TACKLING DIFFICULT PEOPLE

wp-1578833977605.jpgQuestion: “What does Bible say about dealing with difficult people?”

Answer: We all know people we find so “difficult”and deal with difficult people. A difficult person is very condescending argumentative, belligerent, selfish, and flippant, obtuse, simply rude. Difficult people “push one’s buttons” and stir up trouble. Dealing with difficult people is an exercise in patience, love, and grace. Response to difficult people from Jesus’ interactions He never displayed attitude of harsh superiority or dismissive pride. wp-1578834260762.jpgHe showed His authority under control to rebuke when necessary in John 8:47 to deal with the difficult people, remain silent in John 8:6 when asked questions in Mark 11:28–29 in Scripture in Mark 10:2–3 tells story in Luke 7:40–42. In the Sermon on the Mount Jesus dealt with difficult people in love and humility: “I tell you: Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you pray for all who mistreat you.wp-1578834206139.jpg If someone strikes you on a cheek turn the other. If someone takes your cloak, do not stop him from taking your tunic. Give to who asks you, if anyone takes what belongs to you don’t demand it back. Do to others as you would have them do to you” in Luke 6:27–31. Never give tit for tat: “Do not repay evil with evil or insult with insult repay evil with blessing, for this you were called inherit blessing” in 1 Peter 3:9. In dealing with difficult people guard against pride.wp-1578834096919.jpg Its important to recall advise given by apostle Paul in Romans 12:3: “By grace of God I say to you don’t think too highly of yourself. Think of yourself with the humility by faith God has given you” in Philippians 2:3–4. When difficult people approach you deal with the situation in meekness. Love is the key to “Love your neighbour as yourself” in Galatians 5:14 to show God’s love to all difficult people. Wisdom is needed to deal with difficult people. In Proverbs 12:16 patience is the key to such relationships: “A fool shows his annoyance at once but the prudent man overlooks insult.” Proverbs 20:3 says peace-making of honour to avoid strife but fools quickly quarrel.”wp-1578834341622.jpg Proverbs 10:12, encourages giving love, “Hatred stirs up conflict but love covers all wrongs.” Proverbs 17:14 is foresight on “Starting quarrel like breaching dam as disputes breaks out” Best to avoid the situation altogether choosing carefully whom we associate with: “Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered” in Proverbs 22:24. Dealing with difficult people in life is unavoidable but do not respond in the flesh to bring out worst in you. Deal with difficult people by the fruit of Spirit in us in Galatians 5:22–23.wp-1578834322634.jpg By the grace of God, deal with difficult people in love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faith, gentleness, and self-control. Extend love, grace, and mercy God extends to us, careful not to be difficult people ourselves. 2 Timothy 3 says in the last days the perilous times shall come. People will be lovers of  self, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful and ungrateful. 4 Without natural affection, trucebreakers, false accusers, fierce, despisers of those who are good traitors, 5 heady, highminded lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God; wp-1578833839523.jpgHaving a form of Godliness, but deny HIS power from such turn away. 6 This sort creep into houses and lead captive silly women laden with sins, led away with divers lusts,7 Ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of truth. 8 As Jannes and Jambres resisted Moses they resist truth: men of corrupt minds, reprobate concerning the faith. 9 They will proceed no further their folly manifests to all 10 Know God’s doctrine for life’s purpose, faith, longsuffering, charity, patience, love, forgive like Jesus.wp-1578833896562.jpg9 They will proceed no further 11 So endure persecutions afflictions for the LORD delivers out of all. 12 Live Godly life in Christ Jesus despite persecution. 13 Evil people and seducers get worse deceiving and deceived 14 Continue in the things you learn and know 15 From childhood. You know Holy Scriptures to make you wise unto salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. 16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God is profitable doctrine for correction and instruction in righteousness 17 so the people of God perfectly furnished to do good works.

