BLACK HISTORY IN BRITAIN

African-Romans-12-1.jpgBlacks live in UK since recorded history of sailors, traders and settlers before slaves arrived from 1450. And modern archaeology techniques and historical research show blacks in Roman Britain from African heritage of all classes. The fourth-century ivory bangle lady York’s  skeleton in Sycamore Terrace in 1901 is between 18 and 23 years old. She was of a higher-status adult female of an North African descent who died in York in 4th century AD. Her skeleton is found with bracelets, silver, bronze pendants, glass earrings, beads, blue glass jug, mirror. A piece of bone inscribed with this words “Hail, sister may you live in God.” Her skeleton is in Yorkshire Roman Gallery Museum in York. Reconstructed remain show the North African DNA. Her flagon openwork, ivory inscription plaque in the grave reads SOROR AVE VIVAS IN DEO,”Hail sister may you live in God” is evidence of the Christian population in late Roman York. Plaque of Christian existence and grave good’s alignment of grave is north-south not east-west. This strongly suggests the lady interred had connections with Christian community. Ivory Bangle Lady’s rich burial found in York’s cranial features mixed white and black ancestry. Grave of stone contained jet bracelet, ivory bangle of great wealth of time. Evident presence in the Roman Britain of residents from a multiethnic Romanised North Africans in Britain. IMG-20200708-WA0008Another ‘Beachy Head Lady’ from a sub-Saharan Africa lived in East Sussex 200 AD. Africans travelled into Britain long before arrival of Romans. Burial site of Roman London cemeteries shows their settlement of are multi cultural society. Bioarchaeology DNA analysis of graves and church records and grave goods by London various archaeologist Museum identify many burials of these people of black African ancestry. Some travelled to or UK born in London before Roman period. Evidence of people with African includes North African ancestry before Roman Britain. The craniometric study of 22 individuals from Southwark are of Roman London abd found four African ancestry. And isotopic analysis of their bones evident of childhoods spent in a climate warmer than Roman Britain. A lot ancient documents in archives show black Africans were in Britain. Soldiers in the Roman army and others recruited in North Africa fought in battles and the crusaders had blacks alongside them.African-Romans.jpgAfrican-Romans-16.jpg Autosomal DNA analysis of one of four individuals in a Roman London found he had Black ancestry, with brown eyes, dark brown or black hair. Bone isotopes of individual male is aged over 45 years, spent his childhood in London region of multiethnic Romanised North Africans. Inscriptions of inhabitants involved in a military show some of upper echelon of society. The Augustan History, of Roman emperor Septimus Severus’ to Hadrian’s Wall in 210 AD inspection of wall said its mocked by “Ethiope” soldier holding a garland of cypress-boughs. So Severus ordered him away, ‘frightened’ by his dark skin colour saw his act appearance as omen. The “Ethiope” its written said: “You have been all things, you have conquered all things, now, O conqueror be a god.” The Black Britain’s history of two millennia show black people born, lived and died here. Their history of political activism or historic struggle and artistic roles exist despite adversity. Social history of black people shaped societies and cultures lived in. The Cheddar Man, first modern Britain had blue eyes and ‘dark to black skin’ as his fossil unearthed in 1903 in Gough’s Cave in Cheddar Gorge, Somerset tests show black heritage. His face revealed “dark to black” skin and piercing blue eyes. Britain’s oldest complete skeleton  known Cheddar man by the pioneering research has given scientists clues into what our first ancestor looked like. This is the most accurate model of what scientists now think the very first British man looked likeThis is the most accurate model of what the scientists think the very first British man looked like. The Cheddar man had lived around 300 generations ago in the area some believe he still has ancestors living in Somerset. Research suggested dates to the Mesolithic period and lived in Britain when its almost completely depopulated. He is thought to have died in his twenties and had a good diet. And according to historians, his tribe was one of the first groups of people to move back into Britain at the end of the last Ice Age. He had dark to black skin, blue eyes and dark curly hair. This findings are a dramatic departure from earlier reconstructions depicting first Britains as lighter skinned male. Experts say this surprising find shows paler complexion and lighter hair in northern Europeans is a more recent development. Professor Ian Barnes research leader at  Natural History Museum said “It’s not just skin colour that’s interesting it’s combination of features” that makes him look like the others seen today. Researchers carried out an examination of his DNA with a facial reconstruction of his fossil for the Channel 4 show First Britains: Secrets of a 10,000 year old man. Natural History Museum scientist’s modern techniques extracts DNA from fragments of ancient bones, and teamed up with specialists at UCL to carry out extensive analysis. The result passed to Dutch artists Alfons and Adrie Kennis specialist palaeontological model makers. Another black African pioneer recognized in c.125 to 350 is the Beachy Head Lady shown here.72748915 ancestors 7Scientists determined this woman was around 30 years old when she died. Her  remains give insight into long history of Africans in Britain. In 1953, her remains as the Beachy Head Lady were found in East Sussex. Her skeleton show origins from Sub-Saharan Africa date to around 125 AD. In 2012 the archaeologists again found her skeletons. Using 19th Century Analysis revealed this skeleton, named Beachy Head Lady after the Eastbourne beauty spot where she was discovered, belonged to the woman of sub-Saharan African descent of 125 AD. She lived in England most of her life and held a high position in Roman society. Is first black Briton confirming African presence in Britain from second, third centuries. In 2013, another skeleton discovered in Fairford, Gloucestershire by the forensic anthropologist revealed to be of a sub-Saharan African woman. Remains dated between the years 896 and 1025. Local historians believe she was either a slave or a bonded servant. Oil paintings of the aristocratic families from period shows artists positioned black people on edges or rear of canvasses to gaze at masters and mistresses. In ‘hierarchy of power relationships,’ they were placed next to dogs and domestic animals. As shared by the art critic and the novelist David Dabydeen, ‘more or less on same status,’ their humanity effaced, exist in pictures as solitary mutes, aesthetic foils to their owners’ economic fortunes. Ohajuru_Derbyshire_entry.jpgThe flow of culture and ideas from East to West some scholars argue Crusades played a part in bringing Africans into Britain. Some in Britain as prisoners captured as done in Crusades period or they may have come into England as visitors. Some sub-Saharan Christians from Sudan and Ethiopia took part in Crusades on the side of Europe against Muslims of Middle East. A documented evidence of people of African descent coming and settling in England appears in sixteenth century baptism, marriages and burials of people of African descent found in church records and the official records. The scribe who drew image in the Abbreviato might have seen African man who came to England as a prisoner or visitor following one of the Crusades during the period. Most were called the Moors or blackamoors and referred to  for record purposes than racism bias of the nineteenth century still rife today.article-1275339-097D21A1000005DC-744_230x378.jpgIpswich Man’ is the skeleton of a man found in Ipswich, Suffolk and made the subject of a BBC documentary History Cold Case. This skeleton was discovered during a series of archeological digs  carried out from 1993-2006 in cemetery of the Greyfriars monastery in Ipswich, Suffolk. The Ipswich Man buried there between 1258 and 1300 and through forensic investigation by Professor Sue Black at University of Dundee, found to have direct African ancestry challenges the popular idea that the first people of African descent arrived in Britain in the mid-twentieth century. Dame Professor Sue Black one of the leading forensic anthropologists in her field and her research team at Centre for Anatomy Human Identification (CAHID) work with organizations like United Nations, police and intelligence services. They conducted forensic research all over the world including African countries and study local differences in chromosomes, effects climate and diet have on teeth, bone density and bone structure. The Ipswich Man came from Tunis in North Africa found in Greyfriars monastery where Ipswich man was buried, built by Robert Tiptoft. Tiptoft was a colleague of Richard de Clare and both went on a Crusades in 1270. Payments for their activities during Crusades recorded in the Pipe Rolls (papers written in Latin recording expenditure). In the Flores Historiarum, a medieval history, it states De Clare brought ‘four captive Saracens’ with him to England from Tunis in 1272. Ipswich Man one of the four because of De Clare and Tiptoft’s relationship. The scientific investigations of the Ipswich Man’s bones concluded he died from a spinal abscess by latter end of his life would have seriously incapacitated his movement. It is likely during those last years he was cared for at the Greyfriars monastery. The Ipswich Man buried in the grounds of friary in a single grave. Historical research says poor man or slave unlikely to be buried this way. Due to his grave’s location inside cemetery it is probable Ipswich Man was Christian at time of his death and connected to the friary. This is because Pope Innocent IV stated only ‘friars and their families’ buried in cemeteries of the Greyfriars. Philippa_of_Hainault-mini.gifPhilippa of Hainault 24 June c.1310 to 15 August 1369 Queen of England wife of King Edward III. Edward promised in 1326 to marry her within following two years. She was married to Edward first by proxy when Edward dispatched the Bishop of Coventry “to marry her in his name” in Valenciennes second city in county of Hainaut) in October 1327. The marriage celebrated in York Minster on 24 January 1328 in months of Edward accession to throne of England. And in August 1328 fixed his wife’s dower. The blacks brought English words of African origin like aardvark is Afrikaans word, meaning the earth or ground or pig. So apartheid is Afrikaans policy separated development and living. Banana is West African, Wolof banana. Banjo is Bantu mbanza. Basenji breed of dog from the Congo. Biltong is Afrikaans cured meat. Tumpani is large drum, Asante Ghana.queen-charlotte.jpgThe second black queen of Britain  is Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was the wife of King George III. Queen Charlotte 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818. Born Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz on 19 May 1744, youngest daughter of Duke Charles Louis Frederick, Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Princess Elizabeth Albertina of Saxe-Hildburghausen. She served as a Queen consort of Great Britain and Ireland from her wedding in 1761 until the union of the two kingdoms in 1801. Afterwards she was queen consort of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in17 November 1818 Kew Palace, Richmond. Children  include George IV of United Kingdom,  William IV of the United Kingdom. Both these queens had Moorish features and tanned but often portrayed whiter than white. It was From 12th century, the empire caused black people numbers to swell from 15th and 18th centuries. John Hawkins, England’s first slave trader in 1562 sailed the Barbican from Plymouth with three other ships to violently kidnap 400 Africans in Guinea, trading them in West Indies. So between 1562 and 1567 Hawkins and his cousin Francis Drake made three voyages to capture more slaves from West Africa it then called Guinea Coast.Jan_Verkolje_(I)_-_Portrait_of_Johan_de_la_Faille_-_WGA24594.jpgAt first smaller numbers, were ferried into the ports of London, Liverpool and Bristol on the same ships that brought imperial products like tea, sugar, cotton, coffee, rum, fruit, wine, tobacco and oil enriched national economy. Guinea coin named after West African region area from which hundreds of thousands of indigenous people were seized against their will. Slave traders from 17th – 18th century in Britain used African guinea as their unit of currency. Like Apache tribe named for Helicopter or Cherokee, Zulu tribe named vehicles after natives. Some blacks in Britain were brought in by planters, government officials, and military and naval officers returning to the United Kingdom. Slaves were seen as reassuring companions to the lonely white expatriates on long voyages back to UK island away for decades. Other black people offered to commanders of slaving vessels as gifts and later sold in domestic service at quayside auctions or at coffee-houses in London. They were given names as John Limehouse or Tom Camden. Early in 16th century, Africans arrived in London when Catherine of Aragon travelled to London so brought group of African attendants with her. Africans trumpeters served Henry VII and Henry VIII in London when trade lines opened between London and West Africa. The record of African in London in 1593 named Cornelius show Africans found themselves working as butlers or the household attendants in aristocratic families. Their duties or a chief function looked at was decorative. They were the symbol of status, human equivalents of porcelain, textiles, wallpaper, lacquered pieces the English nobility bought for a display of their wealth. People dressed in fancy garb, their heads wrapped in bright turban, selected on basis of looks and skin tones like Lord Mansfield Dido.3ee44280ffa0ee08001d3a105730a420.jpgDido here in this photo played crucial role in Lord Manfield’s understanding of black slaves in Britain. Dido a family member and his brother the Captain’s daughter lived with, cared for by Lord Mansfield. Her ability to influence him by researching the plight of black slaves helped paved the way and also shaped minds to abolish slavery in Britain. This helped women sewing bags with notes inside to boycott slavery products in the UK. Manchester mill workers refused to use slave cotton from America leading to closure of mills. So Abraham Lincoln wrote to thank them for helping to stop the triangular slave trade in Britain. The London resident falsely perceived rapid increase of black population. Elizabeth I declared black “Negroes, black Moors” be arrested and expelled from UK but it did not lead to legislation. The Africans continued to live in Britain despite such racist negative attitudes. British empire expanded and African, Caribbean slaves still shipped on seas work plantations in Caribbean or in America. One of black musicians of six trumpeters in the royal retinue of Henry VIII in a Westminster Tournament Roll manuscript dates from 1511 revealed. Royal livery is mounted on horseback a man identified as “John Blanke, the blacke trumpeter,” listed in payment accounts of Henry VIII and his father, Henry VII. A group of Africans at court of James IV, Scotland includes the drummer, “More Taubronar” and John Blanke paid wages for their services.Westminster Tournament Roll shows  John Blanke, wearing a brown turban latticed with yellow. Trade lines opened from London to West Africa the people from this area began coming to Britain on board merchant and slaving ships. The merchant John Lok brought several captives to London in 1555 from Guinea now West Africa. The voyage accounts in Hakluyt reports said they: “were tall, strong men, could well agree with our meates and drinkes. The colde moyst aire somewhat offend them.”During the later 16th century to first two decades of the 17th century, 25 people named in records of a small parish of St. Botolph’s in Aldgate identified as “blackamoors.”  In a period of war with Spain between 1588 and 1604, there was an increase in the number of people reaching England from Spanish colonial expeditions in parts of Africa. The English freed many of these captives from enslavement on Spanish ships. They arrived in England as a by-product of the slave trade; some of mixed-race African and Spanish, and were interpreters and sailors. American historian Ira Berlin classified as Atlantic Creoles or Charter Generation of slaves, multi-racial workers in North America.  After a slaver John Hawkins arrived in London with another 300 captives from West Africa, slave trade was entrenched by 17th century. And Hawkins although embarked on three expeditions lobbyist joined forces to kidnap more slaves for plantations in Caribbean and America.IMG-20191018-WA0014.jpggeneral_francis_sweet_potato_dinner.pngFrancois Auguste Biard - The Slave Trade detail.jpgBlackamoor servants were seen as the fashionable novelty popular in homes of wealthy and Queen Elizabeth I. Other servant “John Come-quick, blackemore” a servant to Capt Thomas Love. Others in parish registers includes Domingo “a black neigro servaunt unto Sir William Winter” buried xxviith daye of August [1587] and the “Frauncis a Blackamoor servant to Thomas Parker” was buried in January 1591. Some freed workers, employed as servants and entertainers to the wealthy. Some worked in ports or chattel labour. The black population of several hundred during the Elizabethan period settlement actively discouraged by Queen Elizabeth I’s privy council. In  archival records of 360 African people between 1500 to 1640 in England and Scotland. Racist reaction to black people and biracial parentage, as George Best argued in 1578 black skin was not from heat of the sun in Africa but was caused by biblical damnation. So Reginald Scot associated black skin with witchcraft, in his book Discoverie of Witchcraft. As an unprepossessing devil in 1584 “horns on his head, fire in mouth, tail, eyes bison’s, fangs like dog, claws like bear, skin like niger and voice roaring like lion. Racist views spread in Britain by playwrights and royalty. But black slaves were coach porters of King James VI of Scotland yet Black people seen as different, common without white ‘virtues’ unless English subject born on the island and a citizen. 

