TOBACCO’S BLACK HISTORY

downloadfile-34.jpgTobacco black history plantation shows  slave masters on horseback and slaves working in fields. The slave-labourers forced to work without rest whipped to carry on working without work.345060382.jpg IMG-20191028-WA0000.jpgSlaves working with tobacco in Virginia, by an unknown artist, 1670..jpgvinales_d9ca.jpeg5217827538_0f360909da_c-720x400.jpgTobacco-Control.jpgSlaves denied their freedom, peace, rest were exploited by the masters to enrich themselves at the slave’s toil expenses. The affluent blatantly exploited slaves from tropical countries working fields51sCNoa+zTL._SX355_.jpg Severely punished for the slightest thing on the plantation without any prospects of freedom or guaranteed happy life. So families separated sold off to anywhere.IMG-20191027-WA0008.jpgSold from parts of West Africa to world to work as slaves in United States, Brazil or South Africa. Slavery life sentence is out of their power under controls of the masters as possession provide tobacco.downloadfile-28.jpgTobacco is imported from the plantation in Cuba, Caribbean to America, Britain and G7 countries. Exchanged by journey of goods destined to places to economies to build wealth since 14th-19th century. harvest-pic-1.jpgStill ongoing in some countries, brought transformation to the G7 countries and their economies from these plantations. Increased value meant poor treatments  of slaves to produce more to cover cost.c6149634806538966eb4075d8f46821f_XL.jpgThe slave master’s conomies prospered by slave labour but do not acknowledge their source of wealth, apologise or pay compensation to them from economies.Two-companies-to-lose-their-license..jpgSlave trade tobacco industry still largely influence colonialism and racism today as consequences of such treatments. So economies grew rich from exploitation.downloadfile-11.jpg1490735754008.jpgProfit driven companies of commercial cigarettes genetically modified enhance  supply but needlessly means inhaling a multitude of pesticide-grade chemicals and many other radioactive elements.99109089-leaves-of-tobacco-in-the-drying-plant.jpgTobacco_drying_in_Pinar_del_Río_(01).jpgTobacco brand American Spirit adverts says its “additive free” and “natural” but their tobacco brand is said treated with ammonia and urea to increase tobacco freebase nicotine content is being sued.50548794-classical-way-of-drying-tobacco-in-barn.jpg8485124146_d8af9c0291_b-2016_12_26-17_14_34-UTC.jpgIMG-20191027-WA0007.jpgPiliraniSemu_Banda150508HighRes.jpgThe whole leaf tobacco is said to be less expensive compared to the cost of pack of cigarettes containing 20 grams or less of actual tobacco. A whole leaf tobacco is sold cheaper sold in bulk is taxed less.20191028_110139.jpgFactory_lector (3).jpgdownloadfile-38.jpg6e1d6c993998bd4a82fe9928b3c04f64_XL.jpgCigarettes are processed by converting a 200kg tobacco leaves in cases to batches of cut rag made into cigarettes. Tobacco leaves from a green leaf threshing plant of a British American Tobacco-Vinataba factory in Dong Nai Province factory of 60,000 square meters. Is one of the most modern factories of British American Tobacco Group modern equipment with trademarks: Hauni Germany, Dickinson Legg of UK’s breakthrough technologies. KT2 cutter for stems, laminas of tobacco leaf, air-curing set, air convecter curing machine is the newest generation of the impurities-removing Tobacco Scan II.downloadfile-20.jpgProcessed tobacco leaves are delivered to factory, checked for quality, blended with other ingredients for brand recipe, flavours or expanded tobacco. Various types of tobacco ingredients of blending components is vital. Moisture content of tobacco leaf crumbles if too dry, spoiled in storage due to high moisture content. Blended tobacco is treated with a right amount of steam and water to make it supple, cut to form cigarettes. Moisture is removed, cut rag given final blending and quality check. Current capacity and operation technology is 4 tons of cut rag per hour or 17,000 tons a year. Cut rag from factory accounts for 1/3 of the total amount manufactured in Vietnam.20191027_180331.jpgOB-YJ180_0730JT_G_20130730075221.jpgCigarette-Tube-Making.jpgProcesssed because is often considered as an agriculture commodity in a whole leaf form. Tobacco and cigarette spread globally by Hollywood adverts and even doctors recommended smoking in past.pro_01.jpgIMG-20191027-WA0009.jpg20191027_164612.jpgcigarette_acceptedwaste.jpg20191027_164902.jpg20191027_164700.jpgCigarette waste is baled and stored at a warehouse until a high enough volume is reached and transferred to processor. Waste is recycled by shredding filters of cellulose acetate blended with the other recyclable plastics and pelletizing used in injection moulding prioritized hard plastic shipping pallet. Residual tobacco waste goes to non-food compost system.JTI-reveals-cigarette-waste-recycling-scheme.jpgCigRecycling03.jpgTobacco and cigarette affects health and the lungs in the latter years people now are advised by their doctors to cut down on quantity smoked or quit completely. Its replaced by e-cigarettes known to kill people due to contaminated chemicals used in refill supply chain. Its banned altogether in some states in America. So whatever reasons for smoking due to a peer pressure to fit in to look cool or its seen as grown up it costs countries food supply. Land is used to farm tobacco as people starve and slaves descendants wait for compensation over 500 years.