Recommended Resource: Who’s Pushing Your Buttons? Handling the Difficult People in Your Life by Dr. John Townsend

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HAVE A BLESSED NEW YEAR

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JESUS LOVES YOU SO MUCH

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SLAVE DANCE MUSIC ITEMS

Slave+drum+from+1645,+found+on+a+VA+plantation.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0001.jpgat783176122225883477906321000011840561155310077420182n1.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0003.jpgslavedance.jpgwp-1572269263498.jpgwp-1572269200706.jpgUncle-Toms-Cabin-2.jpgcard07.jpgA0057_image0001.jpgthe-bamboula-granger.jpgwp-1571952504645.jpgtap_12.gifdancing-the-slaves-1024x617.jpg6drmr.jpg7D955E00-D477-4299-89D9-73C96B138393.jpgdownloadfile-39.jpg2008268WH0417-1024x683.jpgbenin.jpg3d9dfa5e820988bc198023a09700f9f5bffaae75_00.jpgdownloadfile-48.jpgAtem-Bangwa-carver-sculptor-artist-Cameroon.jpgTamTam.jpg20191028_145811.jpgLunda 1972 - portage d'un tambour.jpgslide_4-1.jpgRaineri_Musical-instruments-belonging-to-negro-slaves.jpgslide_6.jpgdownloadfile-37.jpgdownloadfile-40.jpg611f8a5f-c350-4068-9063-99c447c064f1.jpgAfrica-Unplugged.jpegweb1_CubanBarbershop.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0004.jpghqdefault.jpg46517066_196782661230954_2434980490982195200_o.jpg19367118_1919652318316036_5681263008345489408_n.jpgTraditional music of African continent is passed down orally and is not written. Sub-Saharan African music tradition is based on many percussion instruments  including xylophones, drums, and tone-producing instruments such as mbira or “thumb piano.” The music and dance of African diaspora is from these various regions of diaspora origins. The degree of influence of African musical tradition includes American music or Caribbean genres like soca, calypso and zouk. And Latin American music genres: rumba, conga, bomba, cumbia or samba music of the music of enslaved Africans. These in turn influence African global music.ee69f5393c8ce402bdf85148553c983b.jpgReplica of a Akan West African chief’s drum used for dance music events. The artist is high ranking West African well slave community. Drum denotes a wood carving specialist but drums prohibited because white colonists feared its used to communicate for revolt. So Virginia preserved African Cultures from 1700 – 1800, drums made of animal material and Wood. Drums are oldest African-American objects collected early 1700s in Colony of Virginia in America. Drum was made in the Akan region in Ghana West Africa is played during ceremonies or social occasions. The music is fusion of sounds from Ghana, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Gambia, Uganda, Morocco, Belgium, Scotland, England, Denmark, and France. instruments include Kora, Ngoni, Gimbre, Krakab, Axatse, sticks, Gakogui, Seprewa, Sogo, Apentema, Kpanlogo, Atumpani, Fontonfrom, Dondo, Endingidi, Goje, Bolong, Atenteben Flute, the orchestral Flute and Egoe Calabash Gourd.

The drum travelled across Atlantic on a slave ship used to exercise slaves to keep healthy. Music legacy of drumming on plantations by over 12 million Africans transported to America between 1501-1800s. Provided labour for mines, plantations of sugar, rice, tobacco and cotton. Drumming, African musical tradition in colonies of different music, shouts, hollars, work songs, fife, drum and spirituals. Ghana drum opens news broadcast with ‘Ghana muntie’ ie Ghana listen.   

Music of 12 million Africans into Brazil, Caribbean, America by Europeans from West Africa. Europe used war captive as slaves to farm plantations and domestic slaves. Chained below deck, did not see outside travelling on deck to breathe air or dance. Shackled, densely packed like sardines got sick some died, killed from their societies at sea. Sloane’s collected the material culture of Drum objects in African-American slave trade era. These middle passage forced Africans to dance to exercise for slave labour. Akan drum reached Virginia as musical instrument coerced circulate as cultural resources is used in African international music.