IMG-20191002-WA0008.jpgislamic-slave-tradeMoors enslaved British and Europeans for over 300 years before English joined European slavery of blacks. From 1500s to 1600s took around 35,000 European Christian slaves to the Barbary Coast in Tripoli, Tunis, Moroccan, Algiers. The Barbary corsairs took British ships 466 in 1609, 1616 and 27 by Plymouth, Baltimore in Ireland, in 1625. In 1682′ of 160 British ships taken by Algerians from 1677 to 1680. Sailors taken on ships 7,000 to 9,000, fishermen and coastal villagers into Africa, Spain, Italy. Thousands taken by slave raiders from the coasts of Valencia, Andalusia, Calabria, Sicily till none left to capture. White slaves in Barbary men and women Christians of impoverished families. 8,500 slaves needed annually to replenish about 850,000 captives over the century from 1580 to 1680. For 250 years from 1530 to 1780, 1,250,000 over a tenth of Africans taken in slavery. The Arabic black Moors influenced English words like coffee from kahveh, lemon is from laimum limon in France, Alcohol is from al kohl, algebra is from al jebr.Phillis_wheatley_frontpiece_1834.jpgBy 1596, Queen Elizabeth I privy council issued letters to lord mayors of major cities that “of late divers blackmoores brought into this realm, of the kind of people there are already here to manie.” Sir Thomas Sherley, Caspar Van Senden, merchant of Lübeck tries to capitalise on this by petitioning Elizabeth I’s Privy Council to transport slaves captured in Africa to Lisbon, to sell them there. The relevant Privy Council Letters of July 1596 and draft proclamation papers of Robert Cecil attempt to deport captives from England. Van Senden and Sherley did not succeed in correspondence with Sir Robert Cecil. In 1601 Elizabeth issues proclamation expressing how “highly is discontented to understand those great number of Negroes and blackamoors as informed carried into this realm” again licensing van Senden to deport them. So her proclamation of 1601 stated that the blackamoors “fostered, powered here to great annoyance of the queen’s own liege people, covet relief, those people consume.” “Most are infidels, having no understanding of Christ or His Gospel.”  In March 2019 two skeletons found on the Mary Rose have Southern European or North African ancestry; one found to be wearing leather wrist-guard bearing arms of Catherine of Aragon and royal arms of England is thought to possibly be Spanish or North African, the other, known as “Henry” have similar genetic makeup. Henry’s mitochondrial DNA showed his ancestry is from Southern Europe, the Near East, or North Africa. Dr Sam Robson from the University of Portsmouth “ruled out” Henry as black or sub-Saharan African origin. And Dr Onyeka Nubia cautioned the number on board Mary Rose had heritage beyond Britain was not representative of whole of England was not one-off.  Travelled through Spain or Portugal to arrive in Britain. Jacques Francis, seen as a slave by some historians, described himself in Latin as “famulus” a servant, slave or attendant. Francis was born on an island coast of Guinea, Arguin Island, off the coast of Mauretania. He worked as a diver for Pietro Paulo Corsi in his salvage operations on sunken St Mary  and St Edward of Southampton and the other ships as Mary Rose, which sunk in Portsmouth harbour. Corsi was accused of theft, Francis stood by him in English court. With help from an interpreter, he had support his master as innocent. The depositions in case displayed negative attitudes towards slaves or black people as witnesses. Studies of the blackamoors in early modern Britain shows minority continuing presence. Others did a back-breaking labour all their lives under the hot sun. Slavery was legal in Britain till 1772 though it continued another 400 years. Images of black people in family portraits of the rich and wealthy.220px-William_Ansah_Sessarakoo_2William Sesreko of Anomabo in Ghana, a kings son was rescued from slavery by a British queen from the Bahamas. His father entrusted him to the captain of a ship to be educated in Britain. But that captain betrayed his father so sold him to a slave master in the Bahamas. Then a Fanti trader found him in Bahamas and informed his father in Gold Coast. His father negotiated his release from slavery to regain his freedom after 40 years. He lived in England among high society and was well respected as royal among aristocrats of his time. Slavery of whites and blacks is devastating to both sides. Often the good deeds of genuine misionaries misquoted as slave masters. White slavery is not celebrated in Black History month or the Sidique slavery of Africans by Moors into India. Slavery is by greedy few who sell off humans and perpetrate wars that forcefully acquire slaves. All whites and all blacks are not racist slave traders. So Africans suffered damaged by slavery consequences and past colonialism impacts still felt today. People are God’s creation, maltreatment of people is an offence to God. Though slavery in Deuteronomy 28 is permitted by God its punishment for a stiffnecked rebellion. People need God’s mercy and forgiveness in Christ for slavery justice.Detail from a painting of Dr Johnson leaning on his stickDr Johnson forbade his black servant to buy food for his cat. And Black men and women found life in UK preferable to lives of punishing work others faced in the West Indies. Though comparatively well treated, they were not treated as fully human and equal to white people. Some were paraded as commodities on show, others displayed naked to portray size of their buttocks. Dehumanised and treated as property of masters. During this era there was a small rise of black people arriving in London. Britain was involved with the tri-continental slave trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas. Black slaves were attendants to sea captains and ex-colonial officials as well as traders, plantation owners and military personnel. This marked growing evidence of the black presence in the northern, eastern and southern areas of London. There were also small numbers of free slaves and the seaman from West Africa and South Asia. Many people were forced into beggary due to lack of jobs and racial discrimination. There is evidence that black men and women were discriminated against by dealing with law because of their skin colour. In 1737 George Scipio accused of stealing Anne Godfrey’s washing so case rested on if or not Scipio was only black man in Hackney at time.William Hogarth’s engraving Four Times of Day: Noon (1738) shows black London resident. Evidence of African presence in LondonEngland from Roman times to the present day experience racism. By 1750s London became home of many Black people, Jews, Irish, Germans and  Huguenots. In 1764 The Gentleman’s Magazine reported its ‘supposed to be near 20,000 Negroe servants.’ Evidence of number of black residents in London found through registered burial. People of London viewed blacks, less human.  These views expressed in the slave sale advertisement led black activists of era  Olaudah EquianoIgnatius Sancho and  Quobna Ottobah Cugoano campaign to stop racism. By support of other Britons these activists demanded Blacks freed from slavery. Supporters involved in this movements included workers and other nationalities of the urban poor.  At this time the slavery of whites was forbidden, but the legal statuses of these practices were not clearly defined. Free black slaves could not be enslaved, but blacks who brought as slaves to Britain considered property of their owners. It was in this era Lord Mansfield declared slaves who fled from his master could not be taken by force or sold abroad, in case of Somerset v Stewart. This verdict fuelled numbers of Blacks that escaped slavery, and helped send slavery into decline. In this same period many slave soldiers who fought on the side of the British in the American Revolutionary War arrived in London. These soldiers were deprived of pensions and many of them became poverty-stricken and were reduced to begging on streets. Blacks in London lived among the whites in areas of Mile EndStepneyPaddington and St Giles. Majority of people lived servants to wealthy whites. Holy Church records Woodchurch Cheshire of baptism on 16 May 1784, of “Robert Cleaveland a Black boy of about 15 years old.” And St. Anne Manchester of baptism on 17 February 1786 of “William Ballard a child about eight years old son of late William Tate late of the Isle de Las on the Winward coast of Africa.downloadfile-51.jpgMany labeled “Black Poor,” low wage soldiers, seafarers and plantation workers.During the late 18th century publications, memoirs written about “black poor.” Writings of Equiano, unofficial spokesman for Britain’s Black community. Memoir of his life titled The Interesting Narratives of Life of Olaudah Equiano. Equiano became a landowner in Cambridgeshire, married Susannah Cullen, from Soham. His daughters were born and baptised there. In 1787 4,000 blacks were transported from London resettled in colony of Sierra Leone with help from Committee for Relief of the Black Poor. In 18th century and freed Black American slaves who fought for the Crown in American Revolutionary War, Black Loyalists. In 1787, hundreds of London’s black poor include the East Indian seamen known lascars agreed to go to West African colony on condition they retain the status of British subjects, live in freedom under the protection of the British Crown, and be defended by the Royal Navy. Some white people with them said Committee for Relief of Black Poor. Lovers, wives and widows of the black men. 1200 Black Loyalists, former American slaves freed resettled in Nova Scotia join new colony. Black presence in northern, eastern, southern areas of London, had one most famous slave a sea captain Sambo, fell ill after arriving in England and consequently buried in Lancashire. His plaque and gravestone stand to this day. Small numbers of free slaves, seamen from West Africa, South Asia, beg as discriminated against.A 1651 painting of this Scottish noble woman Elizabeth Maitland, Duchess of Lauderdale with her black servant. In 1687, “Moor” was given freedom of the city of York. He is listed in the freemen’s rolls as “John Moore – blacke.” He is the only black man or woman found to date in York. And the British merchants in the transatlantic slave trade important factor in development of Western Black British community. The communities flourish in port cities in slave trade of Liverpool and Bristol. By 1795 Liverpool had 62.5 per cent European Slave Trade. Liverpool home to Britain’s oldest black community, dating at least to the 1730s. Some Liverpudlians trace black heritage in city back to ten generations. Early black settlers in the city, seamen, the mixed-race children of traders sent to be educated in England, servants, and freed slaves. In 1787, Thomas Clarkson, English abolitionist said in Manchester “I was surprised to find a great crowd of black people standing round the pulpit about forty or fifty of them. Evidence of black men and women discriminated against in dealings by the law because of skin colour. In 1737, George Scipio was accused of stealing Anne Godfrey’s washing, case rested on if Scipio only black man in Hackney at time. Ignatius Sancho, black writer, composer, decent shopkeeper, voter Westminster, wrote  despite being in Britain since age two he felt “a lodger.” Sancho said a, “national antipathy of prejudice” of native whites Britons to wooly headed brethren. And Sancho frustrated so many stereotyping their black neighbours. The financially independent householder the first black of African origin voted in parliamentary elections in Britain, a time 3% of British population were allowed to vote. 

A 1744 painting of Hon. John Spencer, his only son and their black servant. In 1764, The Gentleman’s Magazine said its  “supposed to be 20,000 Negro servants.” Morning Gazette said 30,000 in country as whole but numbers were “alarmist” exaggerations. Same year the party for black men or women in Fleet Street pub so unusual and written in newspapers. Their presence in the country started a heated outbreak of distaste for colonies of Hottentots. Modern historians say the parish lists, baptism, marriage registers and sales contracts 10,000 black people lived in Britain in 18th century. Others put the number at 15,000. In 1772, Lord Mansfield put number of black people in country at 15,000 but to most modern historians its 10,000. Black population 0.1% of overall London population 1787. Black female population less than 2% of overall Afro-Caribbean population. The 1780s end of American Revolutionary Wat hundreds of black loyalist America resettled in Britain. Some emigrated to Sierre Leonne helped by Committee for Relief of black poor suffers destitution.Composer, shopkeeper Ignatius Sancho  was first black person of African origins to vote in parliamentary elections was symbol of humanity of Africans on the immoral slave trade. Ignatius Sancho engraved by Francesco Bartolozzi first African prose writer in England. Sancho financial independence householder the first black British voter. Born on slave ship, Sancho orphan Sancho was taken to England. Was butler but intelligence noted by employer Duke of Montagu who sponsored his creative endeavors. Sancho wrote plays, poetry, music, shop in Westminster meeting place for black writers, artists and musicians. Sancho counted Samuel Johnson, Laurence Sterne and David Garrick friends. First part of my life unlucky, placed in family who judged ignorance the best and only security for obedience. Slavery was not legal in England. Cartwright decision of 1569 resolved England was “too pure an air for slave to breathe in. Black African slaves bought and sold in England in the eighteenth century. Slavery not legally contested until Somerset case of 1772, James Somersett black slave of Virginia. Lord Chief Justice W.M. Earl Mansfield  Somerset do not force to leave England against his will, “The determinations go further master cannot by force compel him to go out of the kingdom. article-0-1CF6B15E00000578-284_634x543.jpgSlavery common law despite previous ruling in 1706 declaration clarified by Lord Chief Justice Holt. Slavery not legal in Britain ignored argument slaves as property not be considered people. A slave owner Thomas Papillon took his black servant “to be in nature and quality of my goods and chattel. In 1731 the Lord Mayor of London ruled “no Negroes to be bound apprentices to Tradesman or Artificer of City ruling, forced to work as servants.  Black Londonet unpaid servants were slaves in disguise. In the 1750s, London home of Blacks, Germans, Irish, Jews,  HuguenotsGretchen Gerzina in Black London mid-18th century accounted for one three percent of London populace.  Evidence of number of Black residents in city found through registered burials. Some black people in London resisted slavery through escape, others resettled  free men in London, awarded pensions, poverty-stricken beg on streets, “had no prospect of their subsisting in country by depredation on public or common charity.” Observer said “black refugees from America and others by land or sea in his Majesty’s service distress. White loyalists had no goodwill to new arrival of America. Harris List of Covent Garden Ladies from 1757 to 1795 on prostitutes’ working in Georgian London, ”mulatto” woman in 1789 ”Eliza dark complexion, by thickness of her hair and eyebrows, is well-furred. Charged little more than worth of scarcity complexion in country imported from West Indies. During the 18th century, publications and memoirs on “black poor writings of Equiano. The former slave was unofficial spokesman for Britain’s Black community. Memoir about his life entitled The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano.Olaudah EquianoIn 1786, Olaudah Equiano became the first black person to be employed by the British government, made Commissary of Provisions and Stores for 350 black people suffering from poverty who had decided to accept government’s offer of assisted passage to Sierra Leone. In the 1787, Committee of Relief of Black Poor, sent 4,000 black Londoners into Sierra Leone in West Africa first British colony on continent. British subjects  recognize duty Royal of Navy defend black people from London. It was the view of British West intermarriage was abhorrent. The chair wrote to Standing Committee of West India Planters and Merchants and advice and assistance in procuring act of parliament “prevent Foreign Blacks brought to this country to remain. The  Indian Briton, Dadabhai Naoroji, stood for election to parliament for Liberal Party in 1886. He was defeated, leader of Conservative Party, Lord Salisbury to remarks “however great the progress of mankind and how far we advanced in overcoming prejudices, doubt if got to point of view British constituency elects Blackman. Led to discuss term, “black” to South Asians and Naoroji elected to in 1892 as a first Member of Parliament (MP) of Indian descent. In 2007, scientist found a rare paternal haplogroup A1 in a few living British men with Yorkshire surnames. This clade is exclusively found among males in West Africa but rare. The haplogroup brought to Britain enlisted as soldiers during Roman Britain or slave trade. Turi King, a co-author on study, noted the West African slave trade individuals arrived through slave route, as Ignatius Sancho or Olaudah Equiano high social rank. Some married in population.