Tobacco history Timeline and events.

  • 6,000 BC – Native Americans first start cultivating the tobacco plant.
  • Circa 1 BC – Indigenous American tribes start smoking tobacco in religious ceremonies and for medicinal purposes.
  • 1492 – Christopher Columbus first encounters dried tobacco leaves. They were given to him as a gift by the American Indians.
  • 1492 – Tobacco plant and smoking introduced to Europeans.
  • 1531 – Europeans start cultivation of the tobacco plant in Central America.
  • 1558 – First attempt at tobacco cultivation in Europe fail.
  • 1571 – European doctors start publishing works on healthy properties of the tobacco plant, claiming it can cure a myriad of diseases, from toothache to lockjaw and cancer.
  • 1600 – Tobacco used as cash-crop – a monetary standard that lasts twice as long as the gold standard.
  • 1602 – King James I condemns tobacco in his treatise A Counterblast to Tobacco.
  • 1614 – Tobacco shops open across Britain, selling the Virginia blend tobacco.
  • 1624 – Popes ban use of tobacco in holy places, considering sneezing (snuff) too close to sexual pleasures.
  • 1633 – Turkey introduces a death penalty for smoking but it doesn’t stay in effect for long and is lifted in 1647.
  • 1650 – Tobacco arrives in Africa – European settlers grow it and use it as a currency.
  • 1700 – African slaves are first forced to work on tobacco plantations, years before they become a workforce in the cotton fields.
  • 1730 – First American tobacco companies open their doors in Virginia.
  • 1753 – Tobacco genus named by a Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus – nicotiana rustica and nicotiana tabacum named for the first time.
  • 1791 – British doctors find that snuff leads to increased risk of nose cancer.
  • 1794 – First American tobacco tax.
  • 1826 – Nicotine isolated for the first time.
  • 1847 – Philip Morris opens their first shop in Great Britain, selling hand-rolled Turkish cigarettes.
  • 1961 – First American cigarette factory produces 20 million cigarettes.
  • 1880 – Bonsack develops the first cigarette-rolling machine.
  • 1890 – American Tobacco Company opens its doors.
  • 1990 – 4 billion cigarettes are sold this year and manufacture is on the rise.
  • 1902 – Philip Morris starts selling cigarettes in the US – one of the brands offered is Marlboro.
  • 1912 – First reported connection between smoking and lung cancer.
  • 1918 – An entire generation of young men returns from war addicted to cigarettes.
  • 1924 – Over 70 billion of cigarettes are sold in the US.
  • 1925 – Philip Morris starts marketing to women, tripling the number of female smokers in just 10 years.
  • 1947 – Lorillard chemist admits that there is enough evidence that smoking can cause cancer.
  • 1950 – 50% of a cigarette now consists of the cigarette filter tip.
  • 1967 – Surgeon General definitively links smoking to lung cancer and presents evidence that it is causing heart problems.
  • 1970 – Tobacco manufacturers legally obliged to print a warning on the labels that smoking is a health hazard.
  • 1970 – 1990 – Tobacco companies faced with a series of lawsuits. Courts limit their advertising and marketing.
  • 1992 – Nicotine patch is introduced – in the following years more cessation products will start being developed.
  • 1996 – Researchers find conclusive evidence that tobacco damages a cancer-suppressor gene.
  • 1997 – Liggett Tobacco Company issues a statement acknowledging that tobacco causes cancer and carries a considerable health risk.
  • 1997 – Tobacco companies slammed with major lawsuits – ordered to spend billions of dollar on anti-smoking campaigns over the next 25 years predominantly focused on educating the young on dangers of smoking.
  • 1997 – For the first time in history a tobacco company CEO admits on trial that cigarettes and related tobacco products cause cancer. His name was Bennett Lebow.
  • 1990 – 2000 – Bans on public smoking come into effect in most states in America, as well as in other countries in the world

 

 

Courtesy & Image Credit
Fredrika Bremer, Homes of New World; impressions of American slavery
Freefromsmoking.com

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