Sloane recorded slave music in Jamaica of African drum, guitar. African-Americans play guitar or drums identity of community. Planters didn’t tolerate performances of slave societies. Sloane notes instrument bans didn’t make drums ddisappear. Sloane collected slave artefacts in C18th tools, clothing, whips, nooses, weapons or anatomical remains. Objects, were gifts from correspondents or collectors, judged Sloane on Caribbean’s natural history slavery. The Akan drum donor Reverend Clerk to Sloane identified it “as Indian drum,” but its African. True identity of African objects survived and circulated by slave traders, recreated by slaves for music to dance to. downloadfile-33.jpgAccording to RootsKunta Kinte was born circa 1750 in Mandinka village of Juffure, in Gambia. He was raised in a Muslim family. In 1767, Kunta while he searched for wood to make a drum for his younger brother, four men chased him and took him captive. Haley traced record of ship The Lord Ligonier to Maryland where Kunta arrived in chain in America. Kunta Kinte kept name of his village and native name of Gambia River origin from Portuguese cambio for exchange or trade. Kunta Kinte’s life in village is similar to Masaka Africana.

Cambio is Kamby Bolongo native trade route like Naplis is Minneapolis. By 1600s large agricultural or commercial estates in Brazil needed more slaves. Portuguese slave traders of Gambia kidnapped Kunte. He traced his roots back to the Gambia. Kunte Family was: Omoro (father) and Binta (mother); Belle (wife); Kizzy (daughter); Chicken George (grandson). Kunte was born in c. 1750 in Juffure, The Gambia and died: c. 1822 (aged c.71–77); in the Spotsylvania County, Virginia. Despite attempt by the slave master to erode his name, Kunta Kinte held onto his memories passed on to his descendants written about in his life history book, Roots made into films. 

Courtesy & Credit Images

Professor Kwesi Ampene, CU West African High Life & World Music International Team

Adam Holden, Obroni Dance Music

Anthony Appiah, Princeton University,

Alex Haley, Roots, Kunta Kinte, Virginia

James Delbourgo, Associate Professor of History, Rutgers University, USA

Patton, S.F. (1998) African-American art. Oxford, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.Hans Sloane’s collection?

SAUL’S 1ST BIBLE MARATHON

Bible-Marathon.jpgA man of the tribe Benjamin ran from a battle line to Shiloh same day with his clothes torn and dust on his head in 1 Samuel 4:12. The young King Saul in c. 1050 – 1012 BCE ran 42 km from Eben Ezra renamed Rosh Ha’ayin to Shiloh, to inform the high priest of 30,000 Jewish soldiers killed including the two sons of the High Priest and the Ark of Covenant taken. Forty-two kilometers is length of the Olympic marathon in 1908 London Olympic Games. The second Marathon was ran by Pheidippides to Athens of a victory his people over Persia, 490 BCE. This first Bible marathon in Bible by a Benjamin man running through hills of the Binyamin region in the West Bank is a great landmark event in the history of Israel after Exodus from Egypt. The land is named after each tribe confirms man from “tribe of Benjamin” region ancient map of Israel. Bible says wherever soles of our feet touch is for inheritance of a chosen people for God’s GLORY. Full 42 kilometers marathon run by Saul is the accomplishment of completing running like the race of salvation. Israel’s Bible Marathon is evidence of history of land recorded by people in the State of Israel.Untitled-2-copy.jpgGod told Samuel sons of the High Priest will perish treating God’s sacrifice with disdain for harassing women in Temple. Israel fought losing battle so Philistines  defeated them, every man fled to his tent in 1 Samuel 4:10. 30,000 Israelites were killed in battle including Hophni and Phinehas the two sons of Eli, high priest serving at Shiloh. Philistines captured the Ark of Covenant so the Saul young Benjaminite raced from the battlefield to Tabernacle to bring news of defeat to the prophet Samuel. “Then a man of Benjamin ran from battle line the same day, came to Shiloh with his clothes torn and dirt on his head” in 1 Samuel 4 : 12. The distance between the battlefield in Even Ezer to Shiloh is 42 kilometers and 26 miles official length of Olympic marathon. This is why the race reenacts the passage from 1 Samuel 4 hosting the this first Bible Marathon in Jerusalem. maxresdefault.jpgRunners take off to the sound of shofar, accompanied by musicians, dressed in white biblical clothing, togas, sandals and cloth head dresses. The finish line, looks over ancient city gate, a cheering squad greets with beat of goblet drums, shofar blasts, flutes or harps. The clay  medals of the top three winners in each race inscribed clay pitcher for a trophy. Finish line of ancient Shiloh Hakeduma is a site archaeologists searching Ark of Covenant. Shiloh was a religious capital of Israel for 369 years, after conquest of Canaan till King David made Jerusalem eternal capital of Jewish nation. Shiloh was the longest standing Jewish capital before City of Jerusalem. It is believed Ark once stood there in ancient history and so running Marathon is running through history. At the top of hill is the entire course of magnificent views seen of Israel’s paranomic beautiful horizon. The rocky hill is green with olive trees and vineyards like True Vine Messiah in bible prophecy who once walked on the streets of the Jewish homeland. It gives hope and assurance to people to run the race to keep going kilometers of eternal life to win the prize in Saul’s footsteps.BIBLE-LOGO.jpgSilence of cordoned off areas protect the runners but Jewish settlement of Eli or Ma’ale Levona families lined routes clap racers to Sinjil and Qaryut is quiet. Jesus on donkey to Jerusalem people lined the streets will return for the Armageddon battle in victory. Bible Marathon is an international recognition of land Israel God gave all nations beyond boundaries of State of Israel, partakers of Covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob fulfilled in Jesus. The Israel Marathon Association managing race for Benjamin Regional Council, preserves history of Saul’s race. The Bible Marathon though not listed in AIM’s race directory of Jerusalem, Dead Sea, Eilat, Tel Aviv, Sea of Galilee races is kept alive by efforts of the runners. In the last four years since inception keeps the Benjamin tribe history in focus. The Maccabiah games, Yosef Yekutieli, tried to launch Bible Marathon after Israel won 1967 Six Day War but was not safe. It faces challenges of communication so multiple runners can start early on time from starting line information to collect numbers needed to run. The 10k racers merge with a half marathoners around kilometer 15 to finish line. Like Saul ran in biblical footsteps many partakers are retracing living history of Israel. So clay prizes are appropriate claim to preserve land as a constant reminder for God to intervene for the Peace of Jerusalem.