Pablo Fanque, celebrated circus owner and performer in Victorian Britain. In 18th century British slave trade decline in response to changing public opinion. Great Britain and US abolish Atlantic slave trade in 1808. Cooperate liberating slaves from illegal trade ships off coast of West Africa freed slaves sent to Sierra Leone. Slavery abolished in the British Empire by 1834 stop profit of Caribbean plantations. Few blacks came to London from West Indies, West Africa, resident British black population trickled. Slaves or servants of West Indies and America.  Abolition virtually halt to Britain. Black population of Victorian Britain so small those living outside larger trading ports isolated from the black population. The black people and descendants in parish registers declined in early 19th century. Descendants of black servants Francis Barber, Jamaican-born servant lived in Britain in 18th century. Descendant live in England white. Abolition of slavery in 1833, black and Chinese seamen put down roots in communities in British ports abandoned by employers. Late 19th century, the race discrimination theories of scientific racism, felt whites superior race and blacks less intelligent than whites. Failed to support theories of such ‘scientific evidence.’ James Hunt resident of the London Anthropological Society, in 1863 in his paper “On Negro’s place in nature” wrote,”Negro is inferior intellectually to European…and only be humanised civilised by Europeans. The 1880s, small groups of black in dockside communities in towns such as Canning Town, Liverpool and Cardiff.

Sara Forbes Bonetta, this West African princess goddaughter to Queen Victoria. Orphaned in intertribal warfare, given a “gift” to Queen Victoria. Despite social prejudice discrimination in Victorian England in 19th-century black Britons achieve good success. Pablo Fanque as William Darby in Norwich, become the proprietor of Britain’s most successful Victorian circuses. Lyrics of the Beatles  song “Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!” Thirty years after 1871 death, chaplain of Showman’s Guild said: Brotherhood of equestrian world has no colour line. Pablo Fanque of African extraction, he speedily made his way to the top of his profession. Camaraderie of the ring has only one test ability. Joseph Hillier, took over and ran Andrew Ducrow‘s circus company as Ducrow died. Walter Tull, professional footballer mixed-heritage British Army officer and fellow officers.3b860e_5f3e0966ad23487c935d7c94896f0a10~mv2-1.jpg

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Members, British West Indies Regiment  on Somme, September 1916. These men pictured were Afro-Caribbean people fought for the British Army. World War London’s Black communities on arrival of merchant seamen and soldiers, small groups of students from Africa and the Caribbea into London. The communities among the oldest black communities of London. The largest Blacks in the United Kingdom’s port cities: of London’s East End, Liverpool, Bristol, Cardiff’s Tiger BaySouth Shields in Tyne & Wear and  Glasgow. In 1914, black population was at 10,000 from parts of British Empire. The number of black soldiers in British army prior to World War I low. A Black British soldiers in World War I Walter Tull, a English professional footballer, of Barbadian carpenter Daniel Tull and Kent-born Alice Elizabeth Palmer. Slave descendant Tull was a first British-born mixed-heritage infantry officer in Army 1914 manual of Military Law soldiers of not “pure European descent.” Colonial soldiers and sailors of Afro-Caribbean descent in war settled in cities. South Shields community “coloured” seamen lascars and South Asia and Arab world  victim of  UK’s first race riot 1919. Eight cities of non-white communities hit by race riot evacuated to homelands. Some white attacked “coloured” peoples in US, Caribbean, South Africa. The displaced after war struggle to integrate veterans to work force groups competing for jobs and housing. Australian British refused Racial Equality Proposal by Japanese at Paris Peace Conference 1919. In World War II black communities in London, Liverpool in Britain. Blacks, Caribbeans, West Africa, wartime workers merchant seamen, servicemen, army, navy and air forces. In February 1941 these 345 West Indians work in factories of Liverpool, made munitions. By 1943 were 3,312 the black American GIs at Maghull, Huyton Liverpool. By 1944 GIs 150,000 from America, 1948 blacks less than 20,000 to 1958. Learie Constantine a West Indian cricketer Minister Labour was refused service at London hotel sued for breach of contract awarded damages, changed racism towards acceptance and equality of all citizens in London.IMG-20191128-WA0004.jpgIMG-20191128-WA0003.jpgIMG-20191128-WA0002.jpg2415.jpg

The Empire Windrush in Black British history in 1948 of Jamaican invited to United Kingdom. In 1950 fewer than 20,000 non-white residents in Britain. After World War II, Black people from the British West Indies, settled in Britain less than decade. In 1951 population of Caribbean and African people in Britain 20,900. HMT Empire Windrush, the first Caribbean to UK in 1948 as West Indian  Black British in post-war UK. The British friction of white communities created a Black British identity. By 1950s, blacks embraced the Black American culture imported by Black servicemen of World War II, music Jacqueline Nassy-Brown calls “diasporic resources.” These close interactions between Americans and Black British inspired the Black British women to America married servicemen later return to the UK.

Ridley Road Market in Dalston, London, sells Afro-Caribbean music, textiles, and food, goat meat, yams, mangoes, spices.

In 1961, Africa Caribbean at 191,600 less 0.4% of UK population. Black people in 1975, David Pitt appointed to House of Lords spoke against racism for equality in regards to all residents of Britain. The Black members elected into the British Parliament. By 1981, blacks 1.2% of all residents. By 1980smblacks from Africa, in Nigeria, Ghana, Uganda, Kenya, East Africa, Zimbabwe, Southern Africa. The Commonwealth Nigerians, Ghanaians used to British life, achieve best results at GCSE and A-Level, on a par or above performance of white pupils. The rate of inter-racial marriage between British citizens from Africa and Britons is still fairly low, compared to the Caribbean. Africans as part of mainstream British culture second, third generation African communities established. 20th century black Londoners, Great Britain, United Kingdom not Northern Ireland. The first blacks elected to Parliament argue there still discrimination and socio-economic imbalance in London among blacks. In 1992, blacks in Parliament increased to six, in 1997 increased numbers to nine. Problems black Londoners face global high-tech information urban economy unemployment rates of blacks relative to non-blacks affect progress so far.  By 2001, Black British 2.0%.

William cuffay

This image is thought to be William Cuffay, featured in a political journal dated 1850. Cuffay, a formerly enslaved man from St.Kitts was powerful orator. He campaigned for universal suffrage and emerged a leader of the Chartists.

Part of first mass political movement in Britain, fighting for political rights for working classes, Cuffay was arrested and accused of “conspiring to levy war” against Queen Victoria. Transported to Tasmania, he received a pardon three years. Stayed agitating for democratic rights until his death in 1870. Though he forgotten, his legacy is an inspiration for those who believe in rights of the marginalised and the poor.

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During her lifetime, Seacole’s profile is like Florence Nightingale. Born to a free black woman, Seacole’s position status in Jamaican society did not protect her from the racism experienced by black people at that time. Seacole’s mother was a healer who gave her daughter a rich education in Caribbean and African medicine. When Crimean War began, Seacole applied to the British War Office to assist but was refused. Independently she set up British Hotel near Balaclava to care for the wounded. She became a much-loved like Florence Nightingale. Destitute, Queen Victoria’s nephew got funds so lived in London until death.

Aldridge 486499

Aldridge performed Shakespeare’s roles Lear, Othello, Macbeth. Aldridge among the highest paid actors in the world at a time when black roles Othello played by white men with blackened skin. Born in New York before abolition of slavery, he emigrated to the UK in order to pursue opportunities impossible for a black man in the US. He went on to establish himself as a formidable Shakespearean actor throughout Europe. His daughters became performers. In 1896, Luranah Aldridge, was cast to perform in a racist “Ring of the Nibelung,” at the Bayreuth Festival, a full six decades before Grace Bumbry officially broke colour barrier.

Edinburgh University

Edmonstone taught taxidermy students Edinburgh University in 19th Century.  Edmonstone a taxidermist skills helped to pioneer scientific research of Charles Darwin. Edmonstone born in slavery in Guyana, gained freedom so travelled to Scotland and met the naturalist Charles Waterton, who taught him the craft of taxidermy. Became tutor at Edinburgh University, where he taught the young Darwin. His student accounts of tropics inspired Darwin’s trip to the Galapagos. Taxidermy crucial to Darwin’s research, led to his development of the theory of evolution by natural selection.

Fanny Eaton

In later life, Eaton worked as a domestic cook on Isle of Wight. Eaton, model and muse featured, work of pre-Raphaelite artists. The child of a formerly enslaved woman, Eaton moved to London from Jamaica and worked as a portrait model at Royal Academy. She sat for several well-known artists: John Millais, Joanna Boyce, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Frederick Sandys. Rosetti praised Eaton’s beauty in a time narrow beauty standards and racial prejudice ensured black women no prominent place in Western art. An increasing interest in Eaton led to an appreciation of her place in art history.

Evelyn dove 2 Getty Images 545729721

Evelyn Dove performed in 1930 as an

internationally known singer, actress and star of 1920’s cabaret scene. The daughter of a Sierra Leonean Barrister and his English wife, Dove studied at the Royal Academy of Music where she performed with some of the world’s top black entertainers. She was regarded as close to jazz star Josephine Baker. There were many challenges for black female performer in Evelyn’s day. Once hugely celebrated, her reputation as a singer faded and she died alone in obscurity. Recent interest in her extraordinary life to introduce her to a new generation.

Sue Lawley's castaway is cultural theorist Professor Stuart Hall

Hall during an appearance on BBC in 2000 is “godfather of multiculturalism.” Britain’s leading intellectuals, political campaigners. Hall arrived from Jamaica in 1951 after winning a scholarship to study at Oxford University. In 1960, he helped found the influential academic journal, New Left Review. He pioneered academic study of low highbrow culture the media, identity, sexuality and race a means to understand and interpret the society and politics. He co-founded the first cultural studies course in Britain at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at University of Birmingham. So African Caribbean black American hero war stories about Britain incorporating blacks must be taught on schools. Teach with photographs, songs, diary entries of African, Caribbean, American slaves. Black presence in history reinforces the facts in living history on Britain. Black history in schools, websites, publishers must update black history materials. To build up more complete history as part of priority to educate people. A cultural identity creates stronger more inclusive material to enrich the history of society. Inclusive history is the complete picture of the whole human race on earth. This is important and necessary to bring this awareness to people lacking knowledge in ancient black history in Britain. This will enhance people’s understanding to educate all on there is only one human race created by God since Eden Garden.

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15680449437944780065845189322578.pngOne_albino_parent_8.JPGOne_albino_parent_6.JPGBlacks are in Japan, China, Australia, all over the world since ancient days travel on foot during pangea earth or by sea. A trade route into Africa exists from silk roads. The global world God created has variety of people to show the GLORY OF GOD YAHWEH. But slavery since 1500s and early 1600s was 35,000 European Christian slaves in Barbary Coast in Tripoli, Tunis, Moroccan towns Algiers. Barbary corsairs took British ships 466 in 1609, 1616, 27 Plymouth, Baltimore in Ireland, in 1625. In 1682′ of 160 British ships by Algerians from 1677 to 1680. Sailors on taken ship 7,000 to 9,000 so its fishermen and coastal villagers to Africa, Spain, Italy. Thousands taken by slave raiders from coasts of Valencia, Andalusia, Calabria, Sicily till none left to capture. White slaves in Barbary men and women Christians of impoverished families. 8,500 slaves needed annually to replenish about 850,000 captives over the century from 1580 to 1680. For 250 years from 1530 to 1780, 1,250,000 over a tenth of Africans taken in slavery. God wants injustice repressed by Jesus in the end time changes taking place. Accept Jesus and walk in love do not let racist hatred send you to brimstone hell fire.

Courtesy & Image Credits:

BBC News/Black History On Wall Street

British Slave Castles in Ghana & Africa

BBC Glasgow University Black Slave History, 20 million Compensation plan

Glasgow Slave Master Street Names

Moors Built Europe: North Africa ruled 800 years in 11th and 17th centuries.

Slave Castles in Africa

Jesus Castle in Kenya

Onyeka, Moors, Black Tudors, African Presence in Britain,

Incomparable World by by SI Martin (Quartet, 1996)

Reconstructing The Black Past by Norma Myers (Frank Cass, 1996)

London Calling: How Black and Asian Writers Imagined A City by Sukhdev Sandhu (HarperCollins, 2003)

Imtiaz Habib’s Black Lives in English Archives 1500–1677 Imprints Invisible  (Ashgate, 2008),

Fanny Eaton: Black muse  time forgot

BBC Culture: Challenging racism is art history

Onyeka’s Blackamoores: Africans in Tudor England, Their Presence, Status and Origins.(Narrative Eye, 2013) Miranda Kaufmann’s Oxford DPhil thesis Africans in Britain, 1500–1640 Black Tudors: Untold Story Oneworld, (2017)

The letters of the late Ignatius Sancho, Volume I, Letter XXXV

Yeboah, Staying Power History of Blacks in Britain

BBC, Hidden stories of Black History.

