GOLD/GEM’S BLACK HISTORY

15703599427795849490005497582097.jpgDiamonds and golds are a variety of the precious fine elegant jewellery items of everyday or special occasion celebrated. Western Europeans value diamonds as investment of great significant interest to them. Gold and diamond gemstones exhanged plus slaves sold for cowries or empty bottle glass beads during slave trade in Africa. Europeans travelled to the Maldives to harvest cowries filled with ships to West African Coast as currency for trade. The glass bottles are shipped to West Africa, grinded for making beads in exchange for the diamonds, gold and the slaves.15703593971038371000270296116611.jpg IMG-20191006-WA0004.jpg15703596092627729972377068231247.jpg15703594510032028393125005315779.jpgIMG-20191006-WA0003.jpgA bizarre exchange took place whereby two waste products as cowrie shells and empty glass bottles recycled to Africa in exchange for gold,  diamond and slaves. A deeper reflection of precious priceless treasures of gold, diamond and slaves in unfair exchange of cowry, glass bottles.15703601079021629804224632030148.jpgIMG-20191006-WA0005.jpg15703600189287282435431865502778.jpg15703598531044087406023553158766.jpg15703596674004412191520517798868.jpgThe slave traders shipped thousands of barrels of glass, crystal and coral beads to Venice in Italy into West and Central Africa. Broken glass bottles melted used to make beads for exchange of African captives. English East India Company imported millions of the cowry shells to Europe sold in Africa by slave traders. 15703595479508843222281945377230.jpg15703594724334800070438091881338.jpg15685440748807277633702931880292.jpgSlave traders exchanged gold shells of certain species historically used their currency in several parts of the world. Used in the past is presently extensively used in jewelry and other decorative or ceremonial purposes. Cowry shell is most used worldwide as a shell money.  Liverpool controlled 80% British slave trade and over 40% of glass bottle beads from Italy, cowries from Indian Ocean.15703654416986799591359005112019.jpgShell money medium of exchange is like coin money or other commodity money  used in many parts of the world. Shell money consisted of whole or partial sea shells worked into beads by shapes. Use of shells traded by commodity exchange valued body ornaments. The distinction between beads, commodities as money debated by economic anthropologists.Africa+Before+Europeans.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0025.jpgashantikingdom-768x299.jpgIMG-20190808-WA0006.jpgimage.jpgSome kings recruited women of Agoji to fight as an army of 4,000 women who battled against Europeans. West African Yaa Asantewaa in Ashanti, Gold Coast now Ghana and Kingdom of Dahomey between 17th and 19th centuries fought. These brave women who fought against slavery and colonialism. Lupita Nyongo went to Benin to explore army’s legacy.poster,840x830,f8f8f8-pad,750x1000,f8f8f8.u2.jpgasantwea-1-680x365_c.jpgwp-1571498295453.jpg15713056029367773464045337576003.jpgMore than 1 billion tonnes of ivory has been taken by Western countries over a thousand years from Africa. But after independence they ban Africans from benefitting from ivory trade destroy by burning or crushing high-profile events in 21 countries around the world. Kenya and others forced to burn ivory in each country destroy 105 tonnes (231,000 lb) of ivory by fire so not funding projects.021639A3-6D15-48F6-83C1-18C0B93154C9_w640_s.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0022.jpg15714104985158493773424962768652.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0012.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0009.jpg15714099074491660731594248591932.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0013.jpgIMG-20191019-WA0024.jpgIMG-20190918-WA0010.jpgPrecious gold was exploited by Western G7 countries which continue to own the mines all over the world. They brought bottles and cowries exchanged for gold and slaves exported to work in mines Brazil, South Africa among others. This underdeveloped African without them investing in people to own resources.15703583848418688805040572864609.jpgShell money in exchange for glass beads in AmericaAsiaAfrica and Australia. The most familiar the wampum created by the indigenous peoples of East Coast,  North America. Ground beads cut from purple marine bivalve shells. The shell used worldwide as currency is the shell of Cypraea moneta money cowry. 15703584223038067271825762797665.jpg15703585606134465096612475839878.jpg15703585357865249895412656567623.jpg15703585026025926365042799769893.jpg15703584687476343591616701578432.jpgBeads exchanged for gold and slaves or diamonds and cowries. Cowry species abundant in Indian Ocean was collected from the Maldive Islands, in Sri Lanka, along the Malabar coast in Borneo and other East Indian islands and African  coasts from Ras Hafun or Mozambique.  