvation in Zion for Israel HIS Glory. Amos 9:11 In that day GOD WILL I raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, and close up the breaches thereof and I will raise up his ruins, and I will build it as in the days of old. 12 That they may possess the remnant of Edom and all nations, upon whom My NAME is called, says the Lord WHO does this. 2 Chronicles 5:2 Solomon assembled the elders of Israel and all heads of the tribes, the princes of the fathers’ houses of the children of Israel, unto Jerusalem, to bring up the ark of the Covenant of the Lord out of the City of David in Zion. 2 Samuel 6:16, As ark of the LORD came into the City of David, Michal daughter of Saul looked out at the window, and saw king David leaping and dancing before the Lord and despised him in her heart. 17 And they brought in the ark of the Lord, and set it in its place, in the midst of the tent David pitched for it and David offered burnt-offerings and peace-offerings before the Lord. Acts 15:16 After these things I will return, and will rebuild the tabernacle of David which is fallen, and will rebuild its ruins, and will set it up, 17 so that the residue of men may seek out the Lord, and all the nations on whom my name is invoked, saith [the] Lord, who does these things 18 known from eternity.
Lower Eastern Hill City of David
Mount Zion name of the Jebusite fortified city on the lower part of ancient Jerusalem’s Eastern Hill, known as City of David where he built his palace but Zion extends outwards to include: According to the 2 Samuel Mount Zion the site of the Jebusite fortress called the “stronghold of Zion” that was conquered by King David then renamed and partially rebuilt by him as the “City of David”, where he erected his palace, courtyards. Upper Eastern Hill Temple Mount was First Temples and Tabernacles precede Solomon’s Temple erected at the top of the Eastern Hill on “Mount Zion.” After the conquest of the Jebusite city, its build-up area expanded northward towards uppermost part of the Eastern Hill. The highest point became site of Solomon’s Temple. The identification of pre-Israelite Jebusite and Israelite towns on the Eastern Hill is based on existence of only one perennial water source in the area, the Gihon Spring and archaeological excavations revealing sections of the Bronze Age and Iron Age city walls and water systems. The “Mount Zion” mentioned in Isaiah 60:13- 14 and in Book of Psalms and First Book of Maccabees (c. 2nd century BCE) to refers to top of the hill Temple Mount.
Western Hill Mount Zion