RUBBER BLACK SLAVE TRADE

e39da07af9712527db4552aa56d78160--king-leopold-african-history.jpgPeople of Congo oppressed by Leopold II in nineteenth century terrorised blacks in rubber plantations of Congo. A brutal violence was used to cut off the hands of slow workers. Leopold ruled Congo with brutality of Congo land to establish white supremacy over populated black people. Leopold unleashed brutal, cruel exploitation like death camps of Hitler to abuse people. Leopold’s “civilizing” of people was enforced “hard work” on the rubber plantations. How does cutting of their hands ensure hard work? Natives served by hard work but to strengthen their character, their hands are cut off? Leopold’s monstrous colonial enterprise said Adam Hochschild in his book King Leopold’s Ghost notes: “Leopold claims his state provided wise government and public services in Congo. There were no schools or hospitals except a few sheds “not fit to be occupied by horse.” Used a dreaded chicotte whip routinely whips black Africans and cuts off their hands.  And black victims lies on the floor on his stomach with feet and hands bound, whipped on the bare bottom of victims the severe blows left permanent scars on the flesh. Twenty -five strokes meant unconsciousness for victim, hundred or more strokes caused people’s death.congo-belge.jpgdc591453d4ce48fdf191eabbaf543fa7.jpg20191025_140027.jpgd93b45fd-8820-4ce8-9aa3-8e7b3cb47b93.jpg
Missionary E J Glave wrote in his diary, ‘we persuade ourselves African’s skin is very tough but at first blow victim yells horribly quietens down into groaning. After 25 or 30 blows a victim loses his senses. Punishment far worse inflicted on women and children. Small boys of 10 or 12 working for the hot tempered masters most harshly treated. Stanislas Lefranc, a Belgian prosecutor in Congo, sickened at brutal whipping of thirty people whose crime was to laugh in presence of a white man. The terrible carnage of people of Congo increased by rubber boom. In 1887 more demand for rubber grew as used for inflatable cycle tubes for bicycles. Motorcars became so popular tyres for motorcars use rubber. In 1891, Leopold issued decree creating monopoly of trade in rubber, ivory to himself. Joint ventures between Belgian, British, Dutch firms says Stuart Nolan in Belgium’s Imperialist rape of Africa, ‘the astronomical profits built Leopold’s rich empire. Earned the 700 percent profits of his Anglo-Belgian India Rubber and Exploration Company (ABIR).’ A private army Force Publique used to brutally extract from the native labour rubber without any payment of money. Adam Hochschild said terror tactics use by an officer Fievez against those who did not collect rubber to meet the quota: “I made war against them. One example enough was hundred heads cut off and then plenty of supplies ever since. My goal is ultimately humanitarian. I killed hundred people… allowed five hundred others to live.” Another Belgian Captain Rom used heads of 21 natives murdered on his flowerbed to punish them. Those who failed to supply required rubber quota to Belgian masters had villages burnt down, children murdered, hands cut off as punishment. Some historians said Belgian way of promoting progress in Congo was evil and dehumanising.wp-1571940892317.jpg.jpgdownloadfile-32.jpgrubber-tapping.jpg6891de805df7499ec9217b38ed8d140d.jpgdownloadfile-31.jpgNatural-Rubber-Factory-Manufacturer.jpgIMG-20191024-WA0002.jpg

And death toll of slavery by Leopold in Congo is more than 10 million people as Congolese historian Professor Ndaywele Nziem states death toll is a staggering 13 million. Belgian King Leopold’s brutal exploitation in Congo was enormous he spent $6 million to upgrade his Royal Palace at Laeken. Used millions to build the monuments of Chateau d’Ardennes, Brussels’ Arcades du Cinquantenaire, Ostend’s seaside arcade and golf course. He funded universities, museums, more millions in secret purchases of more of hid properties through his doctor and his architects. Leopold used Congo to launder money for investment, billions of dollars in Asia, Latin America or Near East. His Congo-based companies built constructions in China, fishing rights off Morocco, mines in Greece, Philippines and rubber concessions in Bolivia. This Scramble for Africa, Congo by Leopold II led to more developments. The public outcry human rights movement against Belgian King Leopold forced parliament to assume control of Congo in 1906. The change didn’t improve life of Congolese, they suffered forced labour and heavy taxation. Congolese were used as cheap labour in Belgian mines or agricultural firms. Exploitation was so huge by 1950 profits Congo produced twice domestic average income in Belgium itself.