COFFEE’S HISTORY & ORIGINS

20191014_110716.jpg15710468834321102168724083807666.jpg15710437345183676338762388191799.jpgCoffee global originated from Ethiopia as earliest evidence of coffee drinking and knowledge of the coffee tree spread from early 15th century. Africans grow coffee harvested, grounded and drank by families as tropical crops. Coffee spread as commodity for trade from Ethiopia Horn of Africa to Yemen Arabia Felix monks monasteries spreading into Mecca and Cairo. Goats were seen hyper stimulated inspired coffee concoction born long ago in the mountains of Ethiopia. Legend says that Kaldi saw his excited herd dancing after eating coffee cherry berry, 16th century reached rest of Middle East, South India (Karnataka), Persia, Turkey to rest of Horn of Africa and northern Africa. Coffee spread to Balkans, Italy, the rest of Europe, Southeast Asia and Americas despite ban imposed in the 15th century by religious leaders in Mecca and Cairo, and later by the Catholic Church.15710460124356859565088160134012.jpg15710436855935512932863149678515.jpg15710447815743466109153844499277.jpgCoffee spread from Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Kaffa Province name of coffee, the first to recognize energizing effects of native coffee plant. So the tribesmen consumed as hunters on days-long treks benefitting from coffee plant’s ability to quell hunger and provide more energy. Studies of genetic diversity of Coffea arabica varieties retained the residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica. Oral history direct evidence has indicated Africans coffee grow among other crops natives used as stimulant so known earlier spread into seventeenth century. Original domesticated coffee plant from Harar, native population use derived from Ethiopia distinct is found populations in Sudan and Kenya.1571043405765699259889766813539.jpg15710434270053024933810851534611.jpg15710436277878114956373217936851.jpg15710435846402047751185959458711.jpg15710434925723954462411793900624.jpgCoffee is native to tropical Africa but its Brazil that is the world’s largest coffee producing country. Vietnam, Colombia are second and third biggest producers. Coffee was traded through Middle East, Asia and Europe before its taken to the Americas by European colonizers. The crop’s success there depended on slave trade. The history of coffee recognizes racism and the role of colonialism. The history of coffee has a dark side of the exploitation of Western countries taking advantage of the African countries. And multibillion multinational corporations making so much profit but don’t invest in these countries of the supply chains. 15710433560353172288782735507670.jpg15710440983255412735373397344862.jpg15710445900461747951835999486447.jpg15710441400893604583404307719482.jpg15710439366083654047546056266942.jpg15710440294184227315937896153147.jpg15710444445985513000575336350508.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.1571044828283157220128130682346.jpgwp-1571137280306.jpgdownloadfile.pngwp-1571007286187.jpgIMG-20191014-WA0001.jpgwp-1571136784509.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.15710478444701786177490462436469.jpg15710456532011356605169476525987.jpg15710456143886626766098078755663.jpg15710455659128566144229800899532.jpg15710448803383604231430384290796.jpg15710449771794187086487037815745.jpg15710450656392204661356868672582.jpg15710451149853942328613469727459.jpgBarbados and Jamaica were some of the earliest British colonies as slave traders provided outposts with human labour from Africa to work on sugar and coffee plantations. Goods and people moved in a triangle between West Africa, colonies in Caribbean and Americas and Europe.wp-1571143326145.jpg15710465101715420187119285288633.jpg1571046665177784825754492463044.jpg15710465806261383212562540144503.jpgwp-1571143230605.jpgwp-1571143279802.jpg15710462101437150544227229786142.jpgSan Domingo in French-occupied Haiti was supplying half of the world’s