 

SLAVE DANCE MUSIC ITEMS

Slave+drum+from+1645,+found+on+a+VA+plantation.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0001.jpgat783176122225883477906321000011840561155310077420182n1.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0003.jpgslavedance.jpgwp-1572269263498.jpgwp-1572269200706.jpgUncle-Toms-Cabin-2.jpgcard07.jpgA0057_image0001.jpgthe-bamboula-granger.jpgwp-1571952504645.jpgtap_12.gifdancing-the-slaves-1024x617.jpg6drmr.jpg7D955E00-D477-4299-89D9-73C96B138393.jpgdownloadfile-39.jpg2008268WH0417-1024x683.jpgbenin.jpg3d9dfa5e820988bc198023a09700f9f5bffaae75_00.jpgdownloadfile-48.jpgAtem-Bangwa-carver-sculptor-artist-Cameroon.jpgTamTam.jpg20191028_145811.jpgLunda 1972 - portage d'un tambour.jpgslide_4-1.jpgRaineri_Musical-instruments-belonging-to-negro-slaves.jpgslide_6.jpgdownloadfile-37.jpgdownloadfile-40.jpg611f8a5f-c350-4068-9063-99c447c064f1.jpgAfrica-Unplugged.jpegweb1_CubanBarbershop.jpgIMG-20191028-WA0004.jpghqdefault.jpg46517066_196782661230954_2434980490982195200_o.jpg19367118_1919652318316036_5681263008345489408_n.jpgTraditional music of African continent is passed down orally and is not written. Sub-Saharan African music tradition is based on many percussion instruments  including xylophones, drums, and tone-producing instruments such as mbira or “thumb piano.” The music and dance of African diaspora is from these various regions of diaspora origins. The degree of influence of African musical tradition includes American music or Caribbean genres like soca, calypso and zouk. And Latin American music genres: rumba, conga, bomba, cumbia or samba music of the music of enslaved Africans. These in turn influence African global music.ee69f5393c8ce402bdf85148553c983b.jpgReplica of a Akan West African chief’s drum used for dance music events. The artist is high ranking West African well slave community. Drum denotes a wood carving specialist but drums prohibited because white colonists feared its used to communicate for revolt. So Virginia preserved African Cultures from 1700 – 1800, drums made of animal material and Wood. Drums are oldest African-American objects collected early 1700s in Colony of Virginia in America. Drum was made in the Akan region in Ghana West Africa is played during ceremonies or social occasions. The music is fusion of sounds from Ghana, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Gambia, Uganda, Morocco, Belgium, Scotland, England, Denmark, and France. instruments include Kora, Ngoni, Gimbre, Krakab, Axatse, sticks, Gakogui, Seprewa, Sogo, Apentema, Kpanlogo, Atumpani, Fontonfrom, Dondo, Endingidi, Goje, Bolong, Atenteben Flute, the orchestral Flute and Egoe Calabash Gourd.

The drum travelled across Atlantic on a slave ship used to exercise slaves to keep healthy. Music legacy of drumming on plantations by over 12 million Africans transported to America between 1501-1800s. Provided labour for mines, plantations of sugar, rice, tobacco and cotton. Drumming, African musical tradition in colonies of different music, shouts, hollars, work songs, fife, drum and spirituals. Ghana drum opens news broadcast with ‘Ghana muntie’ ie Ghana listen.   

Music of 12 million Africans into Brazil, Caribbean, America by Europeans from West Africa. Europe used war captive as slaves to farm plantations and domestic slaves. Chained below deck, did not see outside travelling on deck to breathe air or dance. Shackled, densely packed like sardines got sick some died, killed from their societies at sea. Sloane’s collected the material culture of Drum objects in African-American slave trade era. These middle passage forced Africans to dance to exercise for slave labour. Akan drum reached Virginia as musical instrument coerced circulate as cultural resources is used in African international music.

Sloane recorded slave music in Jamaica of African drum, guitar. African-Americans play guitar or drums identity of community. Planters didn’t tolerate performances of slave societies. Sloane notes instrument bans didn’t make drums ddisappear. Sloane collected slave artefacts in C18th tools, clothing, whips, nooses, weapons or anatomical remains. Objects, were gifts from correspondents or collectors, judged Sloane on Caribbean’s natural history slavery. The Akan drum donor Reverend Clerk to Sloane identified it “as Indian drum,” but its African. True identity of African objects survived and circulated by slave traders, recreated by slaves for music to dance to. downloadfile-33.jpgAccording to RootsKunta Kinte was born circa 1750 in Mandinka village of Juffure, in Gambia. He was raised in a Muslim family. In 1767, Kunta while he searched for wood to make a drum for his younger brother, four men chased him and took him captive. Haley traced record of ship The Lord Ligonier to Maryland where Kunta arrived in chain in America. Kunta Kinte kept name of his village and native name of Gambia River origin from Portuguese cambio for exchange or trade. Kunta Kinte’s life in village is similar to Masaka Africana.

Cambio is Kamby Bolongo native trade route like Naplis is Minneapolis. By 1600s large agricultural or commercial estates in Brazil needed more slaves. Portuguese slave traders of Gambia kidnapped Kunte. He traced his roots back to the Gambia. Kunte Family was: Omoro (father) and Binta (mother); Belle (wife); Kizzy (daughter); Chicken George (grandson). Kunte was born in c. 1750 in Juffure, The Gambia and died: c. 1822 (aged c.71–77); in the Spotsylvania County, Virginia. Despite attempt by the slave master to erode his name, Kunta Kinte held onto his memories passed on to his descendants written about in his life history book, Roots made into films. 

Courtesy & Credit Images

Professor Kwesi Ampene, CU West African High Life & World Music International Team

Adam Holden, Obroni Dance Music

Anthony Appiah, Princeton University,

Alex Haley, Roots, Kunta Kinte, Virginia

James Delbourgo, Associate Professor of History, Rutgers University, USA

Patton, S.F. (1998) African-American art. Oxford, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.Hans Sloane’s collection?

TOBACCO’S BLACK HISTORY

downloadfile-34.jpgTobacco black history plantation shows  slave masters on horseback and slaves working in fields. The slave-labourers forced to work without rest whipped to carry on working without work.345060382.jpg IMG-20191028-WA0000.jpgSlaves working with tobacco in Virginia, by an unknown artist, 1670..jpgvinales_d9ca.jpeg5217827538_0f360909da_c-720x400.jpgTobacco-Control.jpgSlaves denied their freedom, peace, rest were exploited by the masters to enrich themselves at the slave’s toil expenses. The affluent blatantly exploited slaves from tropical countries working fields51sCNoa+zTL._SX355_.jpg Severely punished for the slightest thing on the plantation without any prospects of freedom or guaranteed happy life. So families separated sold off to anywhere.IMG-20191027-WA0008.jpgSold from parts of West Africa to world to work as slaves in United States, Brazil or South Africa. Slavery life sentence is out of their power under controls of the masters as possession provide tobacco.downloadfile-28.jpgTobacco is imported from the plantation in Cuba, Caribbean to America, Britain and G7 countries. Exchanged by journey of goods destined to places to economies to build wealth since 14th-19th century. harvest-pic-1.jpgStill ongoing in some countries, brought transformation to the G7 countries and their economies from these plantations. Increased value meant poor treatments  of slaves to produce more to cover cost.c6149634806538966eb4075d8f46821f_XL.jpgThe slave master’s conomies prospered by slave labour but do not acknowledge their source of wealth, apologise or pay compensation to them from economies.Two-companies-to-lose-their-license..jpgSlave trade tobacco industry still largely influence colonialism and racism today as consequences of such treatments. So economies grew rich from exploitation.downloadfile-11.jpg1490735754008.jpgProfit driven companies of commercial cigarettes genetically modified enhance  supply but needlessly means inhaling a multitude of pesticide-grade chemicals and many other radioactive elements.99109089-leaves-of-tobacco-in-the-drying-plant.jpgTobacco_drying_in_Pinar_del_Río_(01).jpgTobacco brand American Spirit adverts says its “additive free” and “natural” but their tobacco brand is said treated with ammonia and urea to increase tobacco freebase nicotine content is being sued.50548794-classical-way-of-drying-tobacco-in-barn.jpg8485124146_d8af9c0291_b-2016_12_26-17_14_34-UTC.jpgIMG-20191027-WA0007.jpgPiliraniSemu_Banda150508HighRes.jpgThe whole leaf tobacco is said to be less expensive compared to the cost of pack of cigarettes containing 20 grams or less of actual tobacco. A whole leaf tobacco is sold cheaper sold in bulk is taxed less.20191028_110139.jpgFactory_lector (3).jpgdownloadfile-38.jpg6e1d6c993998bd4a82fe9928b3c04f64_XL.jpgCigarettes are processed by converting a 200kg tobacco leaves in cases to batches of cut rag made into cigarettes. Tobacco leaves from a green leaf threshing plant of a British American Tobacco-Vinataba factory in Dong Nai Province factory of 60,000 square meters. Is one of the most modern factories of British American Tobacco Group modern equipment with trademarks: Hauni Germany, Dickinson Legg of UK’s breakthrough technologies. KT2 cutter for stems, laminas of tobacco leaf, air-curing set, air convecter curing machine is the newest generation of the impurities-removing Tobacco Scan II.downloadfile-20.jpgProcessed tobacco leaves are delivered to factory, checked for quality, blended with other ingredients for brand recipe, flavours or expanded tobacco. Various types of tobacco ingredients of blending components is vital. Moisture content of tobacco leaf crumbles if too dry, spoiled in storage due to high moisture content. Blended tobacco is treated with a right amount of steam and water to make it supple, cut to form cigarettes. Moisture is removed, cut rag given final blending and quality check. Current capacity and operation technology is 4 tons of cut rag per hour or 17,000 tons a year. Cut rag from factory accounts for 1/3 of the total amount manufactured in Vietnam.20191027_180331.jpgOB-YJ180_0730JT_G_20130730075221.jpgCigarette-Tube-Making.jpgProcesssed because is often considered as an agriculture commodity in a whole leaf form. Tobacco and cigarette spread globally by Hollywood adverts and even doctors recommended smoking in past.pro_01.jpgIMG-20191027-WA0009.jpg20191027_164612.jpgcigarette_acceptedwaste.jpg20191027_164902.jpg20191027_164700.jpgCigarette waste is baled and stored at a warehouse until a high enough volume is reached and transferred to processor. Waste is recycled by shredding filters of cellulose acetate blended with the other recyclable plastics and pelletizing used in injection moulding prioritized hard plastic shipping pallet. Residual tobacco waste goes to non-food compost system.JTI-reveals-cigarette-waste-recycling-scheme.jpgCigRecycling03.jpgTobacco and cigarette affects health and the lungs in the latter years people now are advised by their doctors to cut down on quantity smoked or quit completely. Its replaced by e-cigarettes known to kill people due to contaminated chemicals used in refill supply chain. Its banned altogether in some states in America. So whatever reasons for smoking due to a peer pressure to fit in to look cool or its seen as grown up it costs countries food supply. Land is used to farm tobacco as people starve and slaves descendants wait for compensation over 500 years.

Tobacco history Timeline and events.

  • 6,000 BC – Native Americans first start cultivating the tobacco plant.
  • Circa 1 BC – Indigenous American tribes start smoking tobacco in religious ceremonies and for medicinal purposes.
  • 1492 – Christopher Columbus first encounters dried tobacco leaves. They were given to him as a gift by the American Indians.
  • 1492 – Tobacco plant and smoking introduced to Europeans.
  • 1531 – Europeans start cultivation of the tobacco plant in Central America.
  • 1558 – First attempt at tobacco cultivation in Europe fail.
  • 1571 – European doctors start publishing works on healthy properties of the tobacco plant, claiming it can cure a myriad of diseases, from toothache to lockjaw and cancer.
  • 1600 – Tobacco used as cash-crop – a monetary standard that lasts twice as long as the gold standard.
  • 1602 – King James I condemns tobacco in his treatise A Counterblast to Tobacco.
  • 1614 – Tobacco shops open across Britain, selling the Virginia blend tobacco.
  • 1624 – Popes ban use of tobacco in holy places, considering sneezing (snuff) too close to sexual pleasures.
  • 1633 – Turkey introduces a death penalty for smoking but it doesn’t stay in effect for long and is lifted in 1647.
  • 1650 – Tobacco arrives in Africa – European settlers grow it and use it as a currency.
  • 1700 – African slaves are first forced to work on tobacco plantations, years before they become a workforce in the cotton fields.
  • 1730 – First American tobacco companies open their doors in Virginia.
  • 1753 – Tobacco genus named by a Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus – nicotiana rustica and nicotiana tabacum named for the first time.
  • 1791 – British doctors find that snuff leads to increased risk of nose cancer.
  • 1794 – First American tobacco tax.
  • 1826 – Nicotine isolated for the first time.
  • 1847 – Philip Morris opens their first shop in Great Britain, selling hand-rolled Turkish cigarettes.
  • 1961 – First American cigarette factory produces 20 million cigarettes.
  • 1880 – Bonsack develops the first cigarette-rolling machine.
  • 1890 – American Tobacco Company opens its doors.
  • 1990 – 4 billion cigarettes are sold this year and manufacture is on the rise.
  • 1902 – Philip Morris starts selling cigarettes in the US – one of the brands offered is Marlboro.
  • 1912 – First reported connection between smoking and lung cancer.
  • 1918 – An entire generation of young men returns from war addicted to cigarettes.
  • 1924 – Over 70 billion of cigarettes are sold in the US.
  • 1925 – Philip Morris starts marketing to women, tripling the number of female smokers in just 10 years.
  • 1947 – Lorillard chemist admits that there is enough evidence that smoking can cause cancer.
  • 1950 – 50% of a cigarette now consists of the cigarette filter tip.
  • 1967 – Surgeon General definitively links smoking to lung cancer and presents evidence that it is causing heart problems.
  • 1970 – Tobacco manufacturers legally obliged to print a warning on the labels that smoking is a health hazard.
  • 1970 – 1990 – Tobacco companies faced with a series of lawsuits. Courts limit their advertising and marketing.
  • 1992 – Nicotine patch is introduced – in the following years more cessation products will start being developed.
  • 1996 – Researchers find conclusive evidence that tobacco damages a cancer-suppressor gene.
  • 1997 – Liggett Tobacco Company issues a statement acknowledging that tobacco causes cancer and carries a considerable health risk.
  • 1997 – Tobacco companies slammed with major lawsuits – ordered to spend billions of dollar on anti-smoking campaigns over the next 25 years predominantly focused on educating the young on dangers of smoking.
  • 1997 – For the first time in history a tobacco company CEO admits on trial that cigarettes and related tobacco products cause cancer. His name was Bennett Lebow.
  • 1990 – 2000 – Bans on public smoking come into effect in most states in America, as well as in other countries in the world

 

 

Courtesy & Image Credit
Fredrika Bremer, Homes of New World; impressions of American slavery
Freefromsmoking.com

RUBBER BLACK SLAVE TRADE

e39da07af9712527db4552aa56d78160--king-leopold-african-history.jpgPeople of Congo oppressed by Leopold II in nineteenth century terrorised blacks in rubber plantations of Congo. A brutal violence was used to cut off the hands of slow workers. Leopold ruled Congo with brutality of Congo land to establish white supremacy over populated black people. Leopold unleashed brutal, cruel exploitation like death camps of Hitler to abuse people. Leopold’s “civilizing” of people was enforced “hard work” on the rubber plantations. How does cutting of their hands ensure hard work? Natives served by hard work but to strengthen their character, their hands are cut off? Leopold’s monstrous colonial enterprise said Adam Hochschild in his book King Leopold’s Ghost notes: “Leopold claims his state provided wise government and public services in Congo. There were no schools or hospitals except a few sheds “not fit to be occupied by horse.” Used a dreaded chicotte whip routinely whips black Africans and cuts off their hands.  And black victims lies on the floor on his stomach with feet and hands bound, whipped on the bare bottom of victims the severe blows left permanent scars on the flesh. Twenty -five strokes meant unconsciousness for victim, hundred or more strokes caused people’s death.congo-belge.jpgdc591453d4ce48fdf191eabbaf543fa7.jpg20191025_140027.jpgd93b45fd-8820-4ce8-9aa3-8e7b3cb47b93.jpg
Missionary E J Glave wrote in his diary, ‘we persuade ourselves African’s skin is very tough but at first blow victim yells horribly quietens down into groaning. After 25 or 30 blows a victim loses his senses. Punishment far worse inflicted on women and children. Small boys of 10 or 12 working for the hot tempered masters most harshly treated. Stanislas Lefranc, a Belgian prosecutor in Congo, sickened at brutal whipping of thirty people whose crime was to laugh in presence of a white man. The terrible carnage of people of Congo increased by rubber boom. In 1887 more demand for rubber grew as used for inflatable cycle tubes for bicycles. Motorcars became so popular tyres for motorcars use rubber. In 1891, Leopold issued decree creating monopoly of trade in rubber, ivory to himself. Joint ventures between Belgian, British, Dutch firms says Stuart Nolan in Belgium’s Imperialist rape of Africa, ‘the astronomical profits built Leopold’s rich empire. Earned the 700 percent profits of his Anglo-Belgian India Rubber and Exploration Company (ABIR).’ A private army Force Publique used to brutally extract from the native labour rubber without any payment of money. Adam Hochschild said terror tactics use by an officer Fievez against those who did not collect rubber to meet the quota: “I made war against them. One example enough was hundred heads cut off and then plenty of supplies ever since. My goal is ultimately humanitarian. I killed hundred people… allowed five hundred others to live.” Another Belgian Captain Rom used heads of 21 natives murdered on his flowerbed to punish them. Those who failed to supply required rubber quota to Belgian masters had villages burnt down, children murdered, hands cut off as punishment. Some historians said Belgian way of promoting progress in Congo was evil and dehumanising.wp-1571940892317.jpg.jpgdownloadfile-32.jpgrubber-tapping.jpg6891de805df7499ec9217b38ed8d140d.jpgdownloadfile-31.jpgNatural-Rubber-Factory-Manufacturer.jpgIMG-20191024-WA0002.jpg

And death toll of slavery by Leopold in Congo is more than 10 million people as Congolese historian Professor Ndaywele Nziem states death toll is a staggering 13 million. Belgian King Leopold’s brutal exploitation in Congo was enormous he spent $6 million to upgrade his Royal Palace at Laeken. Used millions to build the monuments of Chateau d’Ardennes, Brussels’ Arcades du Cinquantenaire, Ostend’s seaside arcade and golf course. He funded universities, museums, more millions in secret purchases of more of hid properties through his doctor and his architects. Leopold used Congo to launder money for investment, billions of dollars in Asia, Latin America or Near East. His Congo-based companies built constructions in China, fishing rights off Morocco, mines in Greece, Philippines and rubber concessions in Bolivia. This Scramble for Africa, Congo by Leopold II led to more developments. The public outcry human rights movement against Belgian King Leopold forced parliament to assume control of Congo in 1906. The change didn’t improve life of Congolese, they suffered forced labour and heavy taxation. Congolese were used as cheap labour in Belgian mines or agricultural firms. Exploitation was so huge by 1950 profits Congo produced twice domestic average income in Belgium itself.

In 1960 Congo was independent from Belgium as Patrice Lumumba became first prime minister of Congo. ‘On the first day of independence, the Belgian King, Baudouin,’ writes Osei Boateng ‘made an ill-judged patronizing speech praising genius and courage of Leopold II whose reign of terror caused death of over 10 million Congolese.’ Confessions of CIA Agent…How the imperial powers control Africa by remote control in New African-April 2007. The speech incensed Lumumba who went to the podium and trashed the Belgians’ colonial record. He spoke of need ‘to bring an end to slavery imposed by force.’ Lumumba saw their degredation by Belgian colonial rule as Congo state had less than 20 university graduates with no cadres of doctors, lawyers or engineers. Brussels planned to allow Congolese political freedom but retained control of military, economic and commercial power. Guiding Congo to safe was an uphill task for Lumumba.wp-1571937570089.jpg43234-cp.jpg001.jpgACTEZ8U.jpg4381E60F00000578-4818958-image-a-38_1503568339599.jpgwp-1571937534066.jpg1-s2.0-S2212609015300121-gr1.jpgSmarting under rebuff by Lumumba the Belgian government caused trouble for independent Congo. On 11 July 1960, the province of Katanga of Congo’s copper, cobalt, uranium, gold, mineral wealth to secede. Belgium the principal owner of wealth perceived in Brussels resources of Katanga tied Belgian interests to the secession. A painful lesson of history is historians glorify conquerors is deeply ironic and sad because African history written from point of Colonial masters. Colonizers wrote textbooks and books but ban different perspective. The press was censored. The written record of the devouring of Africa by colonialism was excised from memory. Memories of the rubber era cruel exploitations is never written into official Western history. So, Mark Curtis in Web of Deceit, explained backgrounds to conflict struggle a tribal war. Television portrays Africa by very little understanding of events developed world, major international institutions created. Much reporting promotes view as faults of Africans. The Western press reinforced the stereotype of Africans as post-colonial failures of tribalism wars.

Congoleselaves-rubber-plantation-Ultimate-History-Project.jpgCongo_Malnourished.jpgDisguise as civilizing mission system of forced black labour by usurper imperial domination during scramble for Africa. In 1876, famous explorers at European society, Leopold II delivered the keynote address couched in high moral purpose said, ‘To open civilization to parts of our globe not yet penetrated, to pierce the darkness hanging over entire people is crusade worthy of century of progress. The objective of International African Association was to abolish “Arab slave trade to establish peace among chiefs to procure impartial arbitration.” Leopold II’s overseas territorial expansion states, ‘No country is complete without owning overseas possessions.’ Grabs territories in Africa between 1880 and 1884, writes J. Stengers, King Leopold’s imperialism, ‘sent expeditions, led by Stanley, which established a fairly loose occupation of territory in Congo by means of outposts. At Berlin Conference 1884-85, Leopold laid claim to huge tract of Congo region 80 times the size of Belgium he declared a Congo Free State in 1885 with himself as sole owner. The Scramble for Africa, Congo under Leopold II developments had to obtain the consent of Bismarck of Germany. Conditions of Germany was European nation occupied African coast or declare ‘protectorate’ to notify action, signatory powers forced blacks to serve colonial masters.

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International institutions relationship’s reporting promotes view of the innate faults of Africans.’ Western press with few exceptions reinforced stereotype of Africans post-colonial failures destiny to tribalism. Niall Ferguson, empire writer ideology: Africans can’t rule themselves Writing history from the standpoint of Whites as “helping” is dark history of its colonial past need to understand link to policies of Western countries conflicts bred in Africa. Leopold’s Congo claim alarms Bismarck but given to “civilise” blacks in Conyo negotiated to obtain the concessions from Bismarck. So Leopold got French in January 1885, permission to extend control over Congo. Northern, eastern boundary owned by Germany, Leopold driven by greed for territorial expansion control to the south between Congo and Zambezi. In 1884 obtained recognition for Congo by United States. Frontier free State of Congo territory,’ Stengers, said ‘disproportionate to the resources at disposal. Slender finances did not allow establishment of more than a rudimentary government.’ The resources occuping a large territory in Congo did not curb greedy ambitions of Leopold to expand territories outside Congo Free state 1885 capital establish port town of Boma. Transport systems established to exploit and plunder rich natural resources of Congo. A system of transportation connected Atlantic coast to Stanley Pool Leopoldville, Kinshasa. Africans brutally used as human mules relay heavy load supplies maxim guns another 250 miles. From there, steamers cruise Congo River 900 miles to Stanley Falls in Kisangani. The river, renamed Lualaba, navigable another 500 miles deep into rainforests of southern Congo. Leopold financed building of river fleet of steamers. And thousands of Africans died as porters forced to serve colonial masters. Views of West is the innate faults of Africans  by Western press reinforced stereotype of Africans post-colonial failures destiny to tribalism. Niall Ferguson on empire ideology says Africans cannot rule themselves, history from standpoint of Whites, “helping” the dark history of the black colonial past must understand link to policies of Western countries breeds conflicts in Africa. And still deprives billions of own resources.

SAUL’S 1ST BIBLE MARATHON

Bible-Marathon.jpgA man of the tribe Benjamin ran from a battle line to Shiloh same day with his clothes torn and dust on his head in 1 Samuel 4:12. The young King Saul in c. 1050 – 1012 BCE ran 42 km from Eben Ezra renamed Rosh Ha’ayin to Shiloh, to inform the high priest of 30,000 Jewish soldiers killed including the two sons of the High Priest and the Ark of Covenant taken. Forty-two kilometers is length of the Olympic marathon in 1908 London Olympic Games. The second Marathon was ran by Pheidippides to Athens of a victory his people over Persia, 490 BCE. This first Bible marathon in Bible by a Benjamin man running through hills of the Binyamin region in the West Bank is a great landmark event in the history of Israel after Exodus from Egypt. The land is named after each tribe confirms man from “tribe of Benjamin” region ancient map of Israel. Bible says wherever soles of our feet touch is for inheritance of a chosen people for God’s GLORY. Full 42 kilometers marathon run by Saul is the accomplishment of completing running like the race of salvation. Israel’s Bible Marathon is evidence of history of land recorded by people in the State of Israel.Untitled-2-copy.jpgGod told Samuel sons of the High Priest will perish treating God’s sacrifice with disdain for harassing women in Temple. Israel fought losing battle so Philistines  defeated them, every man fled to his tent in 1 Samuel 4:10. 30,000 Israelites were killed in battle including Hophni and Phinehas the two sons of Eli, high priest serving at Shiloh. Philistines captured the Ark of Covenant so the Saul young Benjaminite raced from the battlefield to Tabernacle to bring news of defeat to the prophet Samuel. “Then a man of Benjamin ran from battle line the same day, came to Shiloh with his clothes torn and dirt on his head” in 1 Samuel 4 : 12. The distance between the battlefield in Even Ezer to Shiloh is 42 kilometers and 26 miles official length of Olympic marathon. This is why the race reenacts the passage from 1 Samuel 4 hosting the this first Bible Marathon in Jerusalem. maxresdefault.jpgRunners take off to the sound of shofar, accompanied by musicians, dressed in white biblical clothing, togas, sandals and cloth head dresses. The finish line, looks over ancient city gate, a cheering squad greets with beat of goblet drums, shofar blasts, flutes or harps. The clay  medals of the top three winners in each race inscribed clay pitcher for a trophy. Finish line of ancient Shiloh Hakeduma is a site archaeologists searching Ark of Covenant. Shiloh was a religious capital of Israel for 369 years, after conquest of Canaan till King David made Jerusalem eternal capital of Jewish nation. Shiloh was the longest standing Jewish capital before City of Jerusalem. It is believed Ark once stood there in ancient history and so running Marathon is running through history. At the top of hill is the entire course of magnificent views seen of Israel’s paranomic beautiful horizon. The rocky hill is green with olive trees and vineyards like True Vine Messiah in bible prophecy who once walked on the streets of the Jewish homeland. It gives hope and assurance to people to run the race to keep going kilometers of eternal life to win the prize in Saul’s footsteps.BIBLE-LOGO.jpgSilence of cordoned off areas protect the runners but Jewish settlement of Eli or Ma’ale Levona families lined routes clap racers to Sinjil and Qaryut is quiet. Jesus on donkey to Jerusalem people lined the streets will return for the Armageddon battle in victory. Bible Marathon is an international recognition of land Israel God gave all nations beyond boundaries of State of Israel, partakers of Covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob fulfilled in Jesus. The Israel Marathon Association managing race for Benjamin Regional Council, preserves history of Saul’s race. The Bible Marathon though not listed in AIM’s race directory of Jerusalem, Dead Sea, Eilat, Tel Aviv, Sea of Galilee races is kept alive by efforts of the runners. In the last four years since inception keeps the Benjamin tribe history in focus. The Maccabiah games, Yosef Yekutieli, tried to launch Bible Marathon after Israel won 1967 Six Day War but was not safe. It faces challenges of communication so multiple runners can start early on time from starting line information to collect numbers needed to run. The 10k racers merge with a half marathoners around kilometer 15 to finish line. Like Saul ran in biblical footsteps many partakers are retracing living history of Israel. So clay prizes are appropriate claim to preserve land as a constant reminder for God to intervene for the Peace of Jerusalem.

COTTON BLACK SLAVE TRADE

slavery.jpgdownloadfile-14.jpg13683296255_03d23639be_b.jpgwalker-plantation-2.jpgtmp696428395617058816.jpg06-problem-until-tested-with-acetone-Walker_Noon.jpgdownloadfile-15.jpgdownloadfile-10.jpgIMG-20191020-WA0005.jpg1439954931-source.jpg15714104985158493773424962768652.jpgdownloadfile-7.jpg2017_NYR_14315_0012_000(william_aiken_walker_big_b_cotton_plantation).jpgAntebellum Cotton Plantation 4.jpg800px-CottonpickHoustonWhere17.pngwp-1571597845725.jpgNegro-Workers-in-Cotton-Field-with-Dog-William-Aiken-Walker-oil-painting.jpgmrtc-Cotton-Illustration.jpgc3eb18baffa5d20ddabe48feab02c9f5--picking-cotton-charleston-south-carolina.jpgIMG-20191020-WA0007.jpgimage-brazil-handler-tuite.png20191021_111104.jpg20191021_110954.jpgcotton-what-the-southern-1.jpg20191021_105556.jpg20191021_111303.jpg20191021_105714.jpg20191021_111201.jpg20191021_105435.jpg20191021_105324.jpgWalker-Southern-Homestead.jpgwash-day-william-aiken-walker.jpgBrazil.jpgAfrican-Muslims-in-practising-cupping-in-19th-century-Brazil.jpgdownloadfile-35.jpgIMG-20191020-WA0006-1.jpgAfrican-woman-tortured-by-John-Kimber-who-was-acquitted-of-murder-by-British-courts-in-1792-696x495.jpglashzz.jpg20191020_113305.jpgwp-1571596233341.jpgdownload.jpegArgentina influx of African slaves began in colonies of Rio de la Plata in 1588 the kidnapped Africans sold and shipped from West Africa to Americas and the Caribbean. Buenos Aires port English traders used to import slaves through to provide slaves to East Indies, Spanish crown contracts Asientos to companies:  Portuguese, English, Dutch and French.  By 1713 Britain’s victory in War of the Spanish Succession monopoly trade by Royal Society of Philippines in 1787. Till 1784 ban, slaves are measured, branded despatched to Caribbean and America.wp-1571952504645.jpg16th century slaves from the Cape Verde islands as Africans brought to Argentina from ethnic Bantu territories of Angola, Congo, Yoruba, Ewe to Brazil. 12 million African slaves in Latin America through Montevideo shipped to Valparaíso, Rio de Janeiro. 10-15% slaves die in Atlantic passage, enslavement, travel interior of Africa. Before shipment 40 of 100 slaves died. Forced to work in agriculture or livestock, domestic work made crafts in urban areas, revenues went to masters. Buenos Aires in San Telmo, Monserrat slaves to interior provinces. The 1778 census by Juan José Salcedo of Vértiz, Africans in provinces agriculture were the greatest number.IMG-20191020-WA0003.jpgamerican-1.jpgslide_3.jpgarticle-2364806-1AD4EC3B000005DC-108_634x373.jpgE7700675-Rows_of_cotton_plants_in_a_field.jpgbest-Price-Dried-Cotton-Seed-For-Planting.jpgdownloadfile-19.jpgb779ee8fb308fa39f22e12eee2d57e2c.jpgstock-footage-video-pan-right-of-a-cotton-field-in-south-texas-green-plants-with-mature-cotton-ready-for-harvest.jpgcotton-farming-information-cultivation-guide.jpgIMG-20191020-WA0002.jpgcotton-workers-banner.jpg20191021_111432.jpgIMG-20191020-WA0012.jpgIMG-20191020-WA0010.jpgIMG-20191020-WA0011.jpgHTB1EdWLKVXXXXcUaXXXq6xXFXXXE.jpgIMG-20191020-WA0014.jpgCotton-Processing-Market.jpgdownloadfile-13.jpgec85be6a7d3e1c4808dfb45b6c5c7a66.jpgc8-915e-44ee-ac70-bb2cfacabdc8.jpegIMG_20191020_48524.jpgIMG-20191020-WA0004.jpgcotton-mill-equipment.jpgdownloadfile-17.jpgIMG-20191020-WA0000.jpgjacquard high speed Sunbury.jpgdownloadfile-12.jpgChinese-manufacturing.jpgA6A2286C-E882-43FD-842B-B5DB581EE8EA.jpg12218547244_33ae62da7e_b.jpgAlltex export processing zone (EPZ) factory in Athi River, 20km (12 miles) from the Kenyan capital Nairobi, July 31, 2009. Kenya’s exports to the United States rose 8 percent to 20.6 billion shillings ($268 million) in 2008, largely due to U.S. legislation to promote African trade, Kenya’s trade minister Amos Kimunya said. The U.S. African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) has granted duty-free access for many sub-Saharan African nations’ products.IMG-20191020-WA0009.jpgTo sum up cotton seed crop grows into mature cotton plant Gossypium in the field. Cotton is grown for its white fibre lint contained within the seed capsule’s bolls. The fibres are used to make cloth when plants are ready for harvesting. A first stage of harvesting is stripping the leaves from plant. Bolls collected turned into strings woven at textile mills by the garments factories. Traditional weavers use hand loom to weave various cloth patterns chosen for each fabric design.little-haiti-miami-thrift-store-shop-discount-clothing.jpgCLOTHES.jpgCredentialBaleStack.jpg1783d7642c2b8f47ea5161faf7fecc51.jpgburn-clothes-fb.jpgCotton industries churn woven textiles fabrics at mills to garments in factories. Fashion overproducing more clothing is a scandal consumption cannot sustain the environment wasteland, shredding, burning, burying brand new clothes. As high street brands do not want ordinary people wearing exclusive collection and designs. Manufacturers think the brand is cheapened if worn by all people. They destroy tons of clothing claim insurance against their loss. It means the human, water, natural resources wasted in cycle repeated for many years, damage ozone causing warming climate changes. downloadfile-22.jpgB3-EV511_GETTYI_1000V_20190828144804.jpgDozer-on-landfill-1.jpgdownloadfile-27.jpgff1.jpgThe world population exceeds 8 billion in the coming decade, fashion industry is expected to expand further. Pulse of Fashion report projects by 2030 global apparel consumption could rise by 63%, from 62 million tons to 102 million tons equivalent to more than 500 billion additional T-shirts. And fast disposable fashion is creating these environmental crisis. Trashing clothes is a huge waste of money. Municipalities pays billions of dollars per tons of waste globally each year. This issue needs to be addressed to educate industry fuelling destruction of environment in name of fashion. The earth is the LORD’S and all things in it. Material possessions don’t define who a person is some miserable people in the world are the richest. God will require account for the use of HIS RESOURCES after Armageddon. Be wise to feed your spirit by inner strength not worry about what to eat or wear, God says heathen worry about such things. God provides daily needs of food, shelter, clothes for the basic needs of dignity, warmth, not show off wealth through vain apparels but dress in moderation. Earth is being destroyed by an excessive greedy love of money and vanity God warns against.

SUGAR BLACKSLAVE HISTORY

15713054607238903501092629203849.jpgBlack History Month October celebrates abolition of slaves whose wealth enrich G7 Western Europe and America but deprived slaves of their dignity and long life so slaves became traumatized. 15713056029367773464045337576003.jpgTriangular trade from Europe on ships to Africa to Carribean to America back to Europe. G7 member nations enslaved Africans. Belgian King Leopold invited them jointly to divide and own Africa.15713055252467866924691785551731.jpg Almost a thousand years black slavery continued despite official abolition law. Slavery produced sugar, cocoa, coffee, cotton for “triangle merchants” of slave trade in Britain, Africa and West Indies. 15713054895557916154530721927074.jpgTriangle trips carried guns, goods from England to Africa for slaves from Africa to Caribbean. Sugar, coffee, cotton and rum to England for commercial slavery by supply and demand on plantations. 1571305574491870094090532857700.jpg15714076486934305525943298638509.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0021.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0011.jpgAtlantic crossing from Africa Middle Passage shows cruelties of plantations in the British Caribbean. Africans were herded on slave ships and branded with irons labels people property of owners.15713033917892027579692775521469.jpgPortuguese also built sugar plantations in 1550’s off the coast of their Brazilian settlement colony, located on the island Sao Vincente. Portuguese and Spanish colonial presence in Caribbean Iberian Peninsula wealth cultivated cash crops.15713030689847713844378615539055.jpgThe economic boom of these plantations began colonizing remaining American territories to capitalize on the lucrative cultivation and trade of native’s natural resources. Sugar is the most important crop in Caribbean but other crops such as coffee, indigo, wheat and rice grown. 15712992630563548705097506481294.jpgThe coastal sugae cane was best grown on the flat land near coastal waters as the soil was naturally yellow and fertile. The mountainous parts of islands were used for sugarcane cultivation industry. IMG-20191017-WA0010.jpgslavery-west-indies-granger.jpg15712987137944748591809211620677.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0004.jpg348s.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0020.jpgThe coastal placement of commercial ports gave imperial states a geographic advantage to ship the crop throughout the transatlantic world. Sugar Slavery  trading of the Africans highly profitable not paying slaves for enforced labour. downloadfile-1.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0014.jpgSlave-Ship-pic-4-Wikipedia.jpg15714064266664307134901227462768.jpgIMG-20191018-WA0015.jpg15713038953617219558390950064672.jpg15713037481496759185923572241666.jpg15713036678907107097446613800368.jpgSlaves lived in appalling conditions but masters indulged in excessive luxury by toils of slaves. Triangular trade profits  prospered the West but underdeveloped blacks made poor despite the hardwork. 15713035569197275545111601093952.jpgwp-1571322668408.jpgManufactured goods were traded to the West African coast for slaves, who were shipped to the sugar colonies by middle passage. Sugar, molasses, rum, shipped from these islands back into England.15713038363315671248783757607047.jpg15713038628448686754927140878564.jpg15713036996912748769302716101649.jpg15713036364091737502484623690543.jpgSugar was the main crop produced on  plantations throughout Caribbean in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Most of the islands were covered with sugar cane fields and mills for refining sugar. IMG-20191017-WA0003.jpgportraet_sklaverei_zucker_g.jpg15713001247174007076067301082629.jpg15713002203195667591899451618769.jpg15713001854538734211621372862312.jpg15713001504746913528570416798187.jpgwp-1571311816344.jpg15713002724015553289083152949101.jpgThe main source of labour was enslaved Africans. After the abolition of slavery, indentured labourers from IndiaChina, Java migrated to Caribbean to work on sugar plantations. Plantations produced 80 – 90% sugar used in Western Europe.15712995770488034116736118045599.jpg15712996195613941216406783616691.jpg15712997447027764109633942991300.jpg15712995281323834808765635583176.jpgSugar enabled slave labour for profits with tragic consequences in Caribbean. Imperial powers forced West Africans to cultivate sugar by slaves. Exploited labour, natural world created imperial conflicts in these Caribbean regions._108506961_gettyimages-1002312094.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0002.jpgIMG-20191031-WA0004.jpg15713029223757577184974282763473.jpg 157130286531419080874850560467.jpg15713027760246994249402391806889.jpg15713028101291278500655225486775.jpg15712977059634715966485674610399.jpgUse political and economic control they create to divide and rule people policy of animosity. Conflicts among English, Spanish, French and various indigenous people was used for territorial gain.15712964787331552835795446583723.jpg15712950696973492756233402938394.jpg15712972087976309023403494269657.jpg15712989701492300170279122619503.jpg 15712973826202918078063655814609.jpg15712954764466783854135368343091.jpgEuropean states exploited environment, resources so sugar production began to stagnate. Due loss of trees for timber in the sugar refinement process, European imperial powers competed and fought over Caribbean in middle 17th century.slave_dynasty_i1.jpg15712948461163990403389790355463.jpg15712948817835962190680372982605.jpg15712953753492679276778321664742.jpg15712961917284396878281626055702.jpg1571294941734562424695867162323.jpg15712950360621362782314632360478.jpgEuropean settlers’ entry into Caribbean world caused changes. The indigenous populations died due to influx of world diseases of colonists. Population losses from 8.4 – 112.5 millions of these native populations cleared way for plantation industry and less conflict for Europeans and all these indigenous peoples too15712965493371578408370674417736.jpg15712966476488592384520750409745.jpgColonial arrival of sugar cane culture impact societie’s economy in Caribbean. Increased ratio of slaves to freemen and increased the sizes of slave plantations. Sugar plantation use of slaves affected cash crop economies in cultivation. The large plantations with the slaves Africa  imported worked on plantations. 15712956357681865740619933022642.jpg15712955869055477780312402713803.jpgPrior to 1650 three-quarters of island’s population was of European descent. In 1680 plantation in Barbados increased to about 60 slaves. So sugar plantations expanded transatlantic trade prospers. In 1832, plantation in Jamaica had 150 slaves one in four lived with 250 slaves. 15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15712947049235987567928405600593.jpgAbout 100 years, Barbados was richest European colony in Caribbean region. Then sugar cane production expanded to larger colonies Saint-Domingue and Jamaica. Mass sugar industry sugarcane processed commodities: rummolasses, and falernumWest India Interest was formed in 1740s by British merchants to West Indian sugar planters. 15712969933543584698609408312672.jpg157129755509656600633346701060.jpg15712963455442945155011821550429.jpg15712962302017147386549329208022.jpgwp-1571322746426.jpgBritish and West Indies shared profits or costs. needs. This first sugar-trading company was powerful in Parliament. In 1740s Jamaica and Saint Domingue or Haiti world’s main sugar producers. IMG-20191017-WA0000.jpgIncreased production in St. Domingue used irrigation system French engineers built. Reservoirsdiverted dam levees  aqueducts and canals. Improved mills and varieties of cane and grasses helped increase profits. St. Domingue in 19th century Haiti and Cuba sugar plantation Caribbean did better than British island.1571297025702538564298899779586.jpgIn the 19th century, sugar dominated  MartiniqueGrenadaJamaicaSaint CroixBarbadosLeeward IslandsSaint DomingueCuba, and other island run by FrenchBritish, or Spanish owners. During late 19th and 20th centuries the sugar cane industry dominated Puerto Rico‘s economy by colonial rule of Spain and under United States. 1571294727684996436954631513550.jpgAfter slavery, sugar plantation labour was workers imported from colonial India, Southern China. In 20th century, large-scale sugar production using wage labour continued in many parts of the region. Sugar cane industry’s negative impact affected the environment as this industry grew in Caribbean countries. 15712951825801502632195092917389.jpgThese include the destruction of forests, water pollution, loss of fertility, erosion of soils. These problems on a different scale in Dominican Republic in the 16th century; Lesser Antilles in 17th century; Jamaica, Haiti in 18th century, Cuba and Puerto Rico in 19th century. The nations impacted by sugar on the environment.15712952542173744336540029352835.jpgThe deterioration natural environment, had socio-economic consequences. And took its toll on Africans an integral part to cultivation, production of sugarcane. Slaves toiled in fields, boiling houses to supply huge amounts of labour sugar required. Four million slaves survived  Caribbean sugar plantations. wp-1571330195777.jpgConditions were harsh, mortality rates high through all stages of slaves’ lives. Some sugar colonie’s slave population ten times less than the European slave uprisings ever-present fear of planters. Slave trading highly profitable triangle of trade of Atlantic manufactured goods traded to West African coast for slaves shipped to sugar colonies of the middle passage and sugar, molasses, and rum were shipped from islands to England.wp-1571330138914.jpgSlavery in England  deemed illegal since 1772. The slavery in sugar colonies was vigorously pursued in Parliament and publication throughout last quarter of eighteenth century to time of abolition of trade in 1807, emancipation in 1833.15712977450102090396760846491987.jpg wp-1571330017603.jpgwp-1571330075100.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0001.jpg15712970952265673717702786919787.jpg15712945434372021039766678971733.jpg15713021011131294159836164367675.jpg15712969306591487070998245117838.jpgdownloadfile-2.jpg12355_2014_311_Fig1_HTML.jpgAbolitionists arguments against slavery was support in England and in America. Abolitionist movement boycotted slave-grown sugar by protests is celebrated as key component of abolition’s success.15712979796166770357711539697198.jpggettyimages-919491468-612x612.jpg15712985345335906738950765594570.jpg1571300771153191415282151247452.jpg15713004757394126936251265247884.jpg15713005171167919886088148258374.jpg15713007268423280865825419848256.jpgBoycott from writings to educate sugar is derived from blood, sweat and tears of slaves pollutes the body. The planters by prospect of abolition emancipation, attack on their financial interests, place in empire argued in favour of slavery.15713009777485298377118240667583.jpg20191024_104134.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0006.jpg15712980902104280568193144664796.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0005.jpg15713003436563749568168188652437.jpg15713014110543316473429243866261.jpg15713013089491042850157734430430.jpg15713011469935621723745379844781.jpgWilliam Beckford, large-scale Jamaican planter wrote about the island unable to inherited plantation debt. Plantations profit dwindled by later plantation era so planters were compensated for their loss of earnings. Slaves never received compensations, restitution or apology. 15712989421675147982996667160052.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0009.jpg15713018236223543718958756404016.jpg15713016238362599330973898756795.jpg20191018_194544.jpg15712991574789124671528049609976.jpg15713015641859068275661653780133.jpg1571301463714798903122388001392.jpgIMG-20191017-WA0008.jpg15713014963618985587415087318746.jpg1571301334033345284614607997855.jpgInstead suffer racism from the people who sent ships thousand of miles to drag them from their homeland into strange lands. Many slaves after the wars were sent from America to Liberia and Sierra Leone in western Africa.20191017_095342.jpgIt was a problem their roots could not be traced having been renamed by force despite protests of Kunta Kinte. Natives discriminated against them because they were not indigenous citizens. And residue from slavery and colonialism is institutional racism still directed black people today.20191017_095707.jpgInvincible chain of slavery, colonialism racism hatred propaganda promote the harassment of black people. Western countries built by slave labour, natural resources usurped controlled by West. African economies are still owned by Western nations exploiting resources. Yet conqueror parasites play the victim despite depending on African slavery and ccolonialism. Kings like Prempeh exiled to Sierra Leone and Seychelles for resisting slavery and colonialism. IMG-20191018-WA0005.jpgNelson Mandela was incarcerated many years others like Lumumba killed for fighting back. Kwame Nkrumah was toppled by coup detat directed by West replaced by stooges to control Africans. Africans enslaved and those colonised are both victims of the West exploiting them. African resources: diamond, gold, in Ghana, Guinea,  Mali, Songhai empire Mansa Musa Aldrisi supersized gold tied to horse taken by whites. Gold abundant it was dished out freely to loyal citizens. Gold taken over as diamonds. Africans did not gain from slavery to enrich the kings as people claim. But stripped of natural resources owned by Western countries. Africa never had economic independence is still controlled by the Western nations today. West markets all finished goods processed from natural resources from Africa back to Africans. Forced dependency on West sabotages Africa’s self-sufficiency stops revenues of multibillions of dollars for the West. Average person consumes 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar a year or 33.1 kilograms (73 lb) in Western developed countries, over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the 20th century,  a diet high in refined sugar damages human health. Excessive consumption causes obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, and tooth decay. The World Health Organization recommend adults and children reduce their intake of sugar to less than 10% encouraged to reduce to below 5%, total energy intake.

COFFEE’S HISTORY & ORIGINS

20191014_110716.jpg15710468834321102168724083807666.jpg15710437345183676338762388191799.jpgCoffee global originated from Ethiopia as earliest evidence of coffee drinking and knowledge of the coffee tree spread from early 15th century. Africans grow coffee harvested, grounded and drank by families as tropical crops. Coffee spread as commodity for trade from Ethiopia Horn of Africa to Yemen Arabia Felix monks monasteries spreading into Mecca and Cairo. Goats were seen hyper stimulated inspired coffee concoction born long ago in the mountains of Ethiopia. Legend says that Kaldi saw his excited herd dancing after eating coffee cherry berry, 16th century reached rest of Middle East, South India (Karnataka), Persia, Turkey to rest of Horn of Africa and northern Africa. Coffee spread to Balkans, Italy, the rest of Europe, Southeast Asia and Americas despite ban imposed in the 15th century by religious leaders in Mecca and Cairo, and later by the Catholic Church.15710460124356859565088160134012.jpg15710436855935512932863149678515.jpg15710447815743466109153844499277.jpgCoffee spread from Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Kaffa Province name of coffee, the first to recognize energizing effects of native coffee plant. So the tribesmen consumed as hunters on days-long treks benefitting from coffee plant’s ability to quell hunger and provide more energy. Studies of genetic diversity of Coffea arabica varieties retained the residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica. Oral history direct evidence has indicated Africans coffee grow among other crops natives used as stimulant so known earlier spread into seventeenth century. Original domesticated coffee plant from Harar, native population use derived from Ethiopia distinct is found populations in Sudan and Kenya.1571043405765699259889766813539.jpg15710434270053024933810851534611.jpg15710436277878114956373217936851.jpg15710435846402047751185959458711.jpg15710434925723954462411793900624.jpgCoffee is native to tropical Africa but its Brazil that is the world’s largest coffee producing country. Vietnam, Colombia are second and third biggest producers. Coffee was traded through Middle East, Asia and Europe before its taken to the Americas by European colonizers. The crop’s success there depended on slave trade. The history of coffee recognizes racism and the role of colonialism. The history of coffee has a dark side of the exploitation of Western countries taking advantage of the African countries. And multibillion multinational corporations making so much profit but don’t invest in these countries of the supply chains. 15710433560353172288782735507670.jpg15710440983255412735373397344862.jpg15710445900461747951835999486447.jpg15710441400893604583404307719482.jpg15710439366083654047546056266942.jpg15710440294184227315937896153147.jpg15710444445985513000575336350508.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.1571044828283157220128130682346.jpgwp-1571137280306.jpgdownloadfile.pngwp-1571007286187.jpgIMG-20191014-WA0001.jpgwp-1571136784509.jpgMark Pendergrast, author of Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee And How It Transformed Our World. In late 1700s, European colonial powers recognized coffee’s profitability. Demand for coffee drinks was high in European countries and their colonies established profitable estates. European companies imported Africa slave labour on plantations in the Caribbean, Asia, and Americas in Trans Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade.15710478444701786177490462436469.jpg15710456532011356605169476525987.jpg15710456143886626766098078755663.jpg15710455659128566144229800899532.jpg15710448803383604231430384290796.jpg15710449771794187086487037815745.jpg15710450656392204661356868672582.jpg15710451149853942328613469727459.jpgBarbados and Jamaica were some of the earliest British colonies as slave traders provided outposts with human labour from Africa to work on sugar and coffee plantations. Goods and people moved in a triangle between West Africa, colonies in Caribbean and Americas and Europe.wp-1571143326145.jpg15710465101715420187119285288633.jpg1571046665177784825754492463044.jpg15710465806261383212562540144503.jpgwp-1571143230605.jpgwp-1571143279802.jpg15710462101437150544227229786142.jpgSan Domingo in French-occupied Haiti was supplying half of the world’s coffee in 1788 as a direct result of slave labour. Living conditions was appalling, slaves underfed, overworked and housed in the windowless huts. The African slaves were beaten, tortured or killed by their white European rulers.15710466183022452900408860596017.jpgwp-1571142356971.jpgwp-1571138218332.jpgwp-1571142304784.jpg15710467716452899072847031383823.jpg15710449165545412649823065829850.jpg15710450356353051306629389501833.jpg1571046353063816915106442229309.jpg15710432352042400621271070553203.jpgNapoleon tried to regain Haiti in early 1800s led to decline in coffee production prompted the Dutch to fill the gap with coffee produced in their own colony of Java, Indonesia. But has rigid hierarchy between the native Javanese and their colonial overlords. Laziness and apathy of Dutch landowners forced Javanese natives to harvest coffee for a pittance, whole villages died of starvation.15710462360581092218315998157921.jpg15710463381055154496466313978760.jpgwp-1571136892649.jpg15710470158994600447489546368637.jpg15710433079216012543656666705158.jpgUK drinks 95 million cups of coffee day with 500,000 tonnes of waste coffee grounds a year. Some business’s small waste coffee grounds customers to take home as garden fertiliser or homemade exfoliant. Wet coffee grounds waste into landfill in UK tax £88.95/tonne to £94.15 from 1st April 2020 levy operators cost to collection fee. Waste management companies charge for contaminated dry mixed with recycling. 15712234953994380269245425115741.jpgLandfill harmful greenhouse gases such as methane 34 times more potent than carbon dioxide over a 100 year period causing climate change. The wet coffee grounds in an anaerobic digestion plant absent of oxygen microorganisms break down biodegradable material managing waste or producting fuel but grounds sink to bottom in ‘belly’ inhibit rate of biomethane production. Waste grounds incinerated energy generation, not best usel. Bio-bean utilise wet coffee grounds waste recycled bio-products by disposal recycling service generate savings for businesses saving emission as bio-fuel.15710432727097757498507419898001.jpgCoffee declined in the West Indies but it thrived in Latin America. So first coffee bush in Brazil was planted by Francisco de Melo Palheta in Pará in 1727. Brazil became a coffee superpower under the rule of the Portuguese and continued to after independence. By the 1830s, coffee became Brazil’s largest export is around 30% of world coffee production.15710461315717905217574155760681.jpg15710452158122014500876146091126.jpgBrazilian coffee plantations used black or indigenous slave labour. Indentured labourers worked and lived in horrific conditions. Plantation owners treated their labourers as dispensable imported new slaves as they died from overwork. Did not treat existing slaves with any compassion most slaves last seven years from initial bondage.wp-1571142201640.jpg15710455063321556057087774078740.jpgBrazil made slavery illegal in 1888, but four million slaves had been brought from Africa. In Latin America, coffee industry depended on the indigenous labour. Black people not used as slaves in Central American countries anymore, Mayans and other native peoples served as semi-slaves.15710451884962273506023802601097.jpg15710452671042518442429950312232.jpgThe Mayans occupied best fertile lands for growing coffee and so increasingly became disenfranchized by colonial governments. Violently evicted by the military as the demand for coffee grew, forced to work land for the oppressors. Revolts and rebellions common during that time government brutality and the oppression was response.15710454680217849189674356110640.jpg20191015_133547.jpgThe coffee industry in Latin America explaining why the world is dominated by their coffee production. Slave labour no longer but paved the way for today’s industry. Many regions of Brazil and Colombia are now traditional coffee-growing areas with farming as main resource. Legacies of colonialism affect coffee supply chain in Latin America racial divide between farm owners and labourers.15710464500078699002128982820492.jpgMillions of blacks in Latin America Asia, and Africa live in poverty producing the affordable coffee for Western markets. African coffee is the best in the world as Tropical Africa origin of coffee. But that continent not treated on same level of Latin America. Colonialism by former European colonies in Africa left without infrastructure or stable political system. Structural racism economic oppression exists in supply chain. Inequality in the coffee production, baristas, economics. Education, politics of coffee-producing regions of the community in producing countries must contribute to improving sustainability, working conditions, and quality of life for people globally.tree-goat-morocco.jpg15712272641128742041996406789531.jpgObviousTimelyAlligatorsnappingturtle-size_restricted.gifThe Argan coffee like Ethiopian Coffee, Nepal coffee grown on Himalayan climate is ideal for coffee growing. The aroma of brewed coffee fragrance, coffee’s global recognition beans, grown in Nuwakot, a scored 90 points on a scale of 50 to 100 in Coffee Review, California-based trade magazine. In first-ever blind assessment Nepali coffee in Lekali is “savoury sweet in structure with gentle acidity; crisp, satiny mouthfeel.” Concluded the coffee is worth seeking its confident savoury-sweet cup. In 2016, coffee produced by Greenland Organic Farm scored an 89 Specialty Coffee Association of America, California trade group Nepali coffee producers elevate quality of country’s beans to international standards.Workers sort cherries for processing at Lekali Coffee Estate’s farm in Nuwakot in central Nepal. Nepali coffee’s in 2014, Banjara became Nepal’s first Q-grader trained in Xining in China. The West are calling coffee aficionados value beans’ from exotic origin to local cafe. Coffee companies create market for vacuum packed cans of coffee grounds and jars of instant coffee kitchens in the world,  Nepal’s high-end market export coffee. Some claim goat eaten berry coffee also exist like Luwak kopi coffees. Coffee farm in Mauja district of Kaski, view to the Annapurna mountain range Nepal’s first national coffee cupping as Q-graders identify characteristics and flavour, quality of coffee beans. Eight of the world’s 10 highest peaks like Mount Everest Nepal ideal climate high-quality beans. Nepal’s Arabica variety Bourbon and Typica coffee grow on rolling, misty mountain slopes at altitudes from 800 meters to 1,600 meters. First introduced to the country by a monk in the middle of 20th century the crop supports 32,000 farmers in 40 of country’s 77 districts. It exports coffee but Coffee Review rating recognition gives them a much-needed boost in the international market.15712209071994545813192981911343.jpgThe world’s most expensive is Coffee alamid highly sought-after brew among coffee aficionados is “caviar” of coffee. Odour-free coffee alamid aroma, syrup texture, chocolate hint, coffee alamid’s clean aftertaste and flavour is processed by acid from stomach of animals eating coffee cherry berries. The coffee seeds remain intact undigested excreted as a faecal material collected, washed and is grounded as premier luxury coffee sells U$500 -U$1000 per pound. Kopi luwak one of most expensive coffees in world. Vietnamese weasel coffee collecting coffee beans eaten by wild civets in India. Luwak coffee kopi luwak of Java Indonesia is second best.  But traders of this type of coffee exploit animals by caging, feeding them solely on coffee beans instead on an enriched variety of diets in wild more suitable to thrive. The tourists travel to see caged animals in action oblivious to animal rights issues involved in most expensive coffee processs. A cup of coffee cost $80 per cup in the tourist epic centres.