In 1960 Congo was independent from Belgium as Patrice Lumumba became first prime minister of Congo. ‘On the first day of independence, the Belgian King, Baudouin,’ writes Osei Boateng ‘made an ill-judged patronizing speech praising genius and courage of Leopold II whose reign of terror caused death of over 10 million Congolese.’ Confessions of CIA Agent…How the imperial powers control Africa by remote control in New African-April 2007. The speech incensed Lumumba who went to the podium and trashed the Belgians’ colonial record. He spoke of need ‘to bring an end to slavery imposed by force.’ Lumumba saw their degredation by Belgian colonial rule as Congo state had less than 20 university graduates with no cadres of doctors, lawyers or engineers. Brussels planned to allow Congolese political freedom but retained control of military, economic and commercial power. Guiding Congo to safe was an uphill task for Lumumba.wp-1571937570089.jpg43234-cp.jpg001.jpgACTEZ8U.jpg4381E60F00000578-4818958-image-a-38_1503568339599.jpgwp-1571937534066.jpg1-s2.0-S2212609015300121-gr1.jpgSmarting under rebuff by Lumumba the Belgian government caused trouble for independent Congo. On 11 July 1960, the province of Katanga of Congo’s copper, cobalt, uranium, gold, mineral wealth to secede. Belgium the principal owner of wealth perceived in Brussels resources of Katanga tied Belgian interests to the secession. A painful lesson of history is historians glorify conquerors is deeply ironic and sad because African history written from point of Colonial masters. Colonizers wrote textbooks and books but ban different perspective. The press was censored. The written record of the devouring of Africa by colonialism was excised from memory. Memories of the rubber era cruel exploitations is never written into official Western history. So, Mark Curtis in Web of Deceit, explained backgrounds to conflict struggle a tribal war. Television portrays Africa by very little understanding of events developed world, major international institutions created. Much reporting promotes view as faults of Africans. The Western press reinforced the stereotype of Africans as post-colonial failures of tribalism wars.

Congoleselaves-rubber-plantation-Ultimate-History-Project.jpgCongo_Malnourished.jpgDisguise as civilizing mission system of forced black labour by usurper imperial domination during scramble for Africa. In 1876, famous explorers at European society, Leopold II delivered the keynote address couched in high moral purpose said, ‘To open civilization to parts of our globe not yet penetrated, to pierce the darkness hanging over entire people is crusade worthy of century of progress. The objective of International African Association was to abolish “Arab slave trade to establish peace among chiefs to procure impartial arbitration.” Leopold II’s overseas territorial expansion states, ‘No country is complete without owning overseas possessions.’ Grabs territories in Africa between 1880 and 1884, writes J. Stengers, King Leopold’s imperialism, ‘sent expeditions, led by Stanley, which established a fairly loose occupation of territory in Congo by means of outposts. At Berlin Conference 1884-85, Leopold laid claim to huge tract of Congo region 80 times the size of Belgium he declared a Congo Free State in 1885 with himself as sole owner. The Scramble for Africa, Congo under Leopold II developments had to obtain the consent of Bismarck of Germany. Conditions of Germany was European nation occupied African coast or declare ‘protectorate’ to notify action, signatory powers forced blacks to serve colonial masters.

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International institutions relationship’s reporting promotes view of the innate faults of Africans.’ Western press with few exceptions reinforced stereotype of Africans post-colonial failures destiny to tribalism. Niall Ferguson, empire writer ideology: Africans can’t rule themselves Writing history from the standpoint of Whites as “helping” is dark history of its colonial past need to understand link to policies of Western countries conflicts bred in Africa. Leopold’s Congo claim alarms Bismarck but given to “civilise” blacks in Conyo negotiated to obtain the concessions from Bismarck. So Leopold got French in January 1885, permission to extend control over Congo. Northern, eastern boundary owned by Germany, Leopold driven by greed for territorial expansion control to the south between Congo and Zambezi. In 1884 obtained recognition for Congo by United States. Frontier free State of Congo territory,’ Stengers, said ‘disproportionate to the resources at disposal. Slender finances did not allow establishment of more than a rudimentary government.’ The resources occuping a large territory in Congo did not curb greedy ambitions of Leopold to expand territories outside Congo Free state 1885 capital establish port town of Boma. Transport systems established to exploit and plunder rich natural resources of Congo. A system of transportation connected Atlantic coast to Stanley Pool Leopoldville, Kinshasa. Africans brutally used as human mules relay heavy load supplies maxim guns another 250 miles. From there, steamers cruise Congo River 900 miles to Stanley Falls in Kisangani. The river, renamed Lualaba, navigable another 500 miles deep into rainforests of southern Congo. Leopold financed building of river fleet of steamers. And thousands of Africans died as porters forced to serve colonial masters. Views of West is the innate faults of Africans  by Western press reinforced stereotype of Africans post-colonial failures destiny to tribalism. Niall Ferguson on empire ideology says Africans cannot rule themselves, history from standpoint of Whites, “helping” the dark history of the black colonial past must understand link to policies of Western countries breeds conflicts in Africa. And still deprives billions of own resources.

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