coffee in 1788 as a direct result of slave labour. Living conditions was appalling, slaves underfed, overworked and housed in the windowless huts. The African slaves were beaten, tortured or killed by their white European rulers.15710466183022452900408860596017.jpgwp-1571142356971.jpgwp-1571138218332.jpgwp-1571142304784.jpg15710467716452899072847031383823.jpg15710449165545412649823065829850.jpg15710450356353051306629389501833.jpg1571046353063816915106442229309.jpg15710432352042400621271070553203.jpgNapoleon tried to regain Haiti in early 1800s led to decline in coffee production prompted the Dutch to fill the gap with coffee produced in their own colony of Java, Indonesia. But has rigid hierarchy between the native Javanese and their colonial overlords. Laziness and apathy of Dutch landowners forced Javanese natives to harvest coffee for a pittance, whole villages died of starvation.15710462360581092218315998157921.jpg15710463381055154496466313978760.jpgwp-1571136892649.jpg15710470158994600447489546368637.jpg15710433079216012543656666705158.jpgUK drinks 95 million cups of coffee day with 500,000 tonnes of waste coffee grounds a year. Some business’s small waste coffee grounds customers to take home as garden fertiliser or homemade exfoliant. Wet coffee grounds waste into landfill in UK tax £88.95/tonne to £94.15 from 1st April 2020 levy operators cost to collection fee. Waste management companies charge for contaminated dry mixed with recycling. 15712234953994380269245425115741.jpgLandfill harmful greenhouse gases such as methane 34 times more potent than carbon dioxide over a 100 year period causing climate change. The wet coffee grounds in an anaerobic digestion plant absent of oxygen microorganisms break down biodegradable material managing waste or producting fuel but grounds sink to bottom in ‘belly’ inhibit rate of biomethane production. Waste grounds incinerated energy generation, not best usel. Bio-bean utilise wet coffee grounds waste recycled bio-products by disposal recycling service generate savings for businesses saving emission as bio-fuel.15710432727097757498507419898001.jpgCoffee declined in the West Indies but it thrived in Latin America. So first coffee bush in Brazil was planted by Francisco de Melo Palheta in Pará in 1727. Brazil became a coffee superpower under the rule of the Portuguese and continued to after independence. By the 1830s, coffee became Brazil’s largest export is around 30% of world coffee production.15710461315717905217574155760681.jpg15710452158122014500876146091126.jpgBrazilian coffee plantations used black or indigenous slave labour. Indentured labourers worked and lived in horrific conditions. Plantation owners treated their labourers as dispensable imported new slaves as they died from overwork. Did not treat existing slaves with any compassion most slaves last seven years from initial bondage.wp-1571142201640.jpg15710455063321556057087774078740.jpgBrazil made slavery illegal in 1888, but four million slaves had been brought from Africa. In Latin America, coffee industry depended on the indigenous labour. Black people not used as slaves in Central American countries anymore, Mayans and other native peoples served as semi-slaves.15710451884962273506023802601097.jpg15710452671042518442429950312232.jpgThe Mayans occupied best fertile lands for growing coffee and so increasingly became disenfranchized by colonial governments. Violently evicted by the military as the demand for coffee grew, forced to work land for the oppressors. Revolts and rebellions common during that time government brutality and the oppression was response.15710454680217849189674356110640.jpg20191015_133547.jpgThe coffee industry in Latin America explaining why the world is dominated by their coffee production. Slave labour no longer but paved the way for today’s industry. Many regions of Brazil and Colombia are now traditional coffee-growing areas with farming as main resource. Legacies of colonialism affect