Mark Pendergrast: Uncommon Grounds, History of Coffee & How It Transformed Our World.

Sprudge.com, The Question of Racism

GOD GIVES PERFECT PEACE

GOD keeps in PERFECT PEACE the MIND kept on GOD because of TRUSTING GOD says Isaiah 26:3. A man declared FAITH in God that if GOD slays him he STILL LOVES AND TRUSTS GOD. In Job 13:15, Job’s faith in GOD was tested yet TRUSTS God and maintains his ways before God.15710500170627782202892357446392.jpgJesus Disciples said, they have nowhere else to go because Jesus has the WORDS OF ETERNAL LIFE. In John 6:68, Simon Peter answered Jesus, Lord to whom do we go? No matter their fate, challenging circumstances of life they had nowhere to go but run to LOVING ARMS OF GOD.1571049947069757816999684027485.jpgJesus asked His twelve disciples “Do you want to leave too like Judas Iscariot for greedy love of money, for pleasures of the world etc betrayed Jesus? They said absolutely not because he who has the Son has life. No matter the issues of life Jesus warned of these perilous times.D.15710498484774482450719129202222.jpgThe Have CONFIDENCE in GOD to see you through life in Jesus Name. GOD says do not fear those who kill flesh but cannot kill the soul in Jesus Name FEAR GOD who kills soul. Bible says in John 16:2 they will put you out of synagogues or kill thinking they are DOING GOD a favour. The day is coming they will face WRATH of GOD on DAY of the LORD.wp-1571053184636.jpgJESUS COMES TO GIVE LIFE EVEN LIFE MORE ABUNDANTLY IN JESUS NAME. As citizens of heaven THE REAL LIFE ETERNAL IN ETERNITY IS YET TO COME to reunite LOVED ONES as devil burns in hell for attacking GOD’S people globally. Example of faith is testimony of Horatio Spafford’s faith in GOD in his time of adversity. Weeping may endure  but joy comes in the morning for those who MOURN with HOPE in Christ.15710499640867255745608443986295.jpgOn being notified of tragedy at sea and the loss of his children, Horatio Spafford immediately set sail for Wales to reunite with his heartbroken wife. Once at sea, Spafford asked the captain to point out exactly where the Ville du Havre sunk.
As he crossed fateful spot grief-stricken father sat with pen in hand and wrote what become one of Christendom’s most beloved song of HOPE and TRUST in GOD ELOHIM JEHOVAH in CHRIST.wp-1571053218214.jpgChristian believer’s salvation is in Christ alone because there is no other name given among men by which to be saved. In Psalm 139:8 Bible says, “If I ascend to the heavens GOD is there; if I descend in Sheol GOD is there. GOD’S WORD does not go void so achieves GOD’S purpose for sending word. In Psalm 139:9 If rise on wings of dawn or settle by farthest sea GOD is there. There is nowhere to go to escape wrath of God its a futile desire to run from the LORD so RUN to GOD. 15710853891056583687574779996534.jpgPhilippians 4:7 says the PEACE OF GOD which passes all human understanding will keep your HEART and MIND SAFE in UNION with CHRIST JESUS. Its GOD’S Grace, Mercy and Compassion that gives Strength to endure in adversity to cope with grief, sorrow, pain, loss. GOD is still on the Throne so in Control of your life. 

PERFECT PEACE FOR ALL WHO TRUST GOD.

When peace, like a river, attendeth my way, When sorrows like sea billows roll;
Whatever my lot, Thou has taught me to say, It is well, it is well, with my soul.

Though satan should buffet, though trials should come,
Let this blest assurance control,
That Christ has regarded my helpless estate,
And hath shed His own blood for my soul.
(Refrain)
It is well, with my soul,
It is well, it is well, with my soul.

CHOCOLATE COCOA HISTORY

4c5fac28b63b8d018ddf1f40a5193a8fChocolate’s cocoa history dates to 5000 years as cocoa-based confectionery the archeological finds says Ecuador people from ancient Mayo-Chinchipe culture ingested a cacao-based in 3,300 BC. The Maya civilisation peak from 250 to 850 CE is first evidence human’s consumed chocolate as hot drink. Aztecs made it so popular and dyed it red achiote seeds. It is “Food from God” nobility, kings, chiefs drank so is scientific name for chocolate is theobroma cacao. In mid-1700s Carl Linnaeus Swedish made classification of animal and plants species. Britain’s first shipment of chocolate was mistaken for sheep poo when a Spanish shipment of cocoa beans was off course, seized at a coast of Britain in 16th century assumed contents sheep droppings and burned it. Cacao fruit in an Ecuadorean rainforest is cacao-based substance first ingested. The Pope stopped the priests arguing in 17th century as two orders of Catholic monks ask if chocolate was a drink to be consumed if fasting. Pope Alexander VII decreed chocolate beverage drinks monks allowed if fasting.IMG-20191013-WA0004.jpg1570957965885497972497589516589.jpg20191012_224622.jpgPeople receive chocolates on Valentine’s Day since 1935. Although Chocolate was associated with rebellion. In France and Spain the chocolate drink was reserved for privileged and in England consumed by the intellectuals or political thinkers. In 1660s Charles II threatened to close down chocolate and coffee shops where radicals congregated. In the 1930s, a box of chocolates cost 10 weeks’ rent. Solid chocolate invented in 1847 big brands industrialised chocolate fondant centres was popular. Sold in handmade boxes decorated with silk tassel, lace, Cadbury Fancy Box. By 1930s, ornate confections popular is expensive the Rowntree’s box priced at 100 shillings a rent 10 shillings a week. Popular chocolate bars are 100 years old. From the golden age of cocoa-based creativity in 1920s,1930s products like Cadbury’s Flake, Fruit and Nut, and Crunchy bars in 1920s Mars Bar in 1933, Milky Way and KitKat in 1935, Maltesers in 1936, Aero and Smarties in 1937. First fondant eggs in 1920s but the Creme Egg Fry’s product branded later Cadbury’s.15709140345921898763941735144302.jpg15709577132403422594441858102305.jpg1570959284218922480331549334500.jpg White chocolate was made medicine for children in Switzerland in 1930s doctors wanted to give the children in hospitals a vitamin-enriched milk to drink. The children thought milk was babyish and cocoa butter added as white chocolate. This nutritionally enhanced chocolate product was popular widely sold and is modern still available in Europe today. Unofficial KitKat’s dark chocolate mixed with Ryvita in WWII. Second World War Rowntree’s stopped producing KitKats or Chocolate Crisps made guns factory workers and families missed KitKats so tried hand-making unauthorised filled moulds with strips of Ryvita. Poured in dark chocolate for soldier’s ration. Only one chocolate bar made from the British grown cocoa beans as plants thrive in equator temperatures of 16°C+. In 1932, workers at Rowntree’s factory in York grew cacao plants in Britain produced a plant in a hothouse, to harvest one pod of cocoa beans. This made a single tiny chocolate bar for Queen Elizabeth II. In 450 BC Aztecs in Latin America used the fermented cocoa seeds into powder and drunk bitter. Seeds had so much value it was used as currency. Then Westerners joined them and tasted it bitter so added sugar to sweeten cocoa drinks and bars. 20191013_101929.jpg20191012_223843.jpg20191012_223613.jpgTetteh Quashie from Ghana brought the cocoa seeds to Gold Coast and thrived so became a global commodity exported. A tropical temperature suited cocoa best it flourishes in Ghana, Ivory Coast and in Nigeria exported into Western countries Belgium, Britain Cadbury World, Nestle of Switzerland among top 15 countries. 15709666448414663460037240615432.jpgIn 1591 the first transatlantic chocolate cocoa reached Spain turns into popular product as demand grew. The cocoa tree planted from seeds grown is harvested by difficult process by slaves used in its production. History of cocoa process of industrialization of chocolate used slave labour on plantations to supply world with cocoa beans to make chocolate. international_chocolate_organizations_bg.pngThe islands of São Tomé and Príncipe a then colony of Portugal and West Africa archipelago were first to cultivate cocoa among the world’s largest producers in the 20thcentury. The increasing demand from Europe cleared more acres of this plantations. Slaves from Angola of more settlers and more machinery increased supply chain of cocoa and chocolates.15709669144015420792004222029435.jpg

screen-shot-2015-03-12-at-7-45-58-pm.pngThe British Journalist Henry Nevinson documented plight of plantation slaves in articles, magazines and book Modern Slavery published in 1906 in a Harpers Monthly Magazine.“A long line of men and women at intervals of about a yard, were clearing plantation. ..To the back of every woman clung an infant’s head lay between her shoulders, bumped against her back as she struck hoe in the ground.15709668577338478487483041897377.jpgscreen-shot-2015-03-12-at-7-11-13-pm.pngFive or six yards behind them officers stood, white men, or three parts white, dressed in traditional planter style of big hat, white shirt, and loose trousers. Each carried an eight foot stick of hard wood, whitewood, pointed at ends” Nevinson’s work included numerous photographs, descriptions of the working conditions that fueled controversy in Great Britain.1570913992381271102547401987556.jpg15709576587538243842794166318413.jpg157095762463894220843834516828.jpgwp-1570973939028.jpgwp-1570975857142.jpg15709616753066208273275664093074.jpg1570957416522359261156549676512.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0001.jpg20191012_223727.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0006.jpgDespite attention to business practices of Cadbury company of Great Britain as biggest owner then of these plantations manufactured chocolates. It publicised situation, shows complicated network dodges blame. Public pressure results in government intervention investigations court case. Cadbury stopped purchasing from São Tomé and Príncipe tranferred the cocoa plantations into West Africa.15709589640531476278166812542906.jpgwp-1570974323215.jpgIMG-20191013-WA0008.jpg15709581362018921958481800225620.jpg15709601948667178737729845178804.jpg15709574448313460189514792968319.jpg15709580230053693676271048576345.jpg15709580965951627154621136725728.jpg15709580676498724700736445595630.jpg1570958672381763599102141026146.jpg20191012_223649.jpgDespite official abolition of slavery the slaves were transported another 400 years and ongoing in parts of the world. In 2001, slave ship MV Etireno carrying several hundred children from Benin were reported missing refused entry to Gabon and Cameroon rescued children. 15709609201355720542936295948445.jpgUNICEF becomes involved investigating reveals slave trafficking operation links West Africa in Ivory Coast. Ivory Coast is the world’s largest supplier of cocoa beans provide 43 % of world’s supply. IMG-20191013-WA0003.jpg15709610769421398615502886880121.jpg15709612150727871124352297305669.jpg15709610018138559175942143094065.jpg15709613775144636840332272573726.jpg15709616191443179012462901860512.jpgThe 600,000 cocoa farms in Ivory Coast account for one-third of nation’s entire economy half the world’s supply for chocolate trade. Most people who are trafficked tricked and lied to with fantastic job prospects with good pecks assured. Find themselves enslaved and victims abused by such traffickers.15709127031975255928808816704229.jpg15709122732244232830728597531413.jpg
1570912315162438997010313738705.jpg15709152571901898279892588286755.jpg15709152270256971228287323585406.jpg15709151587383094067555383762175.jpg15709151843573151428979682105142.jpg15709143369542848624500990035780.jpgwp-1570979760414.jpg15709137549442769275504908743346.jpg1570912497702511151652750979082.jpg15709149883824262627048778293816.jpgHuman trafficking and child slavery in cocoa and chocolate industry continues today. The Freedom Project investigated series by CNN broadcasted on chocolate industry and government of Ivory Coast address modern slavery in plantations.15709138939523342688749804279542.jpg1570991586829225328139591335123.jpg15709915420956794392330243494243.jpgcacao_photo_8-498x327.jpg15709917056801320040547398428411.jpg15709916241188296576054514775087.jpg15709940654191196607743158215198.jpg15709963627551472745859322635130.jpg15709938622796684368964997672713.jpg15709940303113896639172690823035.jpgwp-1570994671869.jpgwp-1571007286187.jpg15710070494287827044677125274229.jpg15709974957951724047021802272273.jpg15709941748594251023928542528722.jpg15709949682263479862376989604565.jpgwp-1570996871409.jpg15710077035061774160667874051637.jpgwp-1570996769232.jpgwp-1570997036473.jpgwp-1570997695826.jpgChildren at seven years old are working harvesting cocoa pods and beans for the sweet chocolate delicacies of Western people. Education is not compulsory in some countries and due to school fees so many cannot afford to pay. Therefore children work family business to gain skills even if illiterate become farmers.  15709145074994809227748061131838.jpg15709142467478737125626412808158.jpg15709139495294799173970323903708.jpg15709146612125841173579566817033.jpg15709147119983881069686190393130.jpg15709143857771503011103315736757.jpg15709147788696943767045855007937.jpgCNN report felt public must know about it to take action and to stop it, said Iowa Sen. Tom Harkin with Rep. Eliot Engel of New York in response: “How many people know the wonderful chocolates they eat are produced by child labour.15709136806434425289464165586051.jpg15709135207818673941076417422835.jpg15709132986567961157504701423115.jpgAgreed a voluntary protocol signed by heads of chocolate industry to stop child labour to certify the cocoa trade as child labour free. The working conditions in cocoa growing bring awareness of a fair trade by consumers. A researcher noted lack of evidence of ethical consumption among end-user improved situations of the child workers on West African cocoa farms. Consider questions on the rights of cocoa farmers and conditions faced by producers. Concerns of safety or well being ignored by its sold to government as sole buyer. Western countries ensure West African cocoa grown is harvested to Belgium and G7 countries but these workers are not afforded equal rights.