Cowry shell money traded by networks of Africa, South Asia, and East Asia.IMG-20191006-WA0000.jpg15703573743066753630029787445541.jpg15703574141542657800047709871768.jpg20191006_112007.jpg20191006_112058.jpg15703577026686191533060876311596.jpg15703574929207567621432847011562.jpg15703575513795785535363368352890.jpgThe first European nation in Transatlantic Slave Trade was Portugal in mid to late 1400’s. Captain John Hawkins made first English slaving voyage to Africa 1562 reign of Elizabeth 1. Hawkins made three journeys in six years. He captured over 1200 Africans sold as goods in Spanish colonies in Americas. British traders supplied slaves for Spanish, Portuguese colonists in America. British settlements in Caribbean North America grew in wars with European countries as Holland, Spain, France, British slave traders supplied British colonies. The British ships took part in the Slave Trade in the 245 years between Hawkins voyage or abolition of Slave Trade in 1807. British merchants despatched over 10,000 trips to Africa for slaves. Merchants in other parts of British Empire sent out a further 1,150 voyages. Portuguese, British, France, Spanish, Dutch Netherlands, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Norway all sold slaves as the Arabs sold slaves for centuries. The  Arabs used cowry as Cypraea moneta. IMG-20191006-WA0006.jpg15703656922301612021566349132130.jpg15703666082696824174557729869127.jpgd984d85d60ae0ec484903eecd261119b.jpgA print from 1845 shows cowry shells used as money by Arab traders. And in  Western Africa shell money legal tender until mid 19th century. Before abolition of slave trade, large shipments of cowry shells sent to English port’s reshipment to the slave coast. The shells of Olivella nana a sparkling dwarf olive sea snail harvested from Luanda Island used as currency in Kingdom of Kongo. Al-Idrisi in mid-twelfth century described a King of Ghana tethering his horse to the huge gold in his palace taken by whites like a similar but lesser size gold in Australia. Abundant gold in South Africa cause the apartheid the bad treatment of blacks in their own motherland. Gold Coast now Ghana became finished because of gold. Black history deals with injustice issues of African suffering despite gold riches.15705320153876161750733975044943.jpg1570530133933986560778091953603.jpg15705302340738369641996290500847.jpgMansa Musa I from 1280 – c. 1337 was the tenth Mansa, translated as “sultan” “conqueror” or “emperor” of a wealthy West African Ghana, Guinea, Songhai Mali Empires. Mansa Musa, the Malian emperor was richest person in history with so much gold he is noted in ancient maps. He caused inflation in Egypt by giving away too much gold with 60,000 people entourage each carried gold bars he gave as gifts on his journey to Mecca.

20191006_105616.jpgThey were traded north in the Kingdom of Benin. In Kongo called nzimbuzimbo  or eli in Ghana. The value of the cowry was much greater in West Africa than in the regions from which supply obtained so trade extremely lucrative. Some cases of gains said to be 500%. Use of cowry currency spread inland Africa. About 1850 German explorer Heinrich Barth said widespread in Kano, Kuka,  Gando and Timbuktu. Barth said in Muniyoma one of ancient divisions of Bornu, king’s revenue estimated at 30,000,000 shells, with adult males paying annually 1,000 shells for himself 1,000 for each pack-ox, 2,000 for each slave in his possession.IMG-20191006-WA0001.jpgCountries on the coast fastened together shells in strings of forty or one-hundred each twenty strings represents a dollar. In interior laboriously counted one by one or, if the traders were expert, five by five. The districts mentioned above received supply of kurdi, as called, from the west coast. The regions to north of Unyamwezi, where they were in use under the name of simbi, dependent on Muslim traders from Zanzibar. The shells were used in remotest parts of Africa until early 20th century now use modern currencies. So other shells of large land snail Achatina monetaria cut i circles with open center used as coin in Benguella, Portuguese West Africa.IMG-20191006-WA0002.jpgCowry shell medium of exchange early to mid-nineteenth century slave trade neighbouring local regions wore beads or sold abroad. Strange monetary value of cowry, empty glass bottles exchanged for slaves, gold and diamond in empires of Medieval West Africa, Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. David C Conrad, 2010 in book Juvenile Nonfiction said, Al-Idrisi, wrote in 1154, describing a natural gold nugget in the king’s palace is so big the reins of the king’s horse were tied to it. The African countries no longer use the  reycled bottles from Western world it’s  a problem their tons of waste no longer shipped to Africa. Africa still extension of Europe uses tons of local bottle waste to make glass beads so continues today. 15703589345984661777063266130447.jpgThe debate continues why the European slave traders duped the Africans with a cowry and empty glass bottles for gold, diamonds, gems. And above all humans created by God worth of priceless value commoditized and dehumanised. Black history month focuses attention on this past treatment of black slaves and then abolishing slavery. Modern slavery and past issues of retribution, reparations, compensation for slave descendants is pending for justice. Bible says, Eye has not seen, ear heard or entered heart of man things God prepared for those who love Him in 1 Corinthians 2:9. God says HE will deal with injustice. Seek God in Christ Jesus to help supply your needs.