coffee supply chain in Latin America racial divide between farm owners and labourers.15710464500078699002128982820492.jpgMillions of blacks in Latin America Asia, and Africa live in poverty producing the affordable coffee for Western markets. African coffee is the best in the world as Tropical Africa origin of coffee. But that continent not treated on same level of Latin America. Colonialism by former European colonies in Africa left without infrastructure or stable political system. Structural racism economic oppression exists in supply chain. Inequality in the coffee production, baristas, economics. Education, politics of coffee-producing regions of the community in producing countries must contribute to improving sustainability, working conditions, and quality of life for people globally.tree-goat-morocco.jpg15712272641128742041996406789531.jpgObviousTimelyAlligatorsnappingturtle-size_restricted.gifThe Argan coffee like Ethiopian Coffee, Nepal coffee grown on Himalayan climate is ideal for coffee growing. The aroma of brewed coffee fragrance, coffee’s global recognition beans, grown in Nuwakot, a scored 90 points on a scale of 50 to 100 in Coffee Review, California-based trade magazine. In first-ever blind assessment Nepali coffee in Lekali is “savoury sweet in structure with gentle acidity; crisp, satiny mouthfeel.” Concluded the coffee is worth seeking its confident savoury-sweet cup. In 2016, coffee produced by Greenland Organic Farm scored an 89 Specialty Coffee Association of America, California trade group Nepali coffee producers elevate quality of country’s beans to international standards.Workers sort cherries for processing at Lekali Coffee Estate’s farm in Nuwakot in central Nepal. Nepali coffee’s in 2014, Banjara became Nepal’s first Q-grader trained in Xining in China. The West are calling coffee aficionados value beans’ from exotic origin to local cafe. Coffee companies create market for vacuum packed cans of coffee grounds and jars of instant coffee kitchens in the world,  Nepal’s high-end market export coffee. Some claim goat eaten berry coffee also exist like Luwak kopi coffees. Coffee farm in Mauja district of Kaski, view to the Annapurna mountain range Nepal’s first national coffee cupping as Q-graders identify characteristics and flavour, quality of coffee beans. Eight of the world’s 10 highest peaks like Mount Everest Nepal ideal climate high-quality beans. Nepal’s Arabica variety Bourbon and Typica coffee grow on rolling, misty mountain slopes at altitudes from 800 meters to 1,600 meters. First introduced to the country by a monk in the middle of 20th century the crop supports 32,000 farmers in 40 of country’s 77 districts. It exports coffee but Coffee Review rating recognition gives them a much-needed boost in the international market.15712209071994545813192981911343.jpgThe world’s most expensive is Coffee alamid highly sought-after brew among coffee aficionados is “caviar” of coffee. Odour-free coffee alamid aroma, syrup texture, chocolate hint, coffee alamid’s clean aftertaste and flavour is processed by acid from stomach of animals eating coffee cherry berries. The coffee seeds remain intact undigested excreted as a faecal material collected, washed and is grounded as premier luxury coffee sells U$500 -U$1000 per pound. Kopi luwak one of most expensive coffees in world. Vietnamese weasel coffee collecting coffee beans eaten by wild civets in India. Luwak coffee kopi luwak of Java Indonesia is second best.  But traders of this type of coffee exploit animals by caging, feeding them solely on coffee beans instead on an enriched variety of diets in wild more suitable to thrive. The tourists travel to see caged animals in action oblivious to animal rights issues involved in most expensive coffee processs. A cup of coffee cost $80 per cup in the tourist epic centres.

Mark Pendergrast: Uncommon Grounds, History of Coffee & How It Transformed Our World.

Sprudge.com, The